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135 North Third Street. 



JANUARY, 1875. 



Read at the Pharmaceutical Meetings December i^th, 

A handsome specimen of Clutterbuck's elaterium was obtained, 
which upon preliminary examination was found to be free from the 
adulterations sometimes present, and containing no substances foreign 
to the drug itself. 

Fifty grains were exhausted with boiling alcohol, the resulting solu- 
tion thrown upon a filter, the filter washed with a little boiling alcohol, 
and the filtrate evaporated by a gentle heat; while still warm, it was 
poured into a warm dilute solution of potassium hydrate, whereby most 
of the resin was retained in solution, and the elaterin gradually precipi- 
tated, upon cooling, in small crystalline crusts or grains. 

The amount of elaterium dissolved by the boiling alcohol was sixty 
per cent., and seven grains of elaterin were obtained, which still re- 
quired to be purified from the adhering green resin, which clings to it 
with considerable pertinacity, interfering, both by retarding crytalliza- 
tion and diminishing the beauty and purity of the product. 

The impure elaterin was collected, thrown upon a filter, washed with 
cold water, and redissolved in boiling alcohol. 

The solution still possessed a greenish hue, and was agitated with 
petroleum benzin, which absorbed the resin, and upon the separation 
and evaporation of the liquids the elaterin in beautiful colorless needle- 
shaped crystals, and the remainder of the resin were separately obtained. 

The advantage of benzin for the removal of this resin, and which 
has proven so useful an agent in many of the operations of chemistry 
and pharmacy, is very apparent, since the use of ether, which has been 
previously suggested and employed for the accomplishment of this 

a ' Preparation and Character of Elaterin. 

purpose, is much less preferable in point of economy, at the same time 
dissolving a portion of elaterin, and thereby causing a considerable loss, 
while by the use of benzin no appreciable amount of elaterin is dis- 
solved, and it is believed that by taking advantage of this fact, treating 
the elaterium first with water to remove the inert substances soluble 
therein, treating the residue with boiling alcohol and subsequently with 
benzin, the green resin may thus be completely removed, without 
resorting to the use of the alkaline solution, thereby considerably modi- 
fying the usual process, and rendering this preparation much more 
expeditious, although the amount of material at the writer's disposal 
would not admit of any extended experiments in this direction. 

A small portion of elaterium was boiled for two hours with dilute 
H2SO4 (one part of acid to ten of water), which almost entirely dis- 
solved it, forming a nearly coloiless solution, and frothing quite 
strongly upon agitation, while a few resinous flocks remained insoluble, 
which, upon separation, were soluble in alcohol, with a yellowish-red 

The filtered acid solution in behavior to an alkaline solution of 
cupric oxide and KHO gave evidence of the presence of glucose, 
although the failure to obtain this result with elaterin induces the 
writer to believe that pure elaterin is not a glucoside, and that in in- 
stances where a reduction of the cupric oxide takes place, it may be 
attributed to the impurities which may be present. 

According to Zwenger {vide Gmelin's Handbook of Chemistry, Vol. 
xvii, page 365), "Elaterin is insoluble in dilute acids and alkalies, and 
does not precipitate alcoholic solutions of metallic salts, although 
aqueous solutions of metallic salts precipitate elaterin from its alcoholic 
solution in the same manner as water." 

" It dissolves in oil of vitriol with dark red color, and is precipitated 
from its solution as a brown substance by water." 

The writer observed the following behaviour coward reagents : 

If a crystal of elaterin be placed on a porcelain plate with a drop of 
concentrated sulphuric acid, a deep red color is instantly produced, 
which is one of its most delicate tests ; if a small fragment of potas- 
sium bichromate be then added, it changes to a deep brown, and ulti- 
mately to a light green. 

As salicin and other substances, however, produce a red coloration 
with sulphuric acid, this test alone cannot be relied upon, unless at- 
tended by other and confirmatory results. 

^"'j^nZ'il)""'-} Proximate Analysis of Cinchona Bark. 3 

Its solution in concentrated sulphuric acid becomes carbonized upon 
the application of heat. 

With hydrochloric acid no change of color takes place, either in the 
cold or upon heating, and it is apparently insoluble in this liquid. 

If a drop of strong nitric acid be added to elaterin upon a porcelain 
plate, no change of color takes place, except after standing for several 
hours, when a pinkish tinge is observed ; but upon heating it v^ith that 
liquid, a red coloration is soon produced, with the evolution of nitric 
oxide vapors, and upon the addition of water, separates white flocks. 

It undergoes no change of color with chlorinated alkalies. An 
alcoholic solution of elaterin is not precipitated by an alcoholic solution 
of tannic acid or barium chloride. When heated, it melts, giving off 
white fumes, which are neutral in their action upon litmus, and burns 
with a smoky flame, leaving a garnet-colored, resinous ash. 

A prescription was recently received for one grain of elaterin, to be 
dissolved in a fluidrachm of water, for hypodermic injection; but being 
wholly insoluble in water, no practical method could suggest itself to 
the mind of the writer whereby such an application could be obtained. 

Philadelphia, December, 1874. 

Limited to the separation of the four alkaloids, S^inia, ^inidia, Cinchonia and Cin- 
chonidia, and the three acids, ^inic, ^ino'vic and S^uinotannic . 


The process given below is nothing more or less than the com- 
bination of methods reported by different authorities, and given in 
Watts' Dictionary and Gmelin's Handbook, modified, in some particu- 
lars, after trial. The writer has found all the results of this process to 
be satisfactory. The same material was subjected to operations by 
other methods without obtaining as good results. 

Any desired quantity — say one-half pound — of the powdered bark is 
macerated with warm water for two or three days and then percolated, 
water being added upon the percolator to exhaustion. Hydrochloric 
acid is added to the percolate, to a distinct acid reaction ; then solution 
of caustic soda is added, with stirring, to an alkaline reaction, and the 
mixture is set aside for some hours for subsidence of the precipitate 
The whole is then filtered, and the precipitate well washed with cold 

. 4 Proximate Analysis of Cinchona Bark, {^"^■j^^Z^^^^''''' 

water : this precipitate, contains the alkaloids, and the filtrate, a, 
contains the acids. 

The washed precipitate, is exhausted with (much) ether, giving an 
ether-solution, containing the quinia and quinidia, while cinchonia 
and cinchonidia are left undissolved. Precipitate a is again washed with 
water, and then treated with 90 per cent, alcohol, which dissolves the 
cinchonidia with a little cinchonia : solution c. Precipitate washed 
again with water, remains as nearly pure cinchonia. The residue of 
solution is the cinchonidia with a little cinchonia. (Cinchonia is 
soluble in about 120 parts of 90 per cent, alcohol ; cinchonidia in about 
12 parts of the same solvent.) 

The quinia and quinidia of solution are separated from each other 
by the unlike solubilities of their oxalates, as follows : A moderately 
dilute water solution of oxalic acid is added to an acid reaction ; the 
ether is allowed to evaporate or is distilled ofF ; and the residue is treated 
with water. The solution ^, contains the quinidia as oxalate, together 
with a very little oxalate of quinia. The residue is not soluble in 
water, is dissolved with dilute sulphuric acid, as acid sulphate of quinia,, 
solution e. By precipitation with aqueous alkali, quinia is obtained 
from solution and quinidia from solution d. 

Each of the four alkaloids may be obtained in crystals from a satur- 
ated alcoholic solution. 

In the work for acids, the quinovic acid is precipitated with normal 
lead acetate, leaving quinic acid in solution. Also, if the lead acetate 
is added short of saturation, the quinotannic acid remains in solution. 
To accomplish this result, two-thirds of solution a is treated with neutral 
acetate of lead solution just to complete saturation, and immediately 
mixed with the remaining one-third. The precipitate of quinovate of 
lead is filtered out, washed with water, suspended in water, and decom- 
posed by dropping in very dilute sulphuric acid, until the precipitate 
turns white, carefully avoiding an excess (which would decompose the 
quinovic acid). The liquid is decanted from the lead sulphate, upon a 
/ filter, and the filtrate concentrated and left some time to crystallize as 
quinovic acid. 

The filtrate from the precipitate by acetate of lead is concentrated 
to the consistence of a thin syrup, and set aside to crystallize. It may 
require the insertion of a nucleus for crystallization. There should 
now form a crystalline mass (quinic acid), mixed with yellowish drops 

^"' jin^ris'y^'"''} Arhutin in Kalmia Latifolia, Lin. 5 

of oily consistence (quinotannic acid). The mass is washed with ether, 
the residue being quinic acid, very deliquescent. 

The ether solution is evaporated, leaving in residue the quinotannic 
acid, uncrystallizable. 

University of Michigan ^ July ist, 1874. 



The order Ericaceae embraces chiefly shrubs with the leaves mostly 
alternate, the flowers quite regular, and the fruit a berry or capsule. It 
is one of our most interesting orders, including many plants of medic- 
inal properties and a multitude that are exceedingly handsome, especially 
the azaleas, rhododendrons, kalmias, and many species of the multitu- 
dinous genus Erica, which is the type of the family. The rhododen- 
drons growing on the Himalaya Mountains are among the most splendid 
of ornamental trees and shrubs. Jrbutin^ has been found in the sub- 
orders Pyroleae and Ericineae ; and plants belonging to the sub-order 
Vaccineae contain kinic acid. To determine the principles in other 
hitherto unexamined species of this order, the writer has made an 
examination of Kalmia latifolia. 

The genus takes its name in honor of Peter Kalm, a distinguished 
Swedish botanist. The species, latifolia^ or broad-leafed Kalmia^ is known 
by the names of calico bush, mountain laurel, and spoonwood, the latter 
name being given because the Indians made spoons from the wood. It 
is an evergreen, and is found abundantly from Maine to Ohio and 
Kentucky, growing on hillsides and mountains, preferring damp soil j 
the leaves are mostly alternate, bright green on both sides, ovate- 
lanceolate or elliptical, tapering to each end, and tenaceous. It grows 
from four to twenty feet high, its growth being influenced by the 
locality ; on level grounds and small hills it is scarcely ever found 
above ten feet high, whereas in mountainous regions it grows as high 
as twenty feet, presenting a tree-like appearance ; where the writer 
resides it grows from six to twenty feet, and is scarcely ever found 
smaller than six. 

The process adopted for the extraction of arbutin was that of 
Kawalier, and was conducted in the following manner : Three pounds 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1874, P^g^ 3^4- 

6 Arbutin in Kalmia Latifolia, Lin. {^"^■^^^'iS^"""^ 

of the fresh leaves were collected by the writer and carefully dried in a 
room, when they were found, upon reweighing, to have lost sixty-three 
per cent. The dried leaves were coarsely powdered and treated with 
boiling water for several hours, strained and expressed, and again treated 
in a similar manner. The mixed decoctions were precipitated with 
acetate of lead and filtered, the filtrate was then submitted to the action 
of sulphuretted hydrogen to remove all the lead ; the liquid is again 
filtered and evaporated to the consistence of a soft extract. The evapo- 
ration in the first experiment was carried too far, leaving a viscid^ 
reddish-colored mass, in which, after standing several days, no crystals 
of arbutin were perceptible. Another lot of the leaves was gathered, a 
strong infusion was made, filtered and evaporated to a solid consistence. 
The aqueous extract thus obtained was treated with alcohol, the residue 
was a viscid mass containing the kinic acid, if present, perhaps in com- 
bination with calcium, this being insoluble in alcohol. An aqueous 
solution was next formed of this substance and allowed to evaporate at 
a gentle heat, when crystals of the kinate, if present, should have been 
deposited ; but, as in the preceding examination, I was disappointed. 
Another experiment was made similar to the first, with the exception 
that the liquid, after being treated with acetate of lead and sulphuretted 
hydrogen, was not evaporated, so much and I was this time rewarded 
with the separation of arbutin in crystals, repeated experiments giving 
the same satisfactory results. A few crystals were separated from the 
mass to which they were adhering and dissolved in water. The solu- 
tion was made alkaline by ammonia as directed by Jungmann, and 
phosphomolybdic acid added, when immediately the beautiful blue color 
characteristic of arbutin was produced. Quite a weak infusion of IJva 
ursi was at the same time made and tested as above, which gave the 
same blue color. If an impure solution is examined, which with am- 
monia will make an orange color, the phosphomolybdic acid added to 
this will change it to a bluish green. Kalmia latifoUa does not contain 
arbutin so largely as IJva ursi; the yield from the mountain laurel was 
so small that I did not separate it from the adhering mass. The process 
of Kawalier is certainly a very good one as to simplicity of extraction^ 
with the exception of acetate of lead, for which the basic salt may be 
substituted with advantage, to separate gum and coloring principles, the 
presence of which will retard the crystallization of the arbutin. 

Besides arbutin, the presence of gum, tannin, lime and iron were 
noticed incidentally. 

Potts'ville, Pa,, December 5, 1874. 


Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1875. r 

Os Sepice. 



Harmless Face Powder. — The apothecaries in Copenhagen (Denmark), 
have agreed on the following two compositions as substitutes for the 
numerous, generally poisonous, fashionable face powders : 


Oxide of zinc, ...... 30 grms. 

Wheat starch, . . . . . . . 250 " 

Oil of rose, ....... 3 drops. 


Carmine, . . . . . . . .1 grm. 

Carbon, of magnesia, 4 grms. 

Approximative Estimation of the Strength of very small quantities of 
Alcohol. — It being sometimes desirable to know (at least approxima- 
tively) the strength of very small quantities of alcohol. Prof. C. T. 
Barford, Copenhagen, recommends to moisten small slips of filtering 
paper thoroughly with the alcohol, and put fire to them. When, after 
the alcohol has burned out, the paper slips catches fire readily, then the 
alcohol must be stronger than 80 per cent. ; if the paper barely catches 
fire, the strength may be presumed to be between 75 to 80 per cent. \ 
if it does not catch fire at all, the alcohol cannot be stronger than 73- 
75 per cent. The rationale is simply this : The small percentage of 
water existing in strong alcohol vaporizes by the heat of the burning 
alcohol, and consequently leaves the paper dry. Alcohol of 73 per 
cent, or weaker, leaves the paper damp. 

It will be seen that in this way the strength of even five drops of 
alcohol may be estimated. 

Philadelphia, December jth, 1874. 



There are many among those who daily handle, and even sell the 
common cuttle-fish bone, as it is ordinarily termed, who would be quite 
surprised to learn that it is not a bone at all, at least in the same sense 
that the term bone is used in speaking of the vertebrate animals, the 


Os Sepice. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan., 1R75. 

frame-works of whose bodies are bony. This " fish-bone," which is 
frequently found floating in the Mediterranean Sea, and in much greater 
quantity on the shores of Australia, is of an oblong oval shape, from 
three to ten inches long, and its breadth is about one-third of its length, 
hard upon its upper surface and edges, but soft on its lower side, both 
surfaces being convex ; its specific gravity is about '935. Its composi- 
tion, though calcareous, is quite different from bone, being about 83 per 
cent, of carbonate of calcium, with some magnesia and common salt, 
and but little animal matter. The structure of the bone is quite pecu- 
liar, a fresh fracture, when examined, shows the layers of the calcium 
salt, supported by pillars of the same material, arranged in regular rows, 
likened by Wood, the naturalist, to a miniature giant's causeway. 

The Sepia officinalis^ for this is the title of the fish which furnishes 
the little songsters with their tiny grindstones whereon to whet their 
bills, belongs to the class Mollusca and order Cephalopoda; this term 
alluding to the feet being attached close to the head. Its generic name 
Sepia is in consequence of the color which it ejects when chased or 
angered. It is most commonly found on the Australian coast, though 
most of the commercial supply is derived from Europe. 

The various names of Great Polypus, Colossal Cuttle-fish, Gigan- 
tic Squid, Kraken, Devil-fish, &c., will appear to be well deserved 
when some of their performances, for which very truthful observers 
vouch, are narrated. Montfort has described their habits fully, and 
shows them to be very dangerous and disgusting, even when so small 
as not to be dreaded for their size and strength ; their activity and deter- 
mination is very remarkable. The attack of one upon a ship, sailing from 
St. Malo, a seaport in France, is celebrated by a painting, hung up in 
the church of St. Thomas in that city, representing the vessel with the 
arms of the fish clasped about the masts and sides of the vessel 
which was only freed from the monster by the vigorous efforts of the 
crew in cutting away the encircling arms. The reader must remember, 
however, that the Sepia officinalis are not to be held answerable for 
these performances, they belong to other branches of the family ; 
the smaller members are generally peacefully inclined, but when 
irritated they become exceedingly annoying to those who molest them. 
The rocks and coast of Madagascar is shunned by the natives who wish 
to swim on account of the rock squids fastening upon the persons of 
the swimmers with their suckers, if they venture too near the shore. 
One of the most recent accounts which appears well authenticated, 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Jan., 1875. ; 

Os Sepice. 


contained in a late number of the London Spectator^ which tells of a 
cuttle- fish that appeared off the New Foundland coast, in Conception 
Bay ; some fishermen supposing it, from its size, to be a portion of a 
wreck, pulled out for it, and striking at it, they so enraged it that it 
raised its beaked head and encircled the boat with two of its slimy arms ; 
instantly the men cut them away with their axes, and the fish, finding 
the fight too severe for him, sailed away, inking the sea for several hun- 
dred yards. The arm, which was of a pale pink color and entirely car- 
tilagmous, was preserved in St. Johns Museum, and was found to 
measure nineteen feet ; this report, so well authenticated, gives some 
show of truth to the marvellous story which Victor Hugo has so 
graphically depicted in his tale of the Toilers of the Sea." 

The use to which Os sepice is put in pharmacy proper is but trifling, it 
furnishing when levigated and dried, a very fine variety of carbonate of 
calcium, but is more generally employed in the fabrication of tooth 
powders, being the basis of Betton's dentifrice, and the cuttle-fish 
powder of Piesse, formulas for which are appended to this article. 

There is one other product of the cuttle-fish which is used in the 
arts, a substance called sepia, a coloring matter of black color, and 
when well prepared highly prized by artists. This substance is secreted 
by the fish from a bag or sack, which it can contract at will, and thus 
discharge some of the coloring matter into the surrounding water, and 
staining it for the purpose of preventing its enemies from seeing it so 
as to be able to pursue it. 

A few words about the proper method of making the class of powders 
mentioned will perhaps be useful to the readers of the Journal. It is of 
highest importance that the basis of all tooth powders should be so free 
from all sharp, gritty particles that there will be no danger of abrasion 
to the enamel of the t<"eth. This fineness, of course, is to be obtained 
only by careful pulverization and passing the powder through a sieve 
of fine bolting cloth, all the various materials being reduced to an 
equal degree of fineness. When coloring matter is to be added, and 
this generally is some shade of pink, the finest color is obtained by 
washing the calcareous powder with a solution of carmine in aqua 
ammoniae, and exposing the powder to the air until free from ammoni- 
acal odor and moisture ; to this prepared calcareous base the remaining 
powders are added, and the whole thoroughly incorporated by sifting 


On Some Substitutions. 

Bettons Dentifrice. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1875. 

Take of — 

Powdered cuttle-fish, 

*' orris root, each, 
prepared chalk, 
Musk, .... 
Oil rose and lavender (Mitcham), each. 
Carmine, No. 40, 
Aqua ammonias. 

Water, .... 

4 pounds. 

8 grains. 
48 drops. 
2 drachms. 

5 fluidrachms. 

6 fluidounces. 

Rub the carmine with the aqua ammoniae diluted with the water, and 
with this solution imbue the prepared chalk and powdered cuttle-fish 
bone. After the moisture has all disappeared, sift the orris root per- 
fumed with the essential oils together with the colored lime salts. 

Piesse^s Cuttle-Fisk Ponder. 

Take of — 

Powdered cuttle-fish, . . • . ■ h pound. 

Precipitated carbonate of lime . . . . I " 

Powdered orris root, . . . . • i " 

Oil lemon, . . . . . . . i ounce. 

Oil of neroli, . ..... ^ ounce. 

Carmine, . . . . , . . ^ drachm. 

Aqua ammoniae, ...... 2 fluidr'ms. 

Water, ...... fluidoz. 

Proceed as in former recipe. 



Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, December i^th. 

Agaric or White Agaric is a drug which was formerly much more 
frequently employed than at present, but is still occasionally used, par- 
ticularly in domestic medicine, and mainly as an ingredient in several 
bitters, which, among a portion of our German population, enjoy some 
popularity. The drug consists of the pileus or cap of a fungus, named 
Polyporus officinalis^ Fries, s. Polyp, laricis.^ Roques, s. Boletus laricts.^ ]2lc- 
quin, s. BoL officinalis., Villars, s. Bol. purgans., Persoon. It occurs in 
the market in irregular masses of the size of a fist and larger, is occa- 
sionally semilunar in shape or resembles the section of a cone. It is of 
a white color, light and friable, nearly inodorous, and possesses a taste 
which is at first sweetish, but soon becomes bitter and acrid. 

Recently a sample of a so-called white agaric, which had been ob- 
tained in New York, was sent to me ; it was in the form of a coarse 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1875. / 

On Some Substitutions. 


white powder, intermixed with some larger, irregular white pieces, none 
of which exceeded a quarter inch in length or thickness, but, on super- 
ficial examination, possessed the physical characters of true agaric. The 
powder was of a sweetish, subsequently bitter, acrid taste, which, how- 
ever, was much less marked than in the genuine drug \ the larger 
pieces, freed from the adhering dust, were nearly insipid and entirely 
devoid of bitterness. A section placed under the microscope showed it 
to consist of the peculiar filamentous cells of the fungi ; but on search- 
ing a number of works on Materia Medica, I found no adulteration or 
substitution mentioned, except by Wiggers, who states that agaric is 
occasionally mixed with pieces of Polyporus igniarius^ Fries, made to 
resemble agaric by covering it with the powder of the latter. The 
substance in question, however, is not derived from a Polyporus^ which 
genus is characterized by having the hymenium or gills concrete with 
the pileus or cap, and consisting of subrotund pores. 

Some of the pieces have fragments of lamellae still attached, showing 
the substance in question to be most probably the cap of a species of 
Agaricus^ from which the lamellate gills have been almost completely 
removed, and which was afterwards broken into small pieces and mixed 
with some powder of the larch agaric, to impart a bitter taste. The 
substitution can easily be detected by examining some of the larger 
pieces in the manner indicated above. 

Gossypii radicis Cortex of the U. S. Pharmacopceia, is the bark of the 
root of the cultivated species of Gossypium. The woody, conical, nearly 
simple root of the cultivated cotton plant is covered with a thin bark, 
about half a line to one line in thickness, rarely thicker. Externally^ 
the bark is of a brownish-yellow color, with larger irregular patches of 
a brownish-orange, caused by the abrasion of the outer layer of cork^ 
and smaller ones more scattered, of a nearly black color. The yellow- 
ish portion has a slight satiny lustre, the other parts are dull. The 
thin, corky layer which adheres well to the bast layer, forms shallow 
longitudinal ridges, often becoming confluent into narrow, elongated 
meshes. Suberous warts or their scars are scattered over the surface^ 
at first circular in shape, ultimately forming short transverse, black 
lines. The inner surface is of a whitish, or reddish-white color, a 
silky lustre, and finely but, to the naked eye, distinctly striate in a 
longitudinal direction. A pocket lens reveals these striae as thin, med- 
ullary rays penetrating into the bark. The bast fibres are long and tough, 
and arranged in tangential rows, on account of which the inner bark may 
be separated into very thin, almost transparent layers without difficulty 

On Some Substitutions. 

/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Jan., 1875. 

The bark is without odor ; the bast possesses scarcely an acrid taste ; 
the corky layer is in the main rather feebly astringent. 

Some months ago, in one of our wholesale stores, I met with a so- 
called cotton-root bark, which had been obtained from the State of 
Georgia, and which is so entirely different from the root bark of our 
cultivated gossypium^ as to leave no doubt whatever in regard to its 
origin from a different plant. The bark is in quills or curved pieces, 
several inches to a foot or more in length, and one-eighth to one-fourtn 
inch in thickness, inodorous, of a slight astringent, afterwards bitterish 
and distinctly acrid taste ; pale brown to rust-brown throughout in color, 
and destitute of silky lustre, except the bast fibres upon a fresh fracture. 
The exterior surface is deep brown, the younger bark with shallow, 
longitudinal suberous ridges, the older bark with the soft cork more or 
less fissured, and exfoliating in small patches. The interior surface is 
of a dark brown or blackish-brown color, and striate by the rather 
coarse bast fibres. The bark breaks transversely with little difficulty, 
and exhibits a coarse, splintery fracture from the numerous bast fibres, 
which are disposed in tangential rows ; the inner bark separates in the 
same direction in rather thick layers. Some of the coarser pieces of 
bark are found with a clayey earth adhering in the grooves and bends. 

The characters described are, with very insignificant variations, ob- 
served in the bark of the root of cotton plants, which some years ago 
were furnished me from several varieties grown in four or five of our 
Southern States, and for which I am indebted to the kindness of Dr. 
Robert Battey, of Rome, Ga., and Mr. Gallagher, of Washington, 
North Carolina. 

It will be observed that the description agrees in several important 
points with the characteristics of mezereon bark, to whicn cotton-root 
bark bears a close resemblance, if color and taste are not considered ; 
the thin, ribbon-like appearance, the silky lustre of the internal surface, 
the transverse scars of suberous warts and the toughness of the bast 
fibres are common to both."' 

"'■'After the above was in type, I have received, through the kindness of Dr. A. 
W. Miller, a sample of cotton-root bark collected by Wallace Bros. & Stephenson, 
of Statesville, North Carolina. This agrees in every respect with my cotton-root 
bark, except that it is more or less quilled, showing that it has been taken from 
the recently collected root, and dried without endeavoring to prevent its quilling j 
my bark was stripped from nearly dry roots and purposely kept in bands. I have 
not noticed any striking difference in the root-bark of the long and short staple 

^"''jiT.^iSyT'^'} Liquor Selling by Pharmacists. 13 

What is the origin of this bark ? It can scarcely be doubted that it 
is derived from the root of a tree, and it is not unlikely that it must 
be referred to one or more species of Populus^ several of which are 
popularly knovi^n as cottonwood^ on account of the cotton-like filaments 
found in the fruit. This name is more particularly applied to the fol- 
lowing three species ; Populus angulata^ Alton, the western cotton-tree 
which is found from Pennsylvania to Wisconsin, and further southward; 
Pop. monilifera^ Alton, Cottonwood or necklace-poplar, from Western 
Vermont to Illinois and southwestward to Louisiana ; Pop, heterophylla^ 
Lin., cotton-tree or downy poplar, found in about the same localities, 
though rarer than the preceding in the New England States. The 
three species grow along river banks and in swampy localities, and it 
does not seem unlikely, tha( one or all three yield at least a portion of 
the so-called cotton-root bark of commerce. 

I am not aware that authentic specimens of the bark of Gossypium or 
of these species of Populus have been submitted to analysis, but as far 
as can be judged from the taste, and other sensible properties, I am 
inclined to the belief that at least a considerable portion of the commer- 
cial fluid extracts of cotton-root bark have not been made from the 
officinal Gossypii radicis cortex,^ but from this substitute. 

The question then presents itself to which cotton-root bark must be 
ascribed the reputed emmenagogue properties, upon the strength of 
which Gossypii radix and afterwards Gossypii radicis cortex was admitted 
into the Pharmacopoeia ? The writer would be thankful to manufac- 
turers of fluid extracts, to wholesale druggists, and particularly to physi- 
cians and pharmacists of the Southern States where cotton-root bark 
appears to be principally used, for authentic specimens of the plant and 
of its root, to which the medicinal properties are ascribed. 



At the annual meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
held at Louisville, Ky., Sept. last, a member proposed that the Associ- 
ation take some action to influence a repeal, or at least a modification, 
of the present laws, requiring the druggist to pay license for the sale 
of liquors. The objection was at once raised that, if the druggist was 
not required to pay liquor license, every saloon keeper would put out a 

14 Liquor Selling by Pharmacists, {^"jlr"i8^7^""' 

drug sign, and under that shield continue his business. After other un- 
important discussion the subject was dropped. 

It is not the writer's purpose to discuss the justice or injustice of the 
law compelling the conscientious druggist to place himself on a level 
with the saloon-keeper, by requiring him to pay the same license, or 
subject himself to the risk of a heavy fine and the disgrace attending a 
prosecution, though he endeavors to confine his sales of liquors to the 
actual requirements of them as a medicine. 

The present stringent laws have been caused by the abuse, by many 
druggists, of the privileges afforded to the profession. We believe that 
the greater number of druggists confine their sales to its legitimate 
requirements ; but there are still a large number who do disgrace the 
profession by using their titles as a cover under which they carry on an 
extensive liquor traffic, and in some cases so remunerative that many 
saloon keepers might envy it. Some druggists make no secret of this 
department, and sell without restrictions ; but this is rarely the case ; 
usually there is a back room, where the right customer can get what- 
ever he wants, but a good watch is kept that they don't let the wrong 
men into their secrets. Some sell to their customers in bottles, and 
allow them to be concealed in a convenient place about the back room, 
so that customers with their friends can have easy access and resort to 
it ad libitum. A very popular custom, for several years past, is that of 
selling liquors from the soda fountain, under the disguise of some mys- 
terious name, so that the favored customer can get his drinks without 
calHng for them as he would at an ordinary bar. There are many 
other devices resorted to by which they manage to escape the tangles 
of the law and just censure of the public. 

It seems unreasonable that champagnes and other fancy liquors 
should be included in the stock of the legitimate pharmacist, but we 
frequently find them there. Not only are such pharmacists a disgrace 
to the profession, but they are casting an atmosphere of suspicion 
about it so that we not unfrequently see the name coupled with that 
of the saloon-keeper. The following is an abstract from a circular 
issued by the liquor dealers of Chicago, during the enforcement of the 
eleven-o'clock and Sunday liquor law, and was addressed to the druggists 
of that city. " It shows that the drug store is considered the resort 
when the doors of the saloons are closed. The present agitation of 
the vexed liquor question is of far more importance to the druggist 
than is generally supposed ; at the present time the trouble is confined 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1875. 

Statistics of the Drug Business. 


to saloons, but soon the liquor law will be waged as hotly against the 
druggist, not only to his injury, but to the injury and great discomfort 
of his customers. The present enforcement creates a greater demand 
on the druggist for liquors, yet no one can tell how soon that part of 
his trade will be cut off by the very ones now so successfully shutting 
up the saloons." This is followed by an argument defending the right 
of every man to make a beast of himself if he sees fit. The evil effects 
are also evident within the profession, by the demoralizing influence 
upon the clerks and apprentices who deal out liquors. No other pro- 
fession demands as much from assistants, and they being almost entirely 
cut off from the pleasures of society, and, not unlike other mortals, 
prone to yield to temptations, and in their case become even more sus- 
ceptible by the long hours and continued application to which they are 
subjected. This traffic always draws a class of dissipated men, whose 
influence upon the clerk is of the most poisonous character, and often 
causes his ruin. This class of druggists are frequently troubled with 
dissipated and unreliable clerks, and is it to be wondered at ? 

Will not some of our leaders raise a voice against this growing dis- 
honor to the profession ? Cannot some one suggest a remedy for this 
evil, or, at least, a means by which the outside world can distinguish 
between the pharmaceutical saloon and the legitimate pharmacy F It is a 
subject which should interest every one who has the good of the phar- 
macal profession at heart. 

iVkw Torkj December 16M, 1874. 


The popular notion that the drug business is a very profitable one 
in all its various branches, is deeply seated in the minds of the public, 
and all denials, on the part of those engaged in it, seem to have no 
other effect than to provoke a smile of incredulity, on the same prin- 
ciple, probably, that every man thinks his neighbor's business better 
than his own, or his troubles lighter. And this idea of the great profit 
in handling drugs, which has prevailed for so long a time, has had its 
effect in crowding so many persons into the business, that we may well 
stop to ask if it is not overdone ? 

That the trade in drugs was at one time a profitable one, there can 
be no doubt ; but if we are to judge from the frequent statements 
made by so many of those engaged in it now, that it is not what it 

1 6 Statistics of the Drug Business. jln'-xs^ys""' 

once was ; that there is no profit in it ; that, at the end of the year, noth- 
ing is left after all bills are paid, and other complaints of a similar na- 
ture, we must conclude these days have departed, at least for the pres- 
ent, and, as a matter of interest to all concerned, endeavor to find some 
cause for the change that undoubtedly has taken place in the trade. 

It is not the intention of the writer, in this paper, to advance any 
theories as to the causes which have produced the alleged changes in 
the business of pharmacy, but simply to direct attention to the facts 
shown by a comparison of the tables of the three last U. S. Census 
Reports, viz., 1850, i860, 1870, as they apply to pharmacy and some 
other pursuits connected with, or allied to, it, and allow each to draw 
his own conclusions. Previous to 1850, no reports were made in 
which the different occupations were classified with as much detail as 
they were in that year and in subsequent reports, so that, for our pres- 
ent purpose, we cannot go back of that time. 

The first table gives the total population, and the proportion of each 
occupation to it ; the second and third only as matters of interest, the 
ages and the nativities of those engaged in each, for 1870 only. 








I Total 




I t0572 


I to 576 



I to 638 

Druggists .... 


I to 3778 


I to 2850 

1 17,369 

I to 2,219 

Pat. Med. Manufrs 
Perfumers .... 


I to 


I to 



I to 

154,893 i 

I to 




I to 


I to 


Nurses .... 


I to 3,5 12 

Midwives .... 



I to 



10 to 15 

16 to 59 

60 and 







Physicians, ..... 






Druggists, . . . • 






Patent Medicine Manufacturers, 







Perfumers, .... 







Nurses, ..... 






Midwives, .... 





Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan , 1875, 

Statistics of the Drug Business. 






73 03 








Physicians, ..... 







Druggists, . 







Patent Medicine Manufacturers, 







Perfumers, .... 






Nurses, ..... 






1 70 

Midwives, . . 







Nativities — Continued, 


iveden, Nor- 
ay, and Den - 


hina and 

ther countr's 
. of Europe. 

ther countr's 
of Europe. 

ther and 

^ S 




Physicians, ..... 
















Patent Medicine Manufacturers, 






Perfumers, . . . . . 




Nurses, ...... 






Midwives, ...... 







From the first table, it will be seen that the physicians have increased 
i n about the same ratio as the population, the variation being very trifling 
for the past twenty years, while the druggists have increased in very 
much greater proportion ; the ratio being for the ten years, from 1850 
to i860, 79*7 per cent., while the increase of population was 34 per 
cent. ; and for the period from i860 to 1870, they increased 57*4 per 
cent., while the population increased but 23 per cent. The patent 
medicine manufacturers heve increased at each interval over 100 per 

These figures are certainly very striking, and seem to point plainly to 
one reason of the many complaints of an absence of any profit in the 
drug business, namely, a business too much divided for all to be pros- 
perous. R. 

Philadelphiay December^ 1874. 


1 8 Revision of Pharmacopma. {^'"•/an%^7^"'*" 



On the Committee of fifteen persons appointed by the National 
Convention, at Washington, May, 1870, and into whose hands was 
placed the important charge of revising our Pharmacopoeia, we find the 
names of nine physicians ; consequently, the greater portion of the 
almost herculean task of revising our national standard must have 
devolved upon comparatively few, the others being of but little prac- 
tical utility in the work. 

From such a committee, therefore, what could the pharmacists of 
this country look for but very immature and imperfect results, and 
especially where the laborious task had to be performed in the almost 
entire absence of the proper aid and support expected by them from 
the official representatives of the various medical and pharmaceutical 
colleges, societies, &c., interested in the work. 

It appears from the Committee's own statement, in the preface to 
their work, that not only the task of " verification and testing," but 
that also of tedious and laborious original research and investigation^ 
had to be performed by them ; such as devising new formulas, altering 
and modifying old ones, &c., which involved a vast amount of time 
and labor in experiment, heavily taxing both the time and physical and 
mental energies of individual members of the Committee, whose 
hands and heads were already full to overflowing with business of their 
own. So that every pharmacist can see and appreciate what an un- 
wieldly, important, responsible and, I might say, thankless job these 
gentlemen had on their hands — one that, indeed, involved the labor of 
years in investigation and experiment to properly mature and perfect, 
but which had to be hurried through in about two and a half years. 

The Committee further remark that this troublesome part of their 
labor was " rendered necessary by the meagreness of details that char- 
acterized the majority of the reports submitted to the Committee^ 
which in many cases presented criticism or suggestion without furnish- 
ing the precise form of alteration or amendment in the processes, or^ 
in the case of new medicines, indicating their modes of preparation." 
They also very justly remark, " in view of subsequent revision, that 
the reports of medical aud pharmaceutical bodies which are interested 

Am. Jour. Pharm. | 
Jan., 1875. j 

Revision of Pharmacopceia, 


in the perfection of our national standard, should be made full and 
explicit in details, and leave to the Committee the task of verification 
and testing, rather than that of original investigation." 

In vievs^ of this state of things, every pharmacist can w^ell imagine 
what amount of labor fell to the lot of the Committee of Final Revi- 
sion by the apathy and neglect of duty of the representatives of the 
medical and pharmaceutical bodies directly interested therein. And 
when it is considered that out of this committee of fifteen persons 
there were but six practical pharmacists — men who had the practical 
experience, skill and judgment requisite to make the necessary experi- 
ments to test suspected formulas, and to devise new ones when neces- 
sary, and to modify and improve those needing amendment — it is easy 
to conjecture what amount of work had to be done by this part of the 
Committee. Of course, such gentlemen as Drs. Wood, Carson and 
Bridges, and perhaps others among the medical members, whose qual- 
ifications for the task may be unknown to me, could be of great ser- 
vice in certain parts of the work, such as selecting articles and prep- 
arations, both old and new, that were presented for acceptance, and in 
passing judgment upon their claims to admission into the Pharmaco- 
poeia, and in arranging and assigning them to their proper positions 
therein, and also in criticising and examining the officinal list, and 
expurgating from it all such articles as have by experience been found 
useless, obsolete, and no longer worthy of a place in the Pharmaco- 
poeia. In these matters medical men can be of the most service ; and, 
in fact, it is only in this part of the work that they could be of mate- 
rial aid. The most important and the most onerous duties of the Com- 
mittee of Revision are such as belong to the pharmacist alone, and 
none but practical pharmacists are competent to properly perform 

If my conceptions of the matter are correct, the majority, at least, 
of such a Committee should consist of practical pharmacists and medi- 
cal gentlemen whose special studies and opportunities have qualified 
them for its duties. 

Is there no remedy in the future for the state of things that has here- 
tofore existed ? What do the majority of physicians know about revis- 
ing the formulae of our Pharmacopoeia ? In fact, they do not pretend 
to such knowledge ; for, perhaps, they have never worked a process, 
nor made a single pharmaceutical preparation in their lives. 

Such medical gentlemen as Doctors Wood, Carson and Bridges are 


Revision of Pharmacopoeia. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 187s. 

exceptions to the genera] rule, and are eminently fitted for such a posi- 
tion, and if the other medical gentlemen composing the Committee had 
like opportunities with these, and their special studies had in like man- 
ner qualified them for the duties of the position, then my remarks, will, 
in a measure, lose their pertinence. But, in any event, the majotity 
of our Revisory Committee should be practical pharmacists, who under- 
stand and fully appreciate the needs of their profession, and whose 
every-dav practical experience at the dispensing counter and in the 
laboratory has qualified them to devise, modify and improve formulas, 
processes, etc., and these, too, should be men who are intelligent, in- 
dustrious, energetic and progressive ; not the old fogies or fossils of the 
profession. They should also be men who are not afraid to work, and 
whose hearts are in the work, and who feel a pride in seeing it well 

Of course, the medical profession are interested in the work, and 
their aid in investigating and pronouncing upon the claims and fitness 
of new remedies, and the merits of old, unofficinai and the various 
semi -officinal remedies that are constantly seeking admission into the 
great familv of officinal articles and preparations, is of importance. It 
is, therefore, proper that the medical bodies in the different sections of 
the countrv should be represented and consulted in the matter, through 
their official representatives, who can present the claims of their respec- 
tive localities in the Committee. 

But, to make the majority of the Committee to consist of medical 
men, I consider wrong and most unjust to the pharmaceutical profes- 
sion, for whose use the work is especially intended. It is a work with 
the pharmacist of everv-day reference and his guide in his manipulations 
in all officinal preparations. Physicians have but little to do with it, 
and there are, I have no doubt, hundreds of them that never see the 
work after it is published, and some, perhaps, that hardly know of its 

If it is necessary to have nine physicians in the Committee of Revi- 
sion, in order to properly represent the interests of the medical profes- 
sion, would it not be better to increase the membership of the Com- 
mittee to twenty-five instead of fifteen, as heretofore, and make it con- 
sist of sixteen pharmacists and nine physicians ? This would place the 
majoritv on the right side, and give the Committee a working force of 
sufficient capacity for effective service. 

The meagre and imperfect aid given to the Committee of Revision 

Am, Jour. Pharm. \ 
Jan., 1875. j 

Revision of Pharmacopeia. 


by the representatives of the various medical and pharmaceutical bodies 
at the last revision, as shown by the Committee's own statements, 
should prove a salutary warning to those bodies in the future to be 
more careful and discriminating in the selection of their delegates. 
They should choose only such as will pledge themselves to perform 
their duties faithfully and to the best of their abilities, and not to select 
those who simply accept the position for the honor derived from it. In 
such a position we want working, live, energetic and industrious men. 
There is no position in which a drone could be so much out of place 
as in the Committee of Revision of our national Pharmacopoeia. I 
know that in almost all committees the great bulk of the work devolves 
upon a few of the members, the majority being mere ornaments, and I 
do not suppose that the committee in question differs much in this re- 
spect from all other committees. 

Now, to counteract this, why could not the labor be proportionally 
divided among the members? The Pharmacopceia should be sectioned 
off", giving to each member or group of members in the different local- 
ities, as far as practicable, that portion of the work for which their edu- 
cation, taste and qualifications best fit them, giving to the medical mem- 
bers that part involving most knowledge of medicine ; while to the 
pharmaceutical members should be assigned that portion involving a 
knowledge of chemistry and practical pharmacy. This would prompt 
each member to a more faithful performance of his share of the work 
of revision, and would tend in a measure to prevent the embarrassment 
and confusion that might otherwise occur when the labor is done by 
the whole Committee in common, and the reports of these sub-com- 
mittees could be discussed and examined by the whole Committee at 
its regular sittings. 

In view of the difficulty heretofore experienced in securing full and 
satisfactory reports from the delegates who represent the various med- 
ical colleges, colleges of pharmacy, &c., in the National Convention, 
who are appointed to prepare reports on the revision of the Pharmaco- 
poeia, in aid of the Committee of Revision, would it not be well to 
try the virtue of the plan of offering suitable prizes for the best reports 
on the different sections of the Pharmacopoeia ? 

One, for instance, for the best report or essay on fluid extracts and 
on percolation, as applied to their manufacture ; and another on the 
solid extracts ; another on tinctures, and so on through the whole work. 

The Pharmacopoeia may thus be sectioned off according to its regu- 

2 2 Revision of Pharmacopceia. {^"' jin^ris^s!''""'' 

lar divisions, except in cases when there are but few preparations under 
one head, and where but Httle change is necessary or can be made, then 
two or more divisions may be included in one report. 

Let the value of the prize be adjusted according to the supposed 
magnitude of the labor involved in the task and its importance. The 
prize may consist of money alone, as this is a well-known, powerful, 
diffusible stimulant in all the affairs of life, or it may be money together 
with a handsome certificate, a medal or token of some kind, as a 
permanent evidence of what has been achieved. This kind of reward 
would be a powerful inducement for pharmacists to compete for the 

Money, for this purpose, could be raised, partly from the funds of 
the medical colleges, colleges of pharmacy, &c., that could afford to 
contribute, and partly from the voluntary contributions of individual 
members of the medical and pharmaceutical professions, and, if neces- 
sary, a small contribution could be levied upon the proceeds of the sale 
of the work, when published. Bv these means, I am satisfied, there 
would be little difficulty in procuring the necessary funds for the 

The announcement of the scheme should be made at least five years 
before the meeting of the National Convention, in order to give exper- 
imenters and investigators time to complete and perfect their labors. 
For such a work, requiring much time, especially when undertaken by 
men who are trammeled and encumbered by the cares and labors, and 
almost constant interruption of business, ample time should be given. 

Besides, it takes time to test the stability of new preparations, and 
also that of old ones, as made by modified formulae and processes. The 
pharmacist may make what he believes to be an improvement in a de- 
fective formula and process, and be much elated and feel proud of his 
skill and success ; but, alas ! in from four to six months, or, perhaps, 
much sooner, ''comes a frost, a killing frost," and he beholds his hopes 
blasted, and experiences the mortification of witnessing his preparation 
spoiled by the insidious and destructive influences of time. The writer 
has been the victim of such disappointments in more than one instance. 

These reports should be ready and be rendered to the National Con- 
vention at its meeting, when they may be read and examined, and full 
discussion be had upon the relative merits, and the whole matter can 
be then handed over to the Committee of final revision, to whose wis- 
dom and judgment will be left the awarding of the prizes. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1875. ]■ 

Revision of Pharmacopoeia. 


In this way I have no doubt most excellent, scientific and full reports 
could be obtained that could not be procured by any other means. 

This plan would bring out much of the latent talent of the country, 
and would stimulate experiment, investigation and research throughout 
the land, and have lasting good effects upon the interests of our profes- 
sion generally. And that which would render the plan more valuable 
and hold out the greatest promise of good reports, is the fact that it would 
leave every pharmacist the privilege of choosing his subject, and labor- 
ing in that portion of the vineyard which best suits his tastes, and for 
which his knowledge and talent best adapt him. While one would 
select fluid extracts, or one of the other classes of galenical preparations, 
another would choose a section that would involve more chemical 
knowledge. Consequently, each report would be the choicest product 
of each man's labor and peculiar skill. 

We have many industrious, energetic, skilful and ambitious pharma- 
cists and chemists in this country, and there are, I have no doubt, many 
that would enter for the prize and for the honor that securing it would 

This plan might also be the means of drawing out many secret and 
valuable formulas and processes that have been hoarded by selfish and 
illiberal pharmacists for their own special uses, through a feeling some- 
what akin to that which makes the miser hoard his gold. The invita- 
tion to competitors for these prizes should not be confined alone to the 
delegates appointed to the National Convention, but should be cordially 
extended to every member of both the medical and pharmaceutical 

Medical men could render valuable aid in this important work, in 
making reports that would embrace a list of the various articles and 
substances that are unoilicinal, belonging to the Materia Medica list ; 
also the various and new unofficinal preparations and remedies that 
should be given a place in the officinal list, and they should be accom- 
panied by the reasons upon which their claims are based. The report 
should also embrace a list of articles that are ncnju officinal that should 
be dismissed, and the reasons for their dismission. Accompanying the 
report, a special report might be made on the new remedies that have 
loomed up and become popular in the last decade, giving a collated re- 
port of the evidence of their merits, as obtained from the various med- 
jcal journals, and also from other standard authorities, and, in fact, all 
other available sources. There are also many other interesting and 

•24 Gleanings. 

important features that might be embraced in such a report, that will 
readily suggest themselves to the intelligent physician, that might prove 
of incalculable advantage and importance to the Committee of Re- 
vision, and greatly aid them in their laborious and important task. 

The next meeting of the National Convention will take place in May, 
1880, less than six years from this time, and there should be some in- 
itiatory steps taken to either carry out the plan herein suggested, or some 
other similar one that may be more practical, and which will insure a 
more careful and more thorough revision of our Pharmacopoeia than 
we have yet had. 

How the plan herein proposed of offering prizes can be put into 
operation and be carried out, I will leave to those who have, for years, 
had to do with the business of revision, and who are familiar with its 
workings. Who would be the parties possessed of the power or 
authority to act in the matter, I do not know. Whether the medical 
and pharmaceutical bodies mterested in the work of revision, or whether 
it would be the business of the National Convention, I should sup- 
pose, however, that the whole matter could be arranged by a committee 
formed of one or more members from each of the medical and phar- 
maceutical bodies authorized to send delegates to the National Con- 
vention. This committee should be vested with authority to devise and 
perfect measures by which the plan may be rendered feasible and may 
be successfully carried out, and also to raise the necessary funds for 
the purpose. 

The suggestions herein offered are simply the crude conceptions of 
one inexperienced in the business of revision of our Pharmacopcjeia, and 
are offered with the hope of awakening the attention of the profession 
in the matter, and of provoking discussion and eliciting the opinion of 
the profession on the subject. For certainly some better plan than 
that heretofore adopted seems to be necessary to insure a more thorough 
and complete revision of our national standard. 

Philadelphia J December, 1874. 



Preparation ef Crystalli%able Formic Acid. — Berthelot places com- 
pletely dessicated formiate of lead into a U tube, one end of which is 
drawn out and bent downward ; it is placed in an oil bath kept at a 

f Am. Jour. Pharm 
1 Jan.,iS75. 

^"•/an^r.f's'""' } Gleanings. 1 5 

temperature not exceeding 130° C. and dry sulphuretted hydrogen 
passed through it. The product is subjected to fractional distillation^ 
when a pure acid may be obtained, which crystallizes in a refrigerating 
mixture, and fuses at 8°, 6 C, which temperature is considerably higher 
than has been observed heretofore. — Bull. Soc. Chim. de Paris^ i^74> 
p. 440. 

Dry Acetate of Ammonium is obtained by Berthelot, by dissolving 
glacial acetic acid in ammonia, keeping the retort cool, and adding 
enough water to prevent the crystallization of the salt during the neu- 
tralization ; the solution is evaporated in a current of dry, gaseous 
ammonia until the liquid solidifies on cooling. It is then introduced 
into a large capsule, and this placed upon caustic lime, under a large 
bell glass, in which a considerable quantity of ammonia gas is injected. 
After a few days the crystalline mass is broken, and the capsule 
replaced as before upon lime in an ammoniacal atmosphere, under the 
bell glass. When this operation has been repeated several times, a 
perfectly pure acetate of ammonium is obtained, which crystallizes in 
large needles, like nitrate of potassium, and resembling formiate of am- 
monium ; it is extremely soluble in water, and does not possess an acid 
reaction. — Ibid. 

The Composition of Pirsch-Baudoin^ s Imitation of Silver is given as 
follows: Copper 71, nickel 16-50, cobalt 175, tin 2*50, iron 1*25^ 
zinc 7 (aluminium 1*5). — Pharm. Cent. Halle^ 1874, No. 42. 

Destruction of Insects by Composite. — Four grains of a good insect- 
powder sprinkled upon a fly contained in a vial, must, according to H. 
Kalbruner, produce stupefaction in one minute, and death in two or 
three minutes. Tested in this way, he found the flowers of the fol- 
lowing plants entirely worthless : Chrysanthemum leucanthemuin^ L.^ 
Chrys. coronarium.^ L., Anthemis arvensis^ h.^ A. cotula^ h.^ A. tinctoria^ L.,. 
A. nobilis., L., and Inula pulicaria.^ L. ; likewise the herb of Pyrethrum 
roseum.^ M. B., and P. cinerar ice folium^ Trev. A slight stupefying effect 
was produced by the flowers of Tanacetum vulgar e.^ Lin., and Pyrethrum 
corymb osum^ Sm. The flowers of Pyr. parthenium.^ Lin., and Pyr. in- 
odorum^ Lin., stupefy flies and kill them in from one to two hours; their 
value as insecticides is therefore very slight. A few commercial insect- 
powders come up to the requirements mentioned before, while others 
require fifteen to thirty minutes to kill a fly. The flowers of Pyr. cine- 
rar ice folium.^ which is indigenous to Dalmatia, were observed to be 
rather more active than those of P. roseum.^ perhaps because the latter 

26 Sulphovinic Acid and its Salts. jin.:^^^''' 

have a large number of ray florets, the disk florets being regarded as 
more active. 

The author believes that the culture of these species will not be re- 
munerative as long as good flow^ers can be obtained at a moderate price 
from Western Asia, and from Dalmatia. — Zeits. Oest. Apoth. Ver. 1874, 
No. 29. 

Adulterated Lycopodium. — Scriba found some lycopodium adulterated 
wkh powdered French chalk \ and Hager found in one sample 8*9 per 
cent, impurities, consisting of powdered rosin and well dried potato 
starch. — Pharm. Centr. Halle., 1874, No. 43. 

Red Marking-Ink. — According to Th. Wegler, egg albumen is 
diluted with an equal weight of water, rapidly stirred with a glass rod 
until it foams, and then filtered through linen. The filtrate is mixed 
with a sufl[icient quantity of finely levigated vermilion until a rather 
thick liquid is obtained, which is used for marking with a quill ; the 
rear side is then touched with a hot flat-iron, whereby the albumen is 
coagulated ; the marking is affected neither by soap, alkalies or acids. 
The ink may be preserved for a long time, in well-corked vials, without 
depositing the vermilion. — Ibid.., No. 44. 

Cologne Water. — A mixture of oils is made as follows : Oil of neroli 
2 p., oil of rosemary i p., oil of lemon 3 p., oil of bergamot i p., and 
oil of orange 3 parts. One kilogram of this mixture is dissolved in 
60 litres of alcohol (85 to 90 per cent. ), the solution heated to 60° C. 
(140^ F.) and subsequently filtered. The heating effects the blending 
of the perfumes in a short time, which otherwise takes place only after 
several months. — Ibid. 



The preparation of sulphovinic acid is by no means an easy opera- 
tion, and, as certain compounds of this acid are now beginning to be 
used in medicine, perhaps the following observations may not be devoid 
of some practical interest. 

When sulphuric acid and alcohol are mixed together without any 
special precautions, the temperature rises, and a certain quantity of sul- 
phovinic acid is formed at once ; but, as in the formation of this acid a 
certain proportion of water is set free, and prevents the continuation of 
the reaction, it is never completed, even after the mixture has been 

^"^iZ'iSjt"'"' \ Sulphovinic Acid and its Salts. 27 

kept for some hours in a water-bath, and at a higher temperature 
decomposition at once ensues. It may, nevertheless, be quite possible 
to obtain a sulphovinic acid tolerably pure with alcohol and sulphuric 
acid alone (instead of the present tedious method based on the decom- 
position of the baryta salt), by keeping the mixture at 100° for two or 
three days, and not acting upon too large a quantity. I intend to try 
this experiment shortly. 

To obtain sulphovinate (ethyl-sulphate) of Hme, it is best to mix 
equal volumes of concentrated sulphuric acid and alcohol they may 
be mixed without any special precautions when small quantities only 
are used, and the uncovered vessel containing the mixture must be 
transferred to a water-bath and kept there eight or ten hours at least, 
during the whole of which time the temperature should be 100°, or 
nearly. The liquid will then have acquired a slight degree of fluores- 
cence and a decided odor of ether (not an odor of sweet oil of wine), 
and should be only very slightly colored. When cool, it is added drop 
by drop, to about twenty times its volume of cold, distilled water, care- 
fully avoiding any rise of temperature, and keeping the liquid well stirred. 

This solution is saturated with pulverized chalk,.added in small quan- 
tities at a time, until effervescence ceases. When a slight excess of 
chalk has been added^ filter off the sulphate of lime, heat the filtrate in 
the water-bath with a little carbonate of lime for about a half an hour, 
filter while warm, and evaporate at a heat not exceeding 100° till a 
permanent saline layer forms at the surface then place the capsule 
in a dry or moderately dry place. In about twenty-four hours the 
crystals are formed ; the mother-water will give another crop when 
allowed to evaporate over sulphuric acid or chloride of calcium. If 
the chalk contains iron or manganese, their sulphovinates remain in the 
mother-water, and are perfectly separated by pressing the crystals. 

Sulphovinate of lime crystallizes rather slowly, even in very concen- 
trated solutions ; it forms large, brilliant plates, something like chlorate 
of potash ; its composition is represented by C^HgOjSOg+CaOSOg-j- 
2HO ; it is very soluble in water and in alcohol. The impure salt can 
easily be purified by recrystallization from alcohol. 

Sulphovinate of baryta has a similar composition and similar proper 
ties ; it can be obtained in the same manner. When the crystals are 
pure, they form very large, brilliant plates, oblique rectangular prisms, 
modified in certain angles. Both this salt and the lime-salt often per- 

^ During the evaporation, a slight, but distinct, odor of butyric acid is perceptible. 


Note on Scammony. 

f Am. Joi^r. Pharm. 
1 Jan., 1375. 

sent a peculiar pearly aspect, which I do not observe on small, pure 
crystals ; these are perfectly transparent, and I believe this pearly aspect 
to be mainly owing to minute quantities of carbonate or sulphate dis- 
persed through the larger crystals. 

The sulphovinate of soda could be obtained pure from either of these 
salts without difficulty, but, for the preparation of the pharmaceutical 
product on a large scale, it is more economical to make it directly. I 
hope to refer again to this compound. 

London^ No'vember ^th, 1874. 



The result of a microscopic examination of different samples of vir- 
gin scammony may at the present time possess some interest, and if it 
gives rise to a discussion, some remarks mav be elicited possessing 
more intrinsic value than the paper itself. 

I was induced to undertake this subject from having observed that 
the presence of starch was usually detected bv iodine, and that little 
attention had been given to determine the particular kind of starch 
granules, whether of wheat, or those peculiar to the scammony root 

The scammony which appears in English commerce is principally of 
four kinds — virgin scammony. Angora scammony, Syrian scammony, 
and Skeleep scammony. 

Of the virgin scammony not more than 800 lbs. arrives in this 
country yearly, none of which is again exported. Of the Angora and 
Syrian scammonies about half a ton each are annually imported. Of 
this quantity half remains in this country. Of the Skeleep scammony 
about one ton annually arrives in London, only half of which is again 

The Angora and Syrian scammonies vary in amount of resin from 
46 to 76 per cent., while the Skeleep contains about 36 per cent, only, 
the remainder being impurity. 

We have thus one ton of adulterated scammony remaining in this 
country every year. According to Mr. Maltass, the peasants adulte- 
rate scammony before bringing it into the market, the adulterations be- 

Read before the British Pharmaceutical Conference, August 7th, 1874. 

^"■jiZ'^s^ys""'} ^ote on Scammony, 29 

ing wheat starch, wood ashes, earth, gum arable or tragacanth, pounded 
scammony roots, etc. 

The starch granules peculiar to the scammony root are shown in 
this diagram ; they are, for the most part, compound, composed of two, 

three, and sometimes more granules. In shape the single granules re- 
semble those of Tacca, muUer-shaped, with dihedral base, and the 
hilum approximates to that seen in the starch of orris-root. With 
polarized light the arms of the black cross run down in the direction 
of those lines marked on the grains. Occasionally a lenticular grain 
is met with, but the hilum or markings about the hilum serve to dis- 
tinguish it from that of wheat starch, to which it otherwise bears a 
close resemblance. 

The starch grains from the scammony root vary very much in size 
about the centre of the root, where the texture is loose ; some granules 
will be found very large, at the same time in company with these will 
be found a good many of very variable size. 

From an examination of a variety of samples of virgin scammony 
from different sources, I may state as a result, that the lump was in every 
instance free from the starch of scammony-root or any other starch, 
and that every sample of powdered virgin scammony contained more or 
less of the scammony starch, and some of them a little wheat starch 
in addition. A few also contained particles of the tissue peculiar to 
the root with the starch grains still in it, and I would observe that the 


Note on Scammony. 

Am. Jour. Pharm 
Jan., 1875. 

examinations here referred to were made on the finest samples of vir- 
gin scammony. 

In these investigations I think it very desirable, having determined 
the presence of starch, to distinguish the granules of the scammony 
starch from those of wheat. I consider that the presence of the scam- 
mony starch indicates an admixture of inferior scammony, and more 
especially when it is accompanied by some of the tissue of the root. 
There exists a theory to account for the wheat starch, that it is used 
to prevent the semi-solid gum resin from sticking to the hands. If 
this were correct, I should expect to find it especially in that powder 
which adheres to the outside of the lumps of scammony, constituting 
what may be termed the bloom upon it; but I do not find this to be 
the case in the samples which I have examined, neither does the grey- 
ish-white powder which covers the lump consist, as far as I have ob- 
served, of chalk. It seems to me to be merely the particles of scam- 
mony reduced to a powder by the friction of the lumps against each 
other, and it is of the same quality in every respect as the lump from 
which it has been detached. 

I can only account for the presence of starch in the powdered vir- 
gin scammony, by reference to the practice of picking, the vir- 
gin scammony in lump from the chest, and suggesting that after a good 
deal of picking there must remain a quantity of fragments, too small 
for further picking, but not for grinding. To this must be added the 
fact, that sometimes in a chest a good piece of virgin scammony may 
have a very inferior one stuck to it, so as to escape observation. It is 
much to be desired that flour and starch, when spoken of in connec- 
tion with scammony, should not be considered synonymous. I have 
never met with cellular tissue, such as I should expect to find if flour 
had been present. 

It is an intesting question, whether the gum resin possesses any value 
over the more uniform and less costly resin obtained from the dry 
root. If it should prove that the resin is equally active and more re- 
liable than the exuded gum resin, then the pharmacist would be inde- 
pendent of the Greek of the Levant, or the Turk nearer home. 

I have examined the mineral matter scraped from the outside of a 
fine specimen of the root, and find it to be, as already shown by Pro- 
fessor Attfield, a calcareous earth, which effervesces with hydrochloric 
acid, indicating that it was grown on a chalky soil. 

'^'"■jlri8^75.^'"' } Laboratory Notes, 



From long experience I have found it vain to rely upon manufac- 
turers of chemicals for reagents of that exceeding purity w^hich all 
analytical chemists often require for conducting their researches, and it 
has been my habit, through a long experience in analytical chemistry, 
to prepare with my own hands certain of the chemicals used by me 
and, while many of the processes of preparing them embrace nothing 
specially novel, still my experience in making them has been of certain 
importance to others, and from time to time I will take opportunities 
to give more general information of these methods, which may possibly 
be of service to some, especially as, while seeking first for purity, I have 
been obliged to economize time by the least amount of manipulation. 

Pure Carbonate of Soda. — For many years all the carbonate of soda 
used by me in mineral analysis has been prepared in the following 
method, viz., by making oxalate of soda and then decomposing it by 
heat. It can be described in the shortest possible manner by giving the 
figures and method employed for obtaining a given result. The car- 
bonate of soda commonly used has been the crystals of ordinary sal 
soda, washed with a little water to detach the adhering dust, or if one 
has pure soda at his command, it can be used to advantage. The oxalic 
acid used is the ordinary oxalic acid of the shops once recrystallized, of 
which crystallized acid I always have a supply of several pounds in my 

63 grammes of oxalic acid and 143 grammes of sal soda are dissolved 
by heat in 200 c.c.m. of distilled water — filter the solution if necessary 
— to the solution of soda, when cold, add the solution of oxalic acid, 
just hot enough to keep from crystallizing ; add it bv degrees, stirring 
well ; after the mixture is completed, it is expected that the solution 
will have an alkaline reaction, to keep any trac^ of soda in solution ; 
the oxalate of soda will be precipitated in great part shortly after the 
operation is completed ; let stand for a short while to cool completely, 
decant the supernatant liquid, add a little distilled water, break up with 
a stirrer the lumps of crystals that may have formed, throw on a filter 
over a Bunsen aspirator, using a six-inch filter, wash with about a half 
litre of distilled water, and let dry. This may be placed aside in a glass 
bottle if not needed at once for forming carbonate of soda ; the quan- 

32 Laboratory Notes. {^"^'i^Z'S^s-^^' 

tity of dry oxalate produced is 30 grammes. To convert into carbon- 
ate project the oxalate little by little into a platinum capsule over a 
good-sized Bunsen burner 3 after being strongly heated, the oxalate is 
decomposed into the carbonate, and, if heated high enough to be fused, 
will furnish about 23 grammes of fused carbonate of soda ; fused or 
not, dissolve in water, filter, evaporate to dryness, dehydrate over a 
naked flame, and granulate it by stirring when hot. 

Double or quadruple the quantities above given may be operated upon 
at once with similar results. The carbonate of soda thus made is per- 
fectly free from chlorine, sulphuric acid, silica, or other impurity that 
will interfere with its use in analysis. 

Pure Carbonate of Potash. — It may be wrong to use the word pure in 
connection with the preparation of this substance in the manner to be 
described, as it may contain at the end of the operation a trace of 
nitrate of potash. The starting point is pure nitre, which is a cheap 
potash salt, and can be readily purified by repeated crystallization ; the 
other is oxalic acid, the commercial acid crystallized once or twice ; 50 
grammes of pure nitre and 100 grammes oxalic acid are placed in a 
platinum capsule ; to this is added a small quantity of water, and heated 
over a gas burner ; before the mixture is entirely dry, a second portion 
of water is added and the heat continued until the mass is brought to 
dryness, at which time nearly all the nitric acid of the nitre is expelled ; 
the heat is now continued, and the whole mass brought to redness, 
breaking up the lumps with an iron rod, when the oxalate of potash 
formed will be decomposed into the carbonate ; the mass is treated with 
water, filtered, dried and granulated over the flame ; this furnishes about 
31 grammes of carbonate of potash which, as I have already said, may 
contain a little nitre, but this in no way interferes with the ordinary use 
of carbonate of potash in making fusions. For this purpose, I com- 
monlv mix equal parts of carbonates of soda and potash at the time 
thev are required for use. 

Absolute Alcohol. — This substance, as obtained in commerce, very 
seldom marks more than 98 or 99 per cent. It is, however, not unfre- 
quently made in our laboratories, and when this is done the usual method 
is emploved of pouring strong alcohol on lime until the lumps of lime 
are covered. This method of proceeding gives a thick magma which; 
when heated over a water-bath, allows the alcohol to pass over but 
slowly, and much of the alcohol is lost from the impossibility of the 
heat penetrating the thick mass. The method I follow differs from 

^"-jiZ^s^s"""'} Laboratory Notes, 33 

this in no way except in the quantity of Hme employed ; using the 
smallest quantity of lime necessary to abstract all the water, it is sur- 
prising how complete the lime will perform its function in this respect. 
Take, for instance, one litre of alcohol of 94 per cent, j this contains 
about 60 grams of water; if to this be added 120 grams of good 
and fresh burnt lime, requiring about 40 grams of water to convert 
it into hydrate, actual experiment proves that, when kept in contact with 
the alcohol a sufficient length of time, it accomplishes this absorption of 
water, and the alcohol decanted from the precipitated lime will be fully 
98 per cent. 

Operating upon this fact, I have been long in the habit of supplying 
myself with alcohol of 98 and 100 per cent., by proceeding in the fol- 
lowing manner : I have in my laboratory three or four two-litre bottles, 
into each of which I place i| litre of 94 per cent, alcohol, the strongest 
alcohol sold in commerce ; to this is added 180 grams of fresh burnt 
lime of the best quality broken up into a coarse powder. These bottles 
are set aside on the shelf and agitated from time to time, the oftener 
this is done the more rapid will the reaction be accomplished. A week 
or ten days will usually suffice, when the bottles are allowed to remain 
at rest, and the hydrate of lime will settle in a few days, and by a siphon 
two-thirds of the original alcohol can be drawn off free from lime, which 
marks 98 per cent, alcohol, and when filtered, and 50 c.c.m. evaporated 
to dryness there will be left only the merest trace of lime, less than one- 
half milligramme. But, of course, redistillation is so simple that if we 
wish the alcohol at 98° it can be readily distilled over a water-bath. 
The magma remainmg in the bottle, when distilled over a water-bath, 
furnishes the remainder of the alcohol about one-half per cent, higher. 

When absolute alcohol is desired, take the alcohol just as it has been 
siphoned off or distilled from the magma, put it into a convenient flask 
for distillation, and to each litre add 120 grams of lime in coarse 
powder, attach to a Liebig condenser inverted, so that the alcohol will 
run back into the flask when condensed ; this is continued for an hour 
and a half or two hours. The condenser is then placed in its normal 
condition and alcohol distilled over which will mark 100 per cent. 
Recently I have learned that there is a method adopted of making the 
absolute alcohol by one distillation, operating by the inverted condenser 
first, but in this process the amount of lime called for is the usual quan- 
tity, whereas I find that by reducing the lime to its minimum, and 
always having bottles ready to furnish 98 per cent, alcohol, the oper- 

34 Peppers of Commerce. {^"•/arx875r'"' 

ation is facilitated, and the loss diminished. So that with the ordinary- 
conveniences and appliances of the laboratory, that are always at hand 
to be mounted, I can, with fifteen or twenty minutes of personal atten- 
tion and manipulation^ obtain a litre or two of absolute alcohol. Of 
course, the time for the reaction of the materials and the distillation 
is not referred to, as this requires little or no supervision. — Am. Chemist^ 
Oct.^ 1874. 



Analyst to the County of Devon, Medical Officer of Health, &c. 

It will be indispensable for some time to come to accumulate facts 
on the properties of articles of food in the pure state. The exact 
amount of ash, the solubility of substances in different liquids, the spe- 
cific gravity of the aqueous infusion, &c., many of them, when applied 
to foods, wholly uninteresting, to the ordinary chemist, become of great 
value in the technical examination of articles suspected of adulteration. 
However unimportant some slight variation in solubility, for example,, 
may be in a purely chemical sense, yet if that variation be, within cer- 
tain limits, constant, it is of the greatest utility to the Public Analyst. 

The peppers I have examined were obtained from the importers in 
the berry, and ground by myself ; they are, I believe, specimens of 
pure pepper. The following are the methods adopted in the examina- 
tion : . . 

The ash was burnt at a very low temperature in a platinum dish, 
supporting a chimney to increase the draught ; the soluble ash was ob- 
tained by boiling the ash with water, filtering, evaporating the soluble 
ash down in a platinum dish, heating to dull redness, and weighing ; 
the aqueous extract by putting 4 grams of pepper in a large flask with 
500 c.c. of water, distilling over 200 c.c, returning these into the 
flask, when cool filtering, weighing, and evaporating jgth ; the ammo- 
nia, by taking 5 c.c. of the last liquid and distilling it with 50 c.c. of 
alkaline permanganate by Wanklyn's method ; and the alcoholic ex- 
tract by treating about i grm. of the dry pepper with repeated quanti- 
ties of alcohol, and boiling for some time in a flask connected with a 
reversed Liebig's condenser. I have not yet estimated the piperin in 
the peppers j indeed, although it can be extracted with comparative 
ease, the crystallization of the alkaloid and the separation of the resin 

Am. Jour. Pharm.") 
Jan., 1875. j" 

Peppers of Commerce. 


takes up so much time that the process, however satisfactory, cannot 
be very attractive to analysts, who have to examine a great number of 
samples in a short time. 


Total Ash. 

Soluble Ash. 

Pepper in the Dry 

Pepper in its Or- 
dinary Condition. 

Per cent. • 

Per cent. 

Per cent. 













Malabar, . . . . 








A white pepper, ground by myself, 
bought at a retail shop, . 




Long pepper. 




. The first five peppers give, as the mean of the soluble ash, 2*84 per 
cent, of the dried substance, the two extremes being respectively 3*453 
and 2*212. The mean of the total ash of the five peppers is 4*845 
per cent., the two extremes being 4*189 and 5*770. 

Hygroscopic Moisture. 

Per cent. 

Penang, ........ 9-531 

Tellicherry, . ..... 12-908 

Sumatra, . . . . . . . .10-103 

Malabar, ....... 10-548 

Trang, ........ 11-664 

Long pepper, . . . . . . 10-778 

It is worthy of note that, as the peppers were finely powdered and 
kept on the water-bath for many hours, besides water, the volatile oil 
would, to a considerable degree, be dissipated. 

The total loss of weight may be stated generally at 1 1 per cent. 

Alcoholic Extract. 

Grms. per cent, of 
Dry Pepper. 

Penang, . . . . . , . .7-650 


The white pepper before mentioned 
Long pepper. 

The extract was thoroughly di 

. 6-450 

6- 300 

7- 650 

ied before weighing ; it may be said 

3 6 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { '^"'•jln'^;8^5.^'"" 

to be never less than 6 per cent, in black and white peppers. The 
small extract yielded by long pepper is noteworthy. 

Aqueous Extract. 

The Dry Substance 
yields to Water. 

Penang, ........ 18-335 

Tellicherry, ....... i6'5oo 

Sumatra, ........ 17*500 

Malabar, ....... 20*375 

Trang, . . . . . . . . 18-175 

Long pepper, ....... 16-825 

The total ammonia yielded, in the manner before mentioned, ex- 
pressed in percentage : 

jEoo grms. of — 

NH3. Nitrogen. 

Penang pepper yield to water, .... 0-450 = 0-370 


0-450 = 0-370 

0-375 = o"3io 

0-295 = 0-243 

0-325 = 0-300 

0-I75 = o"i44 

As 100 parts of piperin contain 4*9 of nitrogen, if the nitrogen be 
considered as dissolved piperin, the mean of the piperin boiling water 
takes up, and when cold retains, of the first five peppers = O'Oiy. 
The small yield from long pepper is a great distinguishing mark, — 
Chem. News \Lond^^ Oct. 9, 1874. 

Barnstaple, Sept. 23, 1874. 


The third meeting of the session was held December 15th, 1874. A. P. Brown 
in the chair. Number in attendance, thirty-three. The minutes of the previous 
meeting were read and approved. The following presentations were made to the 
cabinet : Prof Maisch, on behalf of Messrs. Kurlbaum & Co., of this city, two 
samples of crude material from which borax is prepared 5 Tincal, from the East 
Indies, which is no longer used for refination in this country, and Hayesine, called 
after the mineralogist, a native borate of calcium from Peru, which has been used 
by Messrs. Wood, of Glasgow, for this purpose. Whether the advent of the 
cheaper California product has not so lessened the price of refined borax as to render 

^"'■jln?''i875r'"' \ Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting, 37 

the former too dear an article to consume, could not be ascertained with certainty. 
These specimens were accepted with thanks. Prof. Remington, on behalf of Messrs. 
Powers and Weightman, presented a basket, consisting of a beautiful crystallization 
of copper sulphate, coated with Damar varnish, thus protecting the salt from atmos- 
pheric influences. Messrs. Wood & Denmark, of Medford, N. J., presented oils of 
gaultheria and solidago. 

A. P. Brown stated he had found the market supply of oils of Ceylon cinnamon 
not of the right quality, it being adulterated with oils of sassafras and cloves. The 
same adulteration has been noticed by several of the members present. 

The library was the recipient of the Chemists'' and Druggists'' Diary ^ ^875, pre- 
sented by the proprietor of the London Chemist and Druggist. 

Prof. Maisch read a paper by George W. Kennedy, upon the occurrence of arbu- 
tin in Kalmia latifolia (see page 5), and remarked that this paper was of much in- 
terest, he having suggested the prevalence of arbutin in many ericaceous plants 
[Am. Jour. Fhar., 1874, p. 314). Also a paper by himself on substitutions lately 
found in the market of agaric and Gossypii radicis cortex (see page 10). This 
paper was received with much interest, all being surprised that the cotton-root bark 
of commerce was of uncertain origin, with one exception. Mr. Blair had me- 
fluid extract of cotton-root bark only, which had a deep brown-red color, and, at 
the present time, was preparing an extract from a root which was different in ap- 
pearance from that of Gossypium herhaceum or supposed Populus spec, shown 
here by Prof. Maisch. He suggested that as this was a matter of general impor- 
tance, we use our exertions to determine by comparison of our stocks and sources of 
supply, which drug has the properties ascribed to cotton-root. Prof. Remington 
said that it was hardly to be supposed that these two drugs, from different plants, had 
identical properties. He had prepared a fluid extract by the Pharmacopoeia process, 
which was light in color, but could not say what was the source of the bark used. 

W. H. Walling, during a sojourn in the South, had been told by physicians that 
it was the root of the cotton plant they used. R. V. Mattison had prepared fluid 
extract of gossypium, and recently, in conversation with a manufacturer of fluid 
extracts, was shown a large bale of cotton-root, which was similar in appearance to 
the specimen shown by Prof. Maisch, as being probably the root bark of a Populus. 

E. M, Boring had seen a fluid extract, light in color, which deposited until very 
little was left in solution. 

Prof. Maisch remarked that, in going over the reports, he had found no instance 
in which physicians had made experiments with cotton-root bark, of the true origin 
of which they appeared to be aware. 

A paper by F. B. Power, on elaterin (see page i), was read by Prof. Maisch, who 
remarked, that, as this body is occasionally being prescribed, this paper was of more 
practical importance than would at first seem. These papers were all accepted and 
referred to the Publication Committee. 

A. W. Miller, M. D., stated that he had received from Mr. Hymer of Wallace 
Bros. & Stephenson, Statesville, N. C, the first answer to the calls from the Com- 
mittee on Adulteration of the American Pharmaceutical Association. In it, he 
stated he had found Monarda punctata substituted by Pycnanthemum incanum. This 
substitution has been noticed by Prof. Maisch (see Amer.Jour. Phar., 1872, p. 197). 

3 8 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations 

Both plants are in some parts known by the name of horsemint, and, as they are quite 
harmless, no injury would result. 

P. P. Fox exhibited an india-rubber funnel, prepared for straining, by closing the 
lower orifice with a cork, and, immediately above it, piercing the tube with several 
holes. This arrangement enables a vial to be readily filled with two liquids of dif- 
ferent densities, so that no admixture will take place. He had found it particularly 
of use in preparing citrate of magnesium by the method of Dr. H. T. Bond [Drug. 
Cir., 1873, p. 176). 

Dr. Pile thought this contrivance would be of service in this case, although he 
operated in a little different manner, preferring to have the potassium bicarbonate in 
solution, nothing being requisite but agitation to complete the preparation. Mr. 
Blair preferred to use sugar in place of syrup, filter the entire solution, and rely on 
a good long cork. R. V. Mattison preferred to make a dense solution of citrate of 
magnesium containing the syrup, and complete by filling the bottles with carbonic 
acid water drawn from the fountain. No objection was made to the officinal propor- 
tions, these being but variations in the mode of conducting the process. 

Dr. Miller wished to caution against the purchase of cheap sugar-coated quinia 
pills. There were in the market 45,000 such pills which do not contain a trace of 
quinia. They were made from muriate of cinchonia, furnished by a New York 
house as sulphate of quinia to some of the makers of sugar-coated pills, and by 
them thrown back on the hands of the dealer upon the discovery of the fraudulent 
nature of the article. 

Mr. Blair called attention to the construction which the Internal Revenue Officers 
place upon the law. They claim the right to go through our premises from garret 
to cellar, whether they have reason to believe the law relating to the stamping of 
articles was being evaded or not. Those who are familiar with the construction and 
intention of the law, are of the opinion that it did not apply to the retail apothecary, 
but was intended for liquor and segar manufactories. The Government officers 
further claim, that a refusal on the part of the apothecary to permit such dom- 
iciliary examination makes him subject to a fine of $500. Where there is reason 
to believe the law is being violated, and the officer is refused admission, it seems 
but proper that he should report to his superior, and procure a special warrant to 
examine the premises. Another understanding is, that goods exposed for sale only 
must be stamped. The fact that these officers have, or assume, the right to make 
these visits, is subjecting apothecaries to an annoyance which is unjust, and a sug- 
gestion was made that we use our best exertions, individually, with our representatives 
in Congress to have this law repealed or modified. 

W. H. Walling urged an organized effort to curtail Sunday traffic. 

On motion, adjourned 

William McIntyre, Registrar, 


Camden Pharmaceutical Association — The annual meeting was held on 
Friday afternoon, November 27th, when the following officers were elected for 

^"''jln':'';8^5-^''"' } Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 39 

the ensuing year : President, Simeon T. Ringel j Vice-president, J. A. Armstrong, 
M. D.j Secretary, Albert P. Brown; Treasurer, L. M. Pratt; Librarian, O. G. 
Taylor; Library Committee, S. W. Cochran, A. P. Brown, F. G. Thoman. 

The St. Clair Pharmaceutical Association of Southern Illinois held 
its genera] meeting December 8th. Mr. H. Steingoetter presiding. After the min- 
utes of the previous meeting, and the reports of committees and officers had been 
read, it was, upon motion of Mr. A. G. F. Streit, resolved to adopt, for the present, 
the code of ethics as published in the Proceedings of the American Parmaceutical 
Association for 1852. 

The following gentlemen were duly elected officers for 1875 • President, Mr. H 
Steingoetter; Vice-president, Mr. Wm. Feickert ; Secretary, Mr. A. G. F. Streit; 
Treasurer, Mr. A. Rudolph. 

Mr. A. G. F. Streit reported that a pharmacy law was introduced in the Legis- 
lature, which the Chicago College of Pharmacy is now trying to amend, and sug- 
gested that the united action of the two pharmaceutical bodies in the State, in this 
matter, would exercise a beneficent influence, and, to a great extent, secure the pass- 
age of a good pharmacy law for Illinois. For this purpose a Committee on Phar- 
maceutical Legislation was subsequently appointed, consisting of Messrs. N. T. 
Baker, Wm. Feickert, A. Rudolph and A. G. F. Streit. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — M. Regnauld presided at the meeting 
held November 4th. 

M. Husson, of Toul, sent a note relative to the decomposition of iodide of potas- 
sium by sunlight. He proposes to add to the starch paper a little albumen, which, 
in case of decomposition by sunlight, will absorb the iodine, and allow also to dis- 
tinguish the action of ozone. 

A note by M. Vidau was read, concerning the vermifuge properties of oil of 
eucalyptus. A zouave had been troubled for a long time with a large number of 
Oxyuris vermicularis, for which calomel, kusso, Corsican moss and other remedies 
had been tried in vain ; he was cured in nine days by using in the evening a quart 
of an injection, containing from 50 to 60 drops of the oil. 

A paper, by M. Mayet, Jr., on the fermentation of currant juice, wa^ read, and 
selected for publication, M. Martin stated that currants collected before they are 
entirely ripe, yield a juice which is readily clarified, and' keeps well. 

M. J. H. Marais presented a specimen of false opoponax, which was entirely 
composed of myrrh, and read a note, stating that this gum resin is at present in 
Paris only employed in perfumery. The demand being limited, and the commercial 
supply exhausted, fraudulent articles were substituted. True opoponax burns with 
a non-sooty flame, and gives off a strong odor of celery root, while the false article 
has the odor of the gum resin or resins from which it has been made. Under the 
influence of nitric acid vapors, myrrh acquires a fine rose color, while the color of 
opoponax is not altered. 

A new acid, dioxymaleic acid, was described by M. Bourgoin, and a new modi- 
fication of a dropping glass by M. Guichard. The latter member also gave his 


40 , Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, {^"'jfn^/is^s.^''"'' 

researches on ceresin. Paraffin has a crystaUIne texture, but ceresin and mineral 
wax are opaque and not crystalline j the former is completely dissolved by ether, 
the latter incompletely, leaving a residue resembling the original substance in appear- 
ance, and fusing between 80° and 90° C, according to the degree of purification- 
Mineral wax yields 23 per cent, of a carburet, fusing at 85°; the soluble portion is 
paraffin. The paraffin examined fused at 53°, ceresin at 63° and mineral wax at 68° 
C. Potassa does not act upon mineral wax or paraffin, and only upon 3 per cent, 
of ceresin. These products have no advantage over mineral wax j the absorption of 
water is difficult, if not impossible \ but blistering plaster and pomades acquire, by 
mineral wax, a hardness, which is advantageous in summer time. 

M. Guichard stated that dragon's blood in reeds, but not the variety in balls or 
cakes, produces, on dry distillation, red vapors anologous to those produced by cin- 
chona bark. This is a new character, which may prove to be of some value. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — Mr. T. H. Hills presided at 
the Pharmaceutical Meeting held December 2d, at which numerous donations were 
made to the Cabinet. Professor Bentley exhibited specimens of the boldo-plant, 
Boldoa fragranSy s., Peumus boldus, ord. Monimiaceae, which at the Botanic Garden 
has attained the height of 12 feet. The leaves and young branches are reputed to 
possess tonic properties, and to form a valuable remedy in liver complaints j in large 
doses it acts as an emetic. Its merits as a medicine, however, are not yet well estab- 
lished, but deserve to be further investigated. The leaves contain a large quantity 
of a volatile oil, and their odor, when rubbed, somewhat resembles the sweet gale, 
Myrica gale. Mr. Hills likened it to verbena. 

Mr. Greenish stated, in relation to amorphous phosphorus, the uses of which were 
discussed at the previous meeting (see page 586 of December number), that a physi- 
cian had discontinued its use, owing to the gritty character of the substance. 

A paper, by Prof. Goddefroy, of Vienna, entitled, "An additional method of 
testing glycerin," was read. Pure glycerin boils in an open crucible at 150° C, and 
if now ignited, burns with a blue, not very luminous flame, without diffusing the 
least smell or leaving behind the least residue. If of less specific gravity, it boils 
below 150° C, but at the moment of boiling it cannot be ignited. Metallic salts, if 
present, will remain as a residue, and highly organized combinations will leave a 
black charred or soot-like residue. Glycerin of spec. grav. 1249 to 1*256 can easily 
be ignited by means of a wick, and on extinguishing the flame there is no smell. 

Prof. Attfield regarded this as a rough-and-ready test for glycerin to be applied 
by persons who do not know much about chemistry. Glycerin containing 10 per 
cent, of water, will burn by the aid of a wick. 

Mr. Moss had found that pure glycerin spec. grav. 1-26, will give off a few bubbles 
when heated to 150° C. 5 but the boiling (if boiling it be) will cease at once, andthe 
temperature rapidly rises to 230° to 240° C, when boiling fairly sets in; the lowest 
temperature at which the escaping vapor could be ignited, was between 185° and 
190° C. 

Mr. J. B. Barnes read a paper on the preservative effect of chloroform upon veg^- 
etable infusions, &c., in which a number of experiments are detailed, showing that in- 
fusions of calumba, chiretta, malt and senna will keep good for a reasonable time 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan., 1875. I 



(over six weeks) by adding five minims of chloroform to every 8 fluidounces, while 
infusion of roses is preserved by three minims. The mucilages of acacia and of 
tragacanth remain sweet if one minim of chloroform is added to every fluid ounce ; 
the same proportion will prevent for three weeks the alcoholic fermentation of 
malt infusion containing yeast, and two to three times the quantity added to fresh 
milk, was found to keep it neutral and sweet for five days. 

• A paper by Mr. J. Barnes, on the same subject, was read, stating that many in- 
fusions have been kept for three weeks at the Wolverhampton and StafFordsliire 
Hospital, by adding to a bottle containing four pints, two drachms of chloroform. 
Lately, experiments have been made with chloroform and the addition of some 

An interesting discussion followed, during which it was agreed that infusions thus 
preserved, should not be dispensed without the knowledge of the prescribing physi- 
ciaii. Professor Attfield stated that the antiseptic properties of chloroform* had 
been noticed in 1850, in a pamphlet by Aujendie, of Constantinople. 

Mr. Charles Umney read a paper on Extractum glycyrrhizas liquidum, showing 
that II per cent, of spirit is insufficient to prevent fermentation 5 he noticed the occur- 
rence of a yellow deposit, if kept at an ordinary temperature, and Mr. Martindale 
had observed the same preparation to completely gelatinize, if kept in a cool place. 


Our Journal appears, with the present number, in a new dress, the type having 
been changed and a style selected which, for clearness, leaves nothing to be desired, 
and we hope will meet with the favorable commendation of our readers. The 
editor's aim will continue to be directed towards presenting to the readers all that 
appears to be new and valuable in the pharmaceutical literature of this country and 
of Europe, either as selections, original translations, abstracts, or under the head of 
Varieties. On the other hand, however, it should be remembered that the Journal 
aims at stimulating original observations and investigations, and its pages will always 
be found open for such a purpose, as well as for the discussion of questions which 
may be of importance to the elevation of pharmacy. In proportion to the number 
of pharmacists actively engaged in business, either as proprietors or assistants, the 
number of contributors to the general stock of knowledge is and always has been 
small, but the practical observations behind the prescription counter and in the labor- 
atory are often of considerable interest and even importance, and worthy to be 
preserved for the benefit of the entire profession. If our readers would but take the 
trouble of making notes of such occurrences in manipulations and processes, their 
publication would doubtless lead to further investigations, and gratifying results 
of lasting value might be arrived at. The present number contains original con- 
tributions from nine different authors, on practical and scientific subjects, as well as 
on the general conduct of the business and its relations to other pursuits. We ap- 
peal to all readers to follow the example of the comparatively few, and repay at 
least a portion of the benefit derived fiom perusing the new literature on pharmaceu- 

* Chloroform was recommended for preserving syrup of senna in 1858, by Mr. T. B. Groves. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan., 1875. 

tical matters, by becoming contributors of all such facts or observations that may- 
appear to be possessed of large or even apparently trivial interest. 

The Philadelphia Pharmacy Law, it seems, is destined to be contested, upon 
what special grounds we are, as yet, unable to determine. On December 8th, the 
City Solicitor had summoned before* Alderman Beitler three apothecaries for a vio- • 
lation of the Pharmacy law of 1872, in carrying on the apothecary business without 
having obtained the certificate of competency to conduct the business, as the law 
requires. On the part of two, it may have been mere negligence, while one of the 
accused had failed to pass the examination as proprietors 5 but it was shown that they 
had due and timely warning in the beginning of the year, and the City Solicitor de- 
ferred legal proceedings until near the close of the year, to give the tardy ones ample 
time for complying with the requirements of the law. Besides the cost each was 
fined ^100, this being the penalty for each week j so that, if the entire penalty was 
to be imposed, it would amount to between ^4000 and ^5000 in each case. The 
fines, we understand, will be paid over to the Guardians of the Poor. 

Whether these proceedings aroused the sleeping displeasure of others, or whether 
other causes created the outburst of indignation, we are not able to say. At any 
rate, on December 17th, a meeting of all physicians and druggists opposed to cer- 
tain propulsions (Italics our own) in the Drug law, as it now stands, was called and 
held at the appointed time. A pharmacist who was called to preside, stated that he 
was a graduate of the College of Pharmacy, but his sentiments were against the 
law, which he considered unconstitutional and oppressive. The newspaper account, 
however, does not explain the unconstitutional and oppressive provisions. Another 
speaker said that he had served a long apprenticeship, and had been in the drug 
business for many years, but he was opposed to going before a board of young ex- 
aminers. The law operated as a tax upon the poor drug clerks. Still another 
speaker thought physicians were equally interested with apothecaries in opposing 
the law. 

We do not know how large this meeting was, nor are we acquainted with any 
one of the speakers mentioned in the daily papers, except with the presiding officer; 
but we have looked in vain for the certain provisions in the Drug law being enume- 
rated by any one of the participants ; for the law does not require the members of 
the Examining Board to be of a more mature age than every one of the candidates 
who may be required to appear before them. What are these certain provisions in 
which physicians are so much interested t Is one, perhaps, that which does not 
allow a graduate in medicine to practice pharmacy without first showing that he is 
competent to do so, and can distinguish rhubarb from opium t Alas ! on this ques- 
tion we have been left in the dark; but we think the wisest thing the meeting could 
have done was the appointment of a committee of five to receive subscriptions and 
draw up a series of resolutions expressive of the sense of the meeting. When the 
resolutions appear in print, we shall be better able to weigh the justness of the com- 
plaints. In the meantime, however, we hope the Mayor will enforce the law, and we 
think that the courts and the people will sustain its provisions, which merely aim to 
prove to the community a sufficient qualification for conducting a business in which 
the health and life of the public are dependent not only on the honesty, but likewise 
on the knowledge of proprietor and assistant. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Jan., 1875. 



American Public Health Association. — The second annual meeting of this 
Association, which was held in the hall of the College of Physicians, Philadelphia, 
November iith to 14th, deserves more than a passing notice in this Journal. Many 
of the attendants were health officers from different sections of the country, and the 
Marine Hospital Service and the Army Medical Department of the United States 
were well represented. Dr. Stephen Smith, of New York, presided. 

We have not the space to follow the discussions on many subjects of general im- 
portance, but must confine ourselves to enumerate the following papers, besides sev- 
eral treating of hospitals, drainage and sewerage, epidemics and contagious diseases, 
which were read at the several sittings : On excessive infant mortality of cities, and 
the means of its prevention, by Prof. Henry Hartshorne, of Philadelphia 5 On the 
influence of hereditary defects upon the health of the people, with suggestions in 
regard to prevention and eradication, by Dr. J, R. Black, of Ohio 5 On the health 
of the tenement populations, and the sanitary requirements of their dwellings, by 
Dr. E. H. Janes, of New York ; On the relations of health and higher culture, by 
Rev. Sam. Osgood ; On building ground in its relation to health and disease, by Dr, 
Ezra M. Hunt, of New Jersey 5 On the gathering, packing and transportation of 
fresh vegetables and fruits, competent inspections and free markets for producers, by 
Dr. S. C. Busey, of Washington, D. C. ; On the methods of treatment of gases 
from rendering tanks, and the disposal of tank offal, by Dr. B. C. Miller, of Chi- 
cago j On certain perils of the school-room which demand the attention of educa- 
tional and sanitary authorities, by Dr. A. N. Bell, of Brooklyn ; On health laws 
and the interests and obligations of the State and National Governments pertaining 
to them, by Hon. D. B. Eaton, of Washington; On health a prerequisite in peace 
and in war, by Dr. L. H. Steiner, of Maryland ; On American pharmacy and its 
relations to public health, by John M. Maisch, Secretary of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association. The last paper referred to the importance of pharmacy to 
the gene'ral welfare 5 to the large amount of spurious, inferior and adulterated drugs 
formerly imported into this country ; to the salutary effects of the drug examining 
law of 1848 5 to home adulterations, its causes, and the channels through which they 
are disposed ; to the so-called specialties, and the manner of their introduction ; to 
patent medicines, and the best modes ot decreasing their sales 5 to the pharmacy 
laws, the benefit derived from their enforcement 5 to the laws for preventing the sale 
of abortifacient drugs, and concluded by stating " that the most effectual method of 
securing all the advantages of American pharmacy to public health would be to in- 
sure the proper qualification of the pharmacists. This is one of the main purposes 
of the local pharmaceutical associations, and of the National representative body of 
pharmacists. To accomplish this among kindred objects, these societies have earn- 
estly labored for years, and in their efforts deserve the support of all having the wel- 
fare and safety of the public at heart." 

Prof. Qross, of Philadelphia, introduced a series of resolutions, urging the establish- 
ment of a National Bureau of Health. Similar resolutions offered by Dr. Goodwin, 
urged the importance of enacting laws creating a State Board of Health, providing 
adequate measures for sanitary administration throughout each State. 

The officers elected for the ensuing year are : Dr. J. M. Toner, Washington, 
D. C, President; Dr. E. M.Snow, of Rhode Island, and Dr. Henry Hartshorne, of 
Philadelphia, Vice-Presidents; Dr. Elisha Harris, of New York, Secretary; Dr. J. 

44 Reviews and Bibliographical Notes. {^"^jinTxs^ys^'"'" 

R. Ranch, of Illinois, Treasurer ; and an Executive Committee, of which Dr. J. S. 
Billings, U. S. A., is the Chairman. 

The next meeting of this association will be held in Baltimore, on the second 
Tuesday of November, 1875. 


Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte der Pharmacognosies Pharmacie und Toxicologie, 
von Dr. Wiggers, Prof in Gottingen, und Dr. A Husemann, Prof, in Chur. 
Neue Folge, 8 Jahrgang. 1873. Gottingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht's Verlag, 
1874. 8vo, pp. 618. 

Annual Report on the Progress of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacy and Toxicology, for 

This excellent annual, the thirty-third volume of which is before us, is so well 
known to all those of our readers who are acquainted with the German pharmaceu- 
tical literature, that we need but mention the appearance of this volurne, in which 
the authors have, with their accustomed care and completeness, extracted and re- 
viewed the pharmaceutical literature of all civilized countries. The arrangement 
remains the same as heretofore, and the frequent references to former volumes facil- 
itate the study of any particular subject. 

Those of our readers who desire to procure this work, will be interested to learn 
that subscribers to this may procure the first seven volumes of the new series (1866 
to 1872) at 10 thalers, which is one-half the publication price. 

The Chemists^ and Duggists^ Diary. 1875. London. 4to. 

The convenient arrangement of this annual publication adapts it to the use in the 
store and for memoranda in the laboratory. Besides other useful information, it 
contains a number of formulas, copied from Mr. C. L. Lochman's translation oi the 
German Pharmacopoeia. 

Deutsch-Amerikanische Pharmaceutische Zeitung, Central Organ fur die deutschen 
Apotheker^ Aerz,te und Drogisten in den Ver. Staaten. Herausgeber : A. G. F. 
Streit, Ph. D., and Otto M. Huncke, L. Ch. Belleville, 111. 40. 

Germ an- American Pharmaceutical Gazette, Central Organ for the German Apoth- 
ecaries, Physicians and Druggists in the United States. Editor : A. G. F. Streit, 
M. D. 

We have been favored with a proof-sheet of this new pharmaceutical preparation 
which is published in th6 German language. Its objects, as stated in the prospectus, 
are ; i, discussion of all questions of pharmaceutical interest 5 2, combatting of the 
patent medicine evil; 3, furtherance of pharmaceutical science, art, and knowledge j 
4, elevation of pharmacy in the estimation of the public. 

We wish this new enterprise good success, and feel convinced that both editor 
and publishers wi!l leave nothing undone to deserve it. 

Bericht uber den njierten internationalen Congress pharmaceutischer Vereine und Gesell- 
schaften ^om 1-13 (6-18), August^ 1874, "zu St. Petersburg. 

Report on the Fourth International Congress of Pharmaceutical Societies and Asso- 
ciations, held at St. Petersburg, August i to 13 (6 to 18), 1874. 
We have already given a synopsis of the transactions of this body, but hope to 

present to our readers more fully some of the more important proceedings. 

^''jln"'-i8^75''''"'} Reviews and Bibliographical Notes. 45 

The Tellonv Fever Epidemic of 1873. The White Blood Corpuscle. By Jerome 
Cochrane, M. D., Professor, etc. Montgomery, Ala.: 1874. 8vo, pp. 115. 

Annual Report of the Treasurer of the United States to the Secretary of the Treasury 

for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1873. Washington. 
The same for the year ending June 30, 1874. Washington. 

Ecole de Pharmacie de Montpellier. Cours de Pharmacie. Par J. Leon Soubeiran. 

The reception of the above pamphlets, together with several addresses and essays, 
reprints from various American and European medical journals, is hereby acknowl- 


Professor Dr. Frederick Rochleder died November 5th, in the 56th year of 
his age. He was born in Vienna in 1819, graduated in medicine in 1843, and in 
1845 accepted a call as Professor of Chemistry in the Polytechnic Academy at Lem- 
berg. In 1849 he followed Redtenbacher at the University of Prague,- and after 
his decease in 1870, he was called to fill the vacancy thus occasioned in the chair of 
General and Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the University of Vienna. The former 
volumes of this Journal contain a number of his researches, and in the years 1861, 
and 1862 a translation of his Proximate Analysis of Plants was published- 



Class of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 


With a List of their Preceptors and Localities. 


Anderson, Clarence B. 
Angney, William M. 
Anstet, Z. S. 
Appenzeller, Gustav. 
Armstrong, Thos. S. 
Ashcom, J. W. 
Baker, W. T. 
Barr, J. Rufus, 
Barrere, G. W. 
Baur, Hugo F. 
Behlar, John, 
Beidler, Samuel M. 
Bibby, Walter E. 
Bicker, William B. 
Bickley, Wm. M. 
Blake, John H. 
Bodenhorn, A. 
Boerner, Emil L. 
Boericke, Frank L. 
Boileau, Wm. N. K. 
Boisnot, F. S. 
Boisnot, H. S. 
Botsford, Chipman, 
Bowen, Daniel A. 
Braddock, W. H. 
Brennan, Henry M. 
Brenton, Willis, 
Brotherline, Charles A. 
Brown, Frank P. 


Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 










Juniata County, 






Iowa City, 


Franklin Park, 

St. Johns, 

West Bridgeton, 






New Jersey. 


District of Col. 




New Jersey. 

New Brunswirk. 
New Jersey. 



E. D. Chipman. 
J. R. Angney M. D. 
W. S. Radcliffe. 
John C. Hirst. 
James T. Shinn. 
W. E. Hall. 
James Jone3, M. D. 
John H. Kerlin. 
Charles Shivers. 

C. C. Spannagel. 

G. A. Backman, M. D. 
P. H. Horn. 
Thomas H. Smart. 
J. W. Parrish. 
W. M. Bi ;kley, M. D. 
A. L. Helmbold. 

D. H. Leslie, M. D. 
W. C. Bakes. 
Boericke & Tafel. 
Clarence S. Smith. 
William M. Rice. 
W. Weber. 

George W. Whipple. 
C. S. Braddock. 
W. D. Harrison, M. D. 
Powers & Weightman. 
Thomas R. Coombs. 
A. Shryock. 


Catalogue of the Class, 

< Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan., 1875. 


Browne, J. J. 
Bullock, Lawrence M. 
Burdick, E. R. 
Burge, James O. 
Burke, William E. 
Butcher, Benjamin F. 
Carbonell, Louis P. 
Carey, Ashbel, 
Case. Flavins I. 
Cheatham, Thomas A, 
Christman, Harry W. 
Clarke, L. G. 
Clayton, F. E. 
Clayton, R. P. 
Cline, Samuel P. 
Cloud, Hailan, 
Cotzhausen, L. von, 
Conner, William, 
Conralh, F. 
Cook, Thomas P. 
Corbyn, Theophilus N. 
Cox, John C. 
Crawford, W. F. 
Craighead, Thomas, 
Creen, Judge J. 
Creighton, B. T. 
Daniel, Charles A. 
Darrach, Francis L. 
Davidson, Edward J. 
Davis, Isaac, 
Davis, Samuel B. 
Davison James, 
Davy, George W. 
Dilg, R H. 
Drueding, Charles C. 
Durborow, C. M. C. 
Eisenbrey, Frank L. 
Eisner, Moritz, 
Elfreth, Jacob R, 
Emanuel, Louis, 
Endicott. John F. 
Evans, Joseph C. 
Evans, J. H. 
Everhart, T. 
Ewing, George W. 
Fiedler, A. 
Fielding John, 
Fisher, Henry, 
Fleming, William F. 
Flinn, Henry, 
Frew, George B. 
Frueh, Ernst, 
Fry, WilburnW. 
Fuller, S.. Jr. 
Gatchel, Edmund R, 
Geibel, John W. 
Geissenhainer, C. B. 
Gentsch, D. C. 
Gingrich, E. H. 
Gleim, Perry 
Goess, George C. 
Graber, Leon J. 
Graham, Willis H. 
Gray, George W. 
Griffith, Charles, 
Groves, John D. 
Gruhs, William, 
Hallberg, C. S. N. 
Hano, Simon L. 
Harris, Park. 
Hart, G. H. J. 
Hartwig, C. F. 
Hayes, J Frank, 
Hayhurst, H. T. 
Heidt, T. Purse, 
Herrman, Ernst. 
Holden, George B. 
Holden, George C. 
Hooper, Oliver P. 
Hopp, L. C. 
Hoquet, Wm. 





Bowlirg Green, 










Mount Holly, 














Allegheny City, 














New Philadelphia, 











West Chester, 

New Orleans, 








East New Maiket, 




New Jersey. 



New Jersey. 








New Jersey. 






New Jersey. 























D. L Emerick. 

W. Procter, Jr. & Co. 

E E. Harlett. 

John H. Smith. 

J. S. Erben. 

S. Stones, M. D. 

Joseph P. Remington. 

S. Campbell. 

F. Harrington. 

C. A. Cheatham. 
William Stabler. 
Joseph Shaw. 

J. Y. Marmon. 
A. R. Hortter. 

A. S. White. 
Wm. B. Ulrich. 
Henry Biroth. 

D. J. Bossier. 
O. A. Thiell. 
Powers & Weightman. 
Aschenbach & Miller. 

G. W. Ouram. 
W. F. Logan. 
Geo. S. Craighead. 
James W. Harry. 
J. B. Moore. 

D. A. Jones. 
R. F. Fairthorne. 
S. C. Campbell. 
G. H. Davis. 
W. J. Jenks. 
W. E. Knight. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
Hirst & Gerhardy. 
Charles Bauer. 

B. F. Johnson. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
Cramer & Small. 

W. H. Pile & Sons. 

P. Walter, Jr. 

D. L. Stackhouse. 

Frederick Brown. 

Robert Simpson. 

J. Kemble. 

James L. Bispham. 

J. W. Ranck. 

M. H Bickley. 

Wm. H. Walling. 

J. A. Cantrell. 

W. W. Glentworth, M. D. 

Geo. J. Hoover. 

Carl D. S. Frueh. 

Jno. Wyeth & Bro 

Fuller & Co. 

Wm. B. Webb. 

W. S. Johnson & Bro. 

G. T. Gentsch. 

John Bley. 

J. L. Lemberger. 

Valentine H.Smith & Co. 

Alexander Brown, M. D. 

W. A. Graham & Co. 

Isaac Tull. 

Peter P. Fox. 

M. F. Groves, M. D. 

Aschenbach & Miller. 

S. M. Sellers, M, D. 

Charles R. Haig. 

Jos. S. Evans. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

O. Penser. 

Madison Lovett. 

D. B. Colby. 

G. M. Heidt & Co. 
Herman Frasch. 
Emerson & Howe. 
Jas. T. Shinn. 

E. B. Snider. 
A. Mayell. 
Lewis A. Hoquet. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Jan., 1875. j 

Catalogue of the Class. 


Homberger, Chas- E. 
Hummel, C. Carroll, 
Hunter, W. Birt, 
Hurst, Samuel B. 
Huston, Thomas A. 
Ireland, R. F. 
Janvier, C. Pierre, 
Jenkins, F. C. 
Jacoby, Reuben Z. 
Johnson, S. W. 
Jones, Howard Grant, 
Justice, Richard S. 
Keller, A. H. 
Keller, Albert P. 
Kilbride, John J. 
Kimbrough, James M. 
Kindig. I. H. S. 
King, Edward R. 
King, J. Blair S. 
Kinney, M G., Jr. 
Kinports, John H. 
Klopp, Eli L. 
Knox, R. C. 
Koehler, Otto, 
Kolp, J. L. 
Kramer, I. D. W. 
Kratz, M. 
Kraus, Otto, 
Krogman, Jos. J. 
Kutz, Wilson L. 
Laschell, Charles L, 
Laver, P.J. 
Lechler, Plarry P. 
Levy, David W. 
Lewis, Wm. S. 
Lins, Frank P. 
Lippincott, Chas. D. 
Logan, H. W. 
Louderbough, Frank P. 
Lyne, J. Henry, 
McMuUin, Andrew, 
McMuUin, A 
McRoberts, W. B. 
Manlove, H. C. 
Maguet, Louis F. 
Marquardt, Charles, 
Marshall, H. J. 
Martin, G., Jr. 
Martin, Jno. A. 
Martin, Jno. C. 
Maston, James A. 
Mateer, John D. 
Maulick, W. Frederick, 
Means, William B. 
Merritt, J. Wayne, 
Messing, Jacob, Jr. 
Metz, Samuel A. 
Meyer, William, 
Miller, C. M. 
Mitchell, Wm. S. 
Moenkenweller, Ch. 
Montgomery, E B. 
Moore, Frank, 
Moore, Wm. I. 
Mulford, A. L. 
Murray, F. M. 
Myers, Edwin, 
O'Neil, George, 
Osborne, Mel moth M. 
Patterson, J. L. 
Plummer, Edward, 
Poley, Warren H. 
Poole, Wm. 
Porter, A. R. 
Powell, Wm. R. 
Quinn, J. W, 
Railcy, Irvin, 
Ramsey, Wm. H. 
Reed, Eugene L. 
Reifsnider, H. D. 




Mount Vernon, 









White Deer Mills, 
















West Bridgeton, 






La Crosse, 


Allegheny City, 













North East, 















Adantic City, 




New Jersey. 

New Jersey. 

New Jersey. 




New Jersey. 





New Jersey, 




West Va. 
New Jersey. 




New York. 








New Jersey. 



C. E. Haenchen. 
S. Campbell. 
L. M. Pratt, M. D, 
Jno. C. Hurst. 
C. R. Keeney. 
J. C. De La Cour. 

E. Janvier, M. D. 
Smith & Painter. 

W. A. McLean, M. D. 
C. W. Karsner. 
Daniel S. Jones. 
W.R. Warner & Co. 

C. H. Needles. 

G. W. Kennedy. 

W. C. Ebaugh, M. D. 
W. H. Bennett. 

D. S. Wiltberger. 
James Stratton. 
J. L. Bispham. 

F. Jacoby, Jr. 

H. B. Eippincott, 

I. Rosenberger. 

F. Romberg. 
C. H. Kolp. 
Herman Gerhard. 
James Milton. ' 
S. Gerhard. 

B. Falkenberg. 
Jno. G. Baker. 
S. T. Ringell. 

C. Cady, M. D. 
Wm. L Turner. 

C. W. Seary, M. D. 
J. P. Bolton. 
J. M. Thomas. 
Huber & Vanderslice. 
C. Ellis Sons & Co. 
James T. Shinn. 
George Lyne. 
W. Trinder. 
A. M. Wilson. 

L. P. Maguet. 

A. W. Test. 

A. P. Marshall. 

A. H. Yarnall. 

C. H. Dwyer. 

R. M. Snodgrass. 

P. J. L. Carberry, M. D. 

A. P. Blomer. 

Daniel S. Jones. 

Wirgman & Bro. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

Jas. B. McElroy. 

E. L. Stowell. 

Baumbach & Gerhardy. 

S. E. R. Hassinger. 

J. E. Grove, 

George R. Vernon. 

Rogers & Montgomery. 

August Hohl, 

E. S. Beary. 

Sylvester Birdsall, M, D. 
Yoder & Hauenstein. 
A. W. Wright & Co. 
Powers & Weightman. 

S. M. Baldwin. 
H. C. Eddy. 

F. B. Poley, M. D. 
E. Bringhurst & Co. 
J. L. Thiebaud & Son. 
Etorman Lehman. 
Charles Shivers. 

S. B. Smith & Co, 
Samuel Ramsey, 
E, S. Reed. 
H. C. Blair's Sons. 


Catalogue of the Class. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm, 
t Jan., 1875. 


Reimann, L. P. 
Richardson, David D.,M. 
Richardson, O. B. 
Righter, Wm. H. 
Ritter, John, 
Robbins, Wm. H. 
Robinson, S E. 
Robinson, Wm. D. 
Rogers, Joseph C. 
Rosenberger, Edmund S. 
Rosenthal, D. A. 
Ross, David W. 
Rudolph, John M. 
Rush, George D. 
Sandt, George L. 
Schimminger, G. W, 
Schirmer, W. G. 
Schools, George W, 
Schreiber, Edmund, 
Schroeder, Henry C. 
Seeger, Joseph W. 
Shamaha, George M. 
Shaw, C. E. 
Sher, Frank P. 
Sheridan, James H., 
Sherman, Charles R. 
Shinn, Howard G. 
Sides, Howard B. 
Smith, Joseph S. 
Snyder, Charles, 
Sommers, Richard M. 
Sonnick, John \V. 
Spengler, Allen, 
Stansbury, Wilson V. 
Steele, Frank P. 
Steuben, M. R. 
Stewart, F. E. 
Stirling, S. R. 
Stock, J. F. • 
Stockton, Wm. W. 
Stoner, E. Frank, 
Stoner, Wm. J 
Street. Leonidas H. 
Strobel, John, 
Stuart, Manilus H. 
Sussdorff, Frank L. 
Tatem, Charles H. 
Taylor, Joseph Y. 
Taylor, Walter A. 
Taylor, Winfield Scott, 
Thayer, Edward M. 
Thorn, Henry P. 
Tiarks, Hermann, 
Tobey, Charles W . 
Tomlinson, T. C 
Toulson, M. A. 
Trout, W. W. 
Van Gorder, A. H. 
Van Gunten, Alex. T. 
Voelcker, Rudolph F. G. 
Walch, Robert H. 
Waldman, John, 
Walker. John W. 
Wall, W. H. 
Ward, Walter, 
Watson. Herbert K. 
Watt, Harry C. 
Webb, Morrison W. 
Weiser.Wm. P. 
White, Hugh, 
Whittlesey, H. H. 
Wilgus, J. F. 
Wilson, Lewis H. 
Wittkamp, H. L., Jr. 
Witmer, John A. 
Worriloy. B. Franklin, 
Wright, George S. R. 
Wright, J. L. 
Zacharias, Isidore, 


D. Philadelphia, 











South Bethlehem, 
Des Moines, 







New London, 





Mount Holly, 











Kent Co., 





New Braunfels, 




















New York. 






New Jersey. 

New Jersey. 



New Jersey. 
New York. 

New Jersey. 

New Jersey. 

New Jersey. 

North Carolina. 

New Jersey. 









West Va 

New Jersey. 






New Jersey. 




J. A. Heintzelman. 

Wm. Mclntyre. 

H. R. Bringhurst. 

Thomas Brown. 

Alonzo Robbins. 

C. H. Cressler. 

C. H. Cressler. 

C. J. Nice. 

S. Rosenberger. 

W. R. Warner & Co. 

J. F. Ross. 

J. S. Ward. 

Bean & Stevenson. 

R. W. Ritchie, M. D. 

J W. Dallam & Co. 

M. C. Kreitzer, M. D. 

J. A. Armstrong, M. D. 

W E- Barnes, M. D. 

Gale & Blocki. 

Roger Keys, M. D. 

C. F. Moore. 
J. W Binford. 

J. W. Dallam & Co. 

E. Parrish & Son. 

W. A. Colton. 

W. C, Bakes. 

Samuel Gerhard. 

J. R. Stevenson. 

Wirgman & Bro. 

Thomas G. Rowand, M. D. 

E. B. Garrigues & Co. 

R. W. Morgan, M. D. 

Thomas H. Frankiin. 

W. H. Rinker. 

Henry A. Bower. 

H. C. Blair's Sons. 

J. R. Angney, M. D. 

A. P. Blomer. 

Isaac W. Smith. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

J. A. Braddock. 

Edwin Tomlinson, M. D. 

M. K. Knorr, M. D. 

D. Milligan. 

E. T. Meyers. 
Alfred Tatem, 

A. B. Taylor. 
J. A. Taylor. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
T. G. Thomas. 
Isaac W. Stokes. 

L Manz. 

E. F. Rinehart. 

S. Cradick, M. D. 

Marshall. Edwards 8c Co. 

H. C. Blair's Sons & Co. 

William Hapgood. 

Aquila Nebeker. 

G. V. Eddy. 

Jno. Wyeth & Bro. 

Valentine H. Smith & Co. 

J. L. W. Baker. 

Isaac Tull. 

G. Krause. 

B. & C. Shoemaker. 
W. C. Bakes. 

C. L. Gumming. 
A. P. Brown. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
O. Fowler. 

G. D. Blomer. 

D. S. Wiltberger. 
D. Wittkamp. 

S. S. Bunting. 

H. Wampole & Co. 
R, Walmsley. 

J. Lippman & Bro. 



FEBRUARY, 1875. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meetmg, January i()th.) 
The duplication of a single letter may seem to many to be a very 
trivial matter indeed, though when philosophically considered, it is 
found to be quite worthy of attention and earnest consideration. As is 
well known, the majority of civilized nations use the Latin language 
in their prescriptions, and for the purpose of expressing many scientific 
terms pertaining to medicine. In order, therefore, to guard against am- 
biguity, it becomes an object of considerable importance to preserve 
the purity of this tongue. If every nation, or perchance every indi- 
vidual, were to .adopt a peculiar orthography, the value of Latin as a 
common scientific language would be utterly destroyed ; thus depriving 
both physicians and pharmacists of this convenient international me- 
dium of communication. 

A diversity of the above kind seems to be at present prevailing in 
reference to the spelling of the Latin noun asafcetida — the stercus dia- 
holi of modern nations, the cihiis deoruni of the ancients. A semblance 
of authority is given to the in the word by its adoption into the Brit- 
ish and United States Pharmacopoeias \ on the other hand, the " Phar 
macopcea Germanicd" and almost all the most accurate authors write it 
with only a single s. As the Germans are generally regarded as being 
in advance of all other nations in profound philological knowledge, it 
is fair to presume that they have just and logical grounds for employ- 
ing this form. In addition to this, the text-book of the German em- 
pire is invested with a much higher authority than ours, as it is issued 
under the immediate supervision and with the sanction of the general 

If we may credit the accounts of Murray, the word asafoetida seems 

50 Orthography of Asafcetida. {^"t^.b::-.8^7^""'- 

to have been introduced bv the monks of the famous school of Salerno 
in the middle ages. It is not used by the Greek and Roman writers, 
so that it is searched for in vain in classical dictionaries. In order, 
therefore, to form an intelligent opinion on the subject, it becomes 
necessary to inquire into the derivation of the word, and also to note the 
preference shown by careful and competent writers for either of the 
two forms. 

The term asa has been for ages applied to two different drugs, 
namely, asa dulcis (benzoin) and <^j^ fostida. The former seems to be 
used in Latin only with a single consonant, while the variation occurs 
in the latter. This apparent inconsistency is most probably to be ac- 
counted for by the name asa dulcis having become obsolete before the 
term assa came into vogue. 

The origin of the word asa is veiled in so much obscurity, that dif- 
ferent etymologists ascribe it to four entirely distinct sources. The 
first of these is the Latin word laser or lasar^ which was applied to the 
juice of the plant Laser p'lt'ium. This was a medicine of great renown 
among the Romans, who knew it also as Laser cyrenaicum^ or Succus 
cyrenaicus^ and as Silphlum. Many authors claim that laser was iden- 
tical with asafoetida, though this is hardly probable, since Theophras- 
tus, Aristophanes and Dioscorides assign to it a sweet and agreeable 
flavor. Worcester, Muspratt, and many other writers mention this 
derivation. The word laser is itself derived by some authors quoted 
by Fliickiger from the Greek ailifcov as follows : silphi'^ sirphi\ sirpe^ 
lac serpitiiim^ laserpitium. The intermediate form s'lrpe is, used by 
Plautus, B. C. 184. ''Francis Gouldman's Dictionary," Cambridge, 
1674, says: Laser est decurtatiim ex Laserpitio. Laser herha cujus 
succus primum diet. Lactir^ quoniam manat in modum lactis. The same 
author then quaintly defines it as being, "the loathsome liquor which 
issueth out of the stinking laserpitium^ and is called of the Apothecaries 
Asa fast'ida.''^ 

The second derivation is from the triliteral root asa^ occurring in sev- 
eral oriental languages ; thus, aza^ in Persian, means mastic, isci^ in 
Arabic, a remedy, and asa signifies healing or curing in both Hebrew 
and Arabic, being often used substantively for a physician. Webster, 
Hager, Dorvault, the Paris Medical Dictionary and others, favor this 
view. My esteemed friend. Dr. J. Thomas, a diligent student of 
comparative philology, and author of a medical and other dictionaries. 

^"Veb'-.s^s""' } Orthography of Asaf^tida. 5 1 

has, at my request, investigated the subject. His conclusion is 

. ) T ... 

that the etymology from the Arabic ^^-U) dsd is altogether the most 
satisfactory, as the derivation from laser appears to him to be too far 
fetched. This gains additional plausibility from the well known fact 
that the school of Salerno obtained much of its erudition from the 
Arabic physicians. The writings of Rhazes and Avenrois enumerates 
asafoetida and Avicenna mentions both the sweet and the stinking asa. 

A third etymology is given by Fluckiger in his Pharmakognosie 
des Pfian%enre'iches^' Berlin, 1867. He deems it probable that our 
asa and the Chinese awei both originated from the word angu%eh^ or 
ungoo-zeh^ as the Dispensatory represents it, the modern Persian name 
of the plant furnishing the drug. It will be noted that all the roots 
so far enumerated contain only a single sibilant consonant. 

The fourth and last source, which the writer has found only in 

"Chambers' Encyclopaedia," is from a Persian woi d, 1 a Cj asa, signify- 
ing staff. The chief motive for offering this seems to be that it is 
synonymous with the Greek pdpdr^g and the Latin ferula^ both of which 
refer to the upright stalk of the plant. This is evidently a marked 
characteristic, as even its present name in the Aralo-Caspian territory 
is stinking reed (Keurijk-Kurai). " Chambers' Encyclopaedia " spells 
assafoetida and renders the above Persian word into English characters 
as assa. On the other hand, " Chambers' Etymological Dictionary," 
emanating from the same firm in 1869, edited by James Donald, only 
mentions assa and refers to asafcetida. Furthermore, " Duncan Forbes' 
Persian Grammar and Vocabulary " represents the word in English 
letters by asa. Again, '^Catafago's Arabic Dictionary " contains the 
same word, and renders it likewise as asa^ with a peculiar guttural 
sound to the first vowel. 

Although the authorities in English are divided on the orthography of 
asafoetida, it will be found that the majority favors the use of a single 
consonant, provided, of course, that those are excluded who follow 
the Pharmacopoeias simply because they are the accepted standard. 
''Webster's Dictionary" merely enumerates assafoetida and refers to asa- 
foetida. " Johnson's Dictionary," by Dr. R. G. Latham, " Sheridan^s 
Dictionary," and very many others give only the form asa. " Dunglison's 
Medical Dictionary" gives asafoetida, and following it as a synonym 
assafoetida, in support of which the United States Pharmacopoeia rs 

52 Orthography of Asafcetida. {^""-^^^l'^^^!^' 

specially quoted. Gray's Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia revised by 
Redwood, uses only asafoetida. The " Pharmacographia " of Fluckiger 
and Hanbury, which has just been published, also makes use of asa. This 
testimony is particularly valuable, since etymology seems to have re- 
ceived special attention from these authors, as shown by the recent 
discussion in the ^' Pharm. Jour." on the spelling of Chondodendron or 
Chondrodendron. In opposition to this, Worcester prefers assa^ but 
enumerates and defines also asafoetida, thus showing that he considers 
it nearly or quite as well authorized as the other form. 

In German, the equivalent name asant is invariably written with the 
single s. In Spanish, Russian and Portuguese, asa is used to the en- 
tire exclusion of assa. 

The French dictionaries give assa^ yet in opposition to this, Gui- 
bourt, in " Histoire Naturelle des Drogues Simples," and Dorvault, in 
" I'Officine," use asa-fetida only, and the " Dictionnaire des Drogues," 
by A. Che\'allier and A. Richard, Paris, 1827, says : Assa ou mieux 
asafoetida'' A. Andouard, in his " Nouveaux elements de Pharmacie," 
Paris, 1874, also uses asafoetida. 

The corruption, if it may be so termed, of asa into assa was adopted 
into the "Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia" in 1805*, as that issue contains a 
table in which the word assafoetida is mentioned as having been changed 
from asafoetida of the former editions. A somewhat similar tendency 
appears to prevail among some of the theologists in regard to the iden- 
tical word under consideration, occurs in the Bible as the 

T T 

proper name of two different individuals, the more important one being' 
the third King of Judah. Although in both instances spelled and 
pointed in precisely the same manner, it is variously rendered into 
Greek by Josephus, the " Septuagint " and the "Alexandrian Codex " as 
Aod^ 'Jadi^o:^ ' Oaad and 'Jcrcrd. 

We are consequently forced to conclude that neither the derivation 
from the Latin laser nor that from the Semitic dsd justifies the use of 
the double consonant. We also find asa to be in use in the greater 
number of languages. In addition, we have shown that the best and 
most accurate writers in those few languages which sanction the use of 
assa^ show a decided preference for as.i. 

The only argument which we have been able to find in favor of the 

* Assa Fcetida is used in the new London Dispensatory, of which we have an edi- 
tion (without title-page) printed in 1676. — Editor Am. Jour. Phar. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Feb., 1875. / 

Notes on Some Indigenous Drugs, 


duplicated form, is the derivation olFered by Chambers' Encyclopaedia 
from the Persian asa, translated as stick, staff, baton, or bludgeon. Un- 
supported as this seems to be by other authorities, and in view of it 
being in direct opposition to the fact that both Persian and Arabic dic- 
tionaries render the same term into English with a single consonant, we 
cannot attach any importance whatever to this assertion. As an in- 
evitable deduction from the facts which have been stated, we feel con- 
scientiously bound to insist on the expunction of the barbarism assa 
from pharmaceutical literature, used either as a Latin or as an English 
word, and to recommend its exclusive substitution by asa. 
Philadelphia, January I'^th, 1875. 

P.S. — Since the reading of the above paper, I have been favored by 
Prof. Maisch with a very elaborate monograph on those ferulace^e of 
the Aralo-Caspian desert, which possess importance in pharmacy. The 
document emanates from the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. 
Petersburg, to which it was presented, Aug, 17th, i860, by EL Bors- 
zczow. The author uses asafcetida throughout as a Latin word, de- 
riving it from the Laserp'itium of Pliny. He follows in this respect a 
writer of the i6th century, Gargia ab Orta, who published the "Aro- 
matum Historia." The derivation from the Persian word assa^ staff, 
is also mentioned, but refuted by the fact that Kampfer, who was well 
versed in the Persian language, when discoursing on the name asa fcetida^ 
does not allude to any such word. On the contrary, in his classic de- 
scription of the plant furnishing the drug, Kampfer explicitly states 
that he does not know the origin of the name asa foetida current among 
the Europeans. 

{^Abstracts jrom Essays -presented to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy.) 
Bitter Principle of Wild Cherry Bark. By John L. Williams, Ph. G. 
— The author did not succeed in completely isolating the bitter prin- 
ciple of wild cherry bark. The following process gave the most satis- 
factory results : 

An aqueous infusion of the bark was concentrated, filtered, mixed 
with an equal volume of alcohol, and, after standing for twelve hours, 
filtered. The liquid was treated with milk of lime, the filtrate evap- 
orated to a syrupy consistence, a large quantity of alcohol added and 
the filtrate evaporated. The residue was exhausted with boiling alco- 
hol, which on spontaneous evaporation yielded a transparent brownish 

54 Notes on So?ne Indigenous Drugs. {"-'^^^^Z'^l^^^' 

residue, of a somewhat gelatinous aspect. It possessed a bitter taste, 
was insoluble in ether, soluble to a limited extent, in water, more solu- 
ble in alcohol, particularly if heated. Concentrated sulphuric acid col- 
ors it brown red ; cold nitric acid has but little effect upon it. 

Actcea alha^ Bigelow. By William Dilmore, Ph. G. — This plant is 
popularly known under the name of white cohosh, white beads, Noah's 
ark and necklace weed. The rhizome with the rootlets, which is the 
portion medicinally employ ed, has at first a sweetish-bitter, afterwards 
acrid taste, followed by a peculiar irritating sensation upon the fauces. 

The distillate with water possessed the odor of the root and a slight 
taste. The infusion and decoction were found to contain albumen, 
gum, sugar, starch and extractive, but neither tannin or gallic acid. 
The alcoholic tincture contains two resins having the acrid taste of the 
root, both of which are soluble in alkalies and reprecipitated by acids, 
while ether dissolves one only. After the concentrated tincture has 
been precipitated by water, and the resins filtered off, the liquid froths 
considerably on agitation, and contains a principle analogous to saponin, 
which may be obtained in a still impure condition by evaporating 
the liquid, extracting the residue with diluted alcohol, decolorizing by 
animal charcoal, and agitating with ether, which on spontaneous evap- 
oration yields a brown, translucent and brittle substance, having a bitter 
and acrid taste. It is soluble in alkalies, water, diluted and strong 
alcohol, assumes with warm sulphuric acid a rose color, changing to 
purple, and finally violet. 

Cypriped'ium acaulc^ Lin. Bv H. Northam Bryan, Ph. G. — The 
attention of the author was attracted to this plant from observing per- 
sons engaged in collecting its subterraneous portion, and, upon inquiry, 
being informed that it was to be used as an emmenagogue 5 afterwards, 
the effects of this rhizome with rootlets were observed, tested in sev- 
eral instances with apparent success. The drug, when fresh, has a 
rather strong and heavy odor and a bitter taste, and in the dry state is 
of a dark-brown color. 

Only a limited quantity of the material could be procured for exper- 
imental purposes, from the results of which it appears that it yields, on 
distillation with water, a minute quantity of volatile oil \ to carbon 
bisulphide and to alcohol, some resinous matter, which is wholly sol- 
uble in ether, and to ether about ten per cent, of solid matter, which 

Am. Jour. Pharm. "j 
Feb., 1875. / 

On Suppositories, 


is only partially dissolved by alcohol, the insoluble portion giving a 
blood-red color with sulphuric acid. The presence of tannin, sugar and 
starch was likewise proven. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, January i^th, 1875.) 

Considerable has been said of late as to the best method of making 
suppositories. At the last meeting of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, I read an article on the advantages of making suppositories 
by hand over the mode of making them by moulds. 1 his created 
considerable discussion, which was participated in by many of the mem- 
bers present pro and con, and being called upon for my process of 
operation, I gave it verbally — a separate paper on this process, which 
had been prepared by me, having been accidentally left at home. I 
therefore desire to give it, through the journal of Pharmacy^ to all 
pharmacists who may wish to experiment with it and to adopt it in the 
preparation of suppositories. 

During the last few years I have read quite a number of articles in 
the different medical and pharmaceutical journals on the subject — " sup- 
positories " — and have obtained many valuable intimations from the 
authors, but, still, there appears to be the same objection to most of 
them, particularly in relation to the time consumed in making them, 
and on account of the addition of some hardening material to give the 
cones a greater degree of stiffness. I do not wish to be understood here 
as advocating the turning out of suppositories quickly, and lacking in 
medicinal strength or uniformity, but simply to stand by the quickest 
way of making them, so as to contain exactly what the physician expects 
them to contain. The process by moulding may answer the purpose of 
manufacturers of pharmaceutical preparations, who make them in large 
quantities and in a hurry, regardless of the equal distribution of the 
medicament. They are put up neatly, look elegantly, and the manu- 
facturers are largely rewarded for their labor, but never once think of 
the poor sufferer, who expects immediate relief only to be disappointed, 
if the suppository is not of the strength represented. Some kinds are not 
used often, and, when stored away on the shelves for a longtime, will 
absorb oxygen and become rancid, fatty acids being liberated, which 
are irritants and render such suppositories, therefore, unfit to be ap- 

On Suppositories. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1875. 

plied. Another objection is raised : when made with English narcotic 
extracts, such as hyoscyamus, belladonna, and others, such extracts 
contain moisture, and the suppositories, if kept for some time, mould, 
and are then likewise unfit for use. This proves the necessity for 
each and every pharmacist of making all suppositories fresh as wanted. 
I, for one, wish suppository-moulds had never been introduced, then 
manufacturers of the like would never have made them, as they would 
not be sufficiently compensated for their time and trouble, and all retail 
pharmacists would be compelled to make them as wanted. 

Pharmacists are not always to blame in keeping "A," " B," or ''C's 
suppositories, but frequently physicians. A salesman representing some 
city house comes along wuth a list of suppositories, representing No. I 
to contain cacao-butter ; No. 2, i grain opium ; No. 3, 2 grains opium, 
and so on. Having a free flow of language, he finally persuades the 
physician to use them in his practice, and in this way, to a certain ex- 
tent, we are compelled to keep ready-made suppositories and other 
preparations made by different parties. When I receive a prescription 
for "A," B," or " C's" suppositories, and knowing their composi- 
tion, I make them myself, previously informing the physician, and as 
yet have never been denied that privilege by any ; 'and I believe any 
other pharmacist could do the same, if he choose to. I keep nobody's 
suppositories but my own, and generally make them as wanted. There 
is no secret in making suppositories, and there is not a pharmacist in 
this land deserving of the name but ought to make all that go out of 
his shop ; it is just the same with many other preparations that apoth-= 
ecaries often depend on manufacturers for, such as solid and fluid ex- 
tracts, ethers, and even elixirs, syrups and cordials. It has been proved, 
by Ottmar Eberbach (Proc. Am. Pharm. Assoc. for 1872, page 264),, 
by an examination of some of the more prominent elixirs of the market, 
that they are not much more than rnixtures of alcohol and water, sweet- 
ened and flavored, many of which are used more as intoxicating stim- 
ulants than as a medicine ; some contain fully 50 per cent, of alcohol, 
and no doubt in this way find a readv sale. 

Many apothecaries favor the addition to suppositories of some hard- 
ening material, while they differ vastly what that ingredient should be, 
and also what quantity to be added, some advocating the use of paraf- 
fin, spermaceti, wax or Japan wax. I beg to differ with all those who 
favor the addition of any substance for the purpose of giving the sup- 
pository a greater degree of stiffness. In the opinion of the writer, it 

Am. Jour. Pharm ") 
Feb., 1875. ; 

On Suppositories. 


is not necessary. I never use anything but cacao butter, and while I 
have prepared a large number of suppositories, I have experienced no 
difficulty whatever. Occasionally I have heard of complaints by phar- 
macists that suppositories, when made of cacao butter alone, will lose 
their shape, and have been returned to them in a soft condition to be 
remade. This might, perhaps, occur when they are placed in a very 
warm room or near a fire ; but I have never known suppositories made 
of commercial cacao butter to lose their shape, or even to find their 
surface to yield to the temperature of the room where they were kept,, 
and I have had sufficient experience in their manufacture to know that 
they will keep during the hottest summer months in our climate. 
There are some few substances that act on fats like camphor, which 
are quite troublesome to make ; but even for suppositories of this 
character I use nothing but oil of theobroma. There is no doubt but 
much of the cacao butter, as found in the market, is adulterated with 
fats having low fusing points, and this would account for some sup- 
positories losing their shape and becoming soft. To obtain absolutely 
pure cacao butter, it would be necessary to make it yourself. Pur- 
chasing some a few months ago, during the summer, I visited several 
wholesale houses for the purpose of satisfying my curiosity to know 
what was sold or was offered for sale as cacao butter. Of all the 
houses visited, I found but two offering for sale, in external appear- 
ance, objectionable cacao butter, which was very light in color, nearly 
destitute of the chocolate-like odor, and the outer appearance resem- 
bling oil of theobroma that had yielded its surface to the warmth of 
the hand ; while other samples examined the same day were yellowish 
in color, could be handled with impunity, and possessed a strong char- 
acteristic chocolate odor. A fair article of cacao butter may therefore 
be obtained. 

Of the many excipients that have been introduced since the time 
when suppositories were first recommended, none appears to answer 
the requirement so well as cacao butter ; it is decidedly the best, and, 
to my knowledge, no other substance or composition has been pro- 
posed that can well be substituted for it in its singular use as a medi- 
cine and vehicle. 

In using medicines by suppository, their action must be quick, and 
the only way to procure this is to use an excipient that will melt rapidly 
and uniformly. Physicians object to the use of many of the hardening 
ingredients in suppositories — wax, for example — because the tempera- 
ture of the body will not overcome their higher melting-point ; they are 


On Suppositories. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Feb., 1875, 

thus left behind, unmelted, in the rectum, in this condition they are 
very apt to produce local irritation, and are therefore unfit to enter into 
the composition of suppositories. 

This reminds me of a little incident which occurred in our town two 
years ago. A physician was sent for in haste to see a very sick person, 
and prescribed suppositories, the composition of which I cannot recall 
at present, with the exception of one of the ingredients, which was 
carbolic acid ; the prescription was dispensed bv a druggist, and one 
applied as directed. After remaining in the rectum a short time, it 
was discharged, and exhibited nearly the same appearance as when 
introduced ; a second one was applied with the same result. The med- 
ical attendant examined the suppositories more closely, and found they 
would not yield even to the warmth of the hands, and inferred from 
that that a large percentage of wax had been used in their preparation. 
He wrote another prescription, and had them compounded elsewhere ; 
they were applied, and had the desired effect. The balance of the 
first box were brought to my shop, and upon examination I found the 
fusing point to be 120° F. ' - 

In the opinion of the writer, the best mode of dispensing supposi 
tories with dispatch, insuring at the same time a perfect distribution of 
their medicinal ingredients, avoiding all foreign matter for the purpose 
of hardening, and giving the satisfaction to know that the cones will 
melt at animal heat, is the following, which I offer to the readers of the 
Journal, hoping it will be of benefit to those pharmacists who have 
experienced trouble and loss of time in their preparation : 

Take of cacao butter a sufficient quantity, powder in a wedgewbod mor- 
tar by first striking the butter gently until it is broken up into quite small 
pieces, a little care being required so as not to strike too hard, other- 
wise the friction produced would have a tendency to soften the butter, 
making it a little more difficult to manipulate ; then add the medicinal 
ingredient, and rub all together, forming a plastic mass to be rolled 
out into a suitable length, and cut up into as many pieces as supposi- 
tories have been directed, each piece to be formed by the fingers and a 
spatula into a conical shape. It is advisable to sprinkle a little lyco- 
podium over the fingers to prevent contact of heat from the fingers, 
which would soften the mass during the necessary manipulation. If 
made in winter, when cacao butter is much harder, by the addition of 
one drop of glycerin to each suppository, a mass can be formed in a 
much shorter time. 

Potts^ille, Pa., January, 1875. 

Am. Tour. Pharm. 
Feb., 1875. 

Elixirs of Cinchona. 




Being a member of the American Pharmaceutical Association, I 
consider it my duty to conform to its formulas (^Jmer. your. Pbar.^ vol. 
xlvi, p. 83), although I had my misgivings about the stability of these 
elixirs, having made at different times similar trials. After about nine 
months' experience I have given it up, being tired of filtering and re- 
filtering the elixirs at intervals of two to three weeks, and have re- 
turned to my old formulae, using, however, the simple elixir as corpus. 

Elixir Cinchona. 

Cinchonias sulphat., ...... grs. xvi 

Quiniae sulphat., . ..... ^ grs. viii 

Dissolve in 

Elixir, simpl. (Amer. Pharm. Asso.) .... Oi 
Color with 

Tinct. cudbear (1-8), 

Caramel, ....... aa. TT^xxx. 

Mix, let stand for a week, and fiher. 

When first made, it is beautifully clear, but soon gets turbid ; by 
letting it stand for eight to ten days, and then first filtering, it will keep 
clear for quite an indefinite period. 

It is stronger than that according to the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, which contains at the most twelve grains of the alkaloidal 
sulphates (one pint contains 22 fluidrachms of tinct. cinchon., U. S., 
which is equal to 4^ drachms of the bark, = about 5 grains of the 
crystallizable alkaloids, = nearly 12 grains of the sulphates). While 
my elixir is strong enough to produce a decided impression on the sys- 
tem, it is not so bitter that it becomes unpalatable. 

Elixir Cinchona Ferratum. 
Ferri pyrophosph., ..... ^ii, grs. viii 

Dissolve in 

Aquae, bullient, . , . . , . • Si 

Mix with 

Elixir, cinchonje, ...... fg 



Elixir Cinchona' Comp. 
Tine, serpentari^, . . ... :^iii 

Elixir, cinchona?, to ...... Oi 


6o Exmnination of Citrates, etc. {^"^y^Z'^^I^"^ 

Elixir Cinchona Comp. Ferratum. 
Ferri pyrophosph., ..... gii, grp. viii 

Aquae bull,, , • . . . . • 

Elix. cinchonas comp., ...... 



Elixir Rubrufn. 

Elixir simplex, ....... Oi 

Tine, cudbear (i to 8), . . . q. s. (about ,!5i-3ii) 


Philadelphia, First month i6, 1875. 

Note by the Editor. — The arguments in favor of the formulas for elixirs, as 
recommended by the Pharmaceutical Association, are : 

1. That the names indicate the true composition 5 and, 

2. That, the simple elixir being kept on hand, they may all be readily prepared 



I . ^lantitat'ive deterinination of Citric Jcid^ and Tartaric Acid^ atone 
or in pwesence of each other, or of Sulphuric Acid, or Sugar. — It may be 
premised that the determinations of magnesia, potassa, soda, sulphuric 
acid and carbonic anhydride — qualitative and quantitative — may be 
readily made according to the directions of ordinary manuals of qual- 
itative and quantitative analysis. For the bases, the water solution of 
the material is slightly acidulated with acetic acid, and boiled to expel 
all carbonic acid. For the flame colors of the alkalies the organic 
portion must first be burned out. Magnesium is precipitated as ammo- 
nio-phosphate and weighed as pyrophosphate. Sodium, in absence of 
potassium, may be weighed as sulphate ; but if magnesium is present, 
it must first be removed by baryta solution, the baryta being then re- 
moved as sulphate. If soda and potassa, both are to be estimated, 
they must first be obtained (and weighed together) as chlorides, and to 
this end, if sulphates are present (as from removal of magnesium), the 
sulphuric acid must first be all removed by baryta solution and the ex- 
cess of baryta by carbonic anhydride. From the potassic and sodic 
chlorides the potassic chloride is then taken out with platinic chloride 
and alcohol. For the qualitative determination of citric and tartaric 
acids, if sulphates are present, the sulphuric acid should first be removed. 

Am. Jour. Pharm , ) 
Feb., 1875. j 

Examination of Citrates, etc. 


This may be done by adding silver nitrate in dilute solution in the cold: 
the precipitate (citrate, tartrate) being washed on a filter with several 
small portions of distilled water. (A portion is soluble in nitric acid ; 
not chloride.) If sugar be not present, tartrate may be identified by the 
blackening when heated. In presence of sugar, the precipitate should 
be decomposed by hydrosulphuric acid gas and the silver sulphide filtered 
out. The filtrate is now neutralized with potassa, and calcium chlo- 
ride is added : a precipitate in the cold indicates tartaric acid. The 
mixture (or the filtrate) is boiled ; a resulting precipitate indicates citric 
acid. These precipitates are now treated with cold concentrated potassa 
solution ; a solution, gelatinous when boiled and liquid when again cold, 
indicates tartaric acid ; non-solution indicates citric acid, the precipitate 
being soluble in cupric chloride solution. 

Estimation of Citric Acid in absence of Sulphuric and Tartaric Acids. — 
a. As calcium citrate. Neutralize the solution ; add sufficient cal- 
cium chloride solution ; boil for some time (to change the precipitate 
from the amorphous to the crystaline state), collect on a tared filter ; 
wash; dry at 120° to 150° C. (248° to 302° F.) and weigh. Cag 
(C,HP,), : 2H3C,H,0, : : i : 077108, or Ca3(C,H,0,), : 2H3C, 
HAHP : : I : 0-84337- 

h. By precipitation as barium citrate, from barium acetate, in alcohol 
of 60 to 95 per cent., for weighing as barium sulphate. — J. Creuse : 
Am. Jour. Phar..^ xliii (1871), 537. 

If sulphates are present.^ the sulphuric acid should be determined by 
precipitation with barium chloride in presence of hydrochloric acid, and 
the resulting barium sulphate deducted from the total barium sulphate 
obtained according to the preceding paragraph. 

Estimation of Tartaric Acid in absence of Sulphuric and Citric Acid.^ {and 
other Acids forming insoluhle Lead Salts.) — Ammonium salts should not be 
present, a. The solution, very slightly acidulated with acetic acid, is 
precipitated with lead acetate solution, and the precipitate is washed on 
a tared filter with dilute alcohol, and dried on the water-bath. PbC^H^Og 
: H^C.H^Og : : I : 0*422535, 

If sulphates are present, the sulphuric acid should be estimated by 
itself, and its equivalent quantity of lead sulphate deducted from the 
weight obtained according to the preceding paragraph. 

b. Tartaric acid may also be determined as a calcium salt. For this 
purpose, the neutral solution is treated with chloride of calcium in sfight 


Exaynination of Citrates^ etc. 

( Am. Jour., Pharm. 
t Feb., 1875. 

excess, the mixture boiled and set aside for twenty-four hours. The 
precipitate is then washed, on a tared filter, with a little water and much 
dilute alcohol, dried at 40° to 50° C, and weighed. CaC^H^O(34HoO 
: HAH,0„ : : I : 0-577. 

Estimation of Tartaric Acid in presence of Citric Acid. — This is an 
especially difficult separation, and the results by the following method 
are only approximate. The concentrated solution is made nearly neu- 
tral, but slightly acid, with acetic acid. Alcohol is added, short of pre- 
cipitation, and then concentrated solution of potassium acetate in slight 
excess. The precipitate is washed with alcohol, on a tared filter, and 
dried on a water-bath. KHC^H^Og : Yif^^f^^ : : i : 0797. Sul- 
phates do not interfere ; but if they preponderate, the first washing of 
the precipitate should be with dilute alcohol, and, after weighing, the 
precipitate should be found free from sulphates. 

Estimation of Citric Acid in presence of Tartaric Acid. — Obtain the cal- 
cium precipitate by the directions for tartaric acid alone, h (drying at 
about 50° C). With another portion of material find the amount of 
tartaric acid from the hydric potassic tartrate, according to the preced- 
ing paragraph. Calculate the equivalent calcium tartrate : H.^C^H^Og 
: CaC_(H^O,.4H20 : : i : 1*733. Subtract this from the weight of the 
calcium-tartrate and citrate-precipitate obtained, and from the remainder, 
as Q2i.^^f^~^.{l\{f^.^ calculate the citric acid. 

The foregoing methods have been gathered from various authors, in 
current works, and the writer has merely succeeded in verifying them, 
as giving (except for separation of citric from tartaric acid) close results. 
I have also tried the separation of citric from tartaric acid, as calcium 
salts, by solubility of the calcium salt in potassa solution, with the fol- 
lowing (unsatisfactory) results : 

Took 0*450 grams of tartaric acid and 0*630 grams of (crystallized) 
citric acid, dissolved in water ; added ammonia to a very slight alkaline 
reaction, and then calcium chloride in excess, boiling the precipitate 
for a long time. Washed thoroughly, on a filter, with hot water ; the 
washings continuing to contain calcium. Treated thoroughly with 
solution of potassa, and washed the residue on a tared filter, and dried 
below 100° C. The weight of the precipitate, 1-030 gram, as the 
hydrated calcium citrate, Ca3 (CgH50,)2 2H2O, corresponds to 0*8 10 
gram of crystallized citric acid, being 0"i8ogram more than was taken 
— an increase of 28 per cent. 

2. Analyses of a few Citrates and Tartrates in Market. — i. H. W. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 

Feb., 1875. 

} Examination of Citrates, etc. 63 

Swift and Bro. Effervescing Citrate of Magnesia." — Qualitative : 
Sodium, carbonic anhydryde^ tartaric acid, sugar, a trace of sulphuric 
acid. No magnesium or citric acid. Quantitative, from i gram : 
lead tartrate, 0.970 gram, equivalent to 0*410 of tartaric acid ; sodium 
sulphate, 0*372, equivalent to 0*277 anhydrous sodium carbonate ; 
carbonic anhydride, 0*050. As 0*277 ^^7 sodium carbonate furnishes 
0*105 carbonic anhydride, it follows that y^^f- of the sodium has 
become tartrate during and after manufacture. The article as pur- 
chased then stands very nearly as follows : 

Sodium carbonate, . o'i32) 

J- ^ ^ ^ c \ \ Sodium carbonate, . . 0-277 

Sodium tartrate, . . czos V representmg ... 

r-r ^ • \ i Tartaric acid, . . o*aio 

1 artaric acid, . . . 0*205 J 

Sulphuric acid (a trace), | 

Sugar,- water, etc., J ° 


(0*277 sodium carbonate would neutralize 0*392 of tartaric acid ; 
hence the analysis shows an excess of only 0*018 of acid, or four per 
cent, of the whole,) 

2. Nichols and Co., ''Effervescing- Citrate of Magnesia." — Oual- 
itative : Magnesium, sodium, sulphuric acid, tartaric acid, carbonic 
anhydride, sugar. The results of the quantitative work, placed in the 
form in which the ingredients were probably taken, were as follows : 

Magnesium sulphate (anhydrous), . . . . . . o"i22 

Sodium carbonate (dried), ....... 0*242 

Tartaric acid, .......... 0*430 

Sugar, water, etc , . . . - . , . . . 0*206 

(The carbonic anhydride was not determined, and 0*342 of sodium 
bicarbonate may have been used instead of the 0*242 of normal car- 
bonate, leaving o*io6 of sugar, etc. The tartaric acid is 0*038, or 
nearly nine per cent, in excess of that required to neutralize the 

3. Billings, Clapp and Co., "Magnesia Aperient." Qualitative: 
Magnesium sulphate, sodium carbonate or bicarbonate, potassium 
(bicarbonate or sodio tartrate .?), tartaric acid, sugar. 

4. W. J. Gordon's " Citrate of Magnesia." — A neutral magnesium 
citrate, dissolving with difficulty (not effervessing). 

5. Tarrant's " Effervescing Seltzer Aperient." — Qualitative: Mag- 

64 Gleanings. {^-rir^s^'™' 

nesium sulphate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, tartaric 
acid, sugar. 

6. Chas. Ellis and Co., " Prepared Citrate of Magnesia." — Qual- 
itative : Magnesium citrate, sodium bicarbonate, potassium salt (a trace), 
citric acid, sugar. 

Unluersity of Michigan^ July i, 1874. 



An'ilin Inks. — C. H. Viedt objects to the use of fuchsin and other 
anilin colors, which are insoluble in water, and recommends the employ- 
ment of such colors only v/hich are soluble in water. Such inks do 
not require the addition of gum arable or dextrin, except for slow and 
heavy writers, and should be so far diluted that the writing, when dry, 
is free from the metallic lustre of the anilin colors. The author recom- 
mends the following proportions : 

For red ink^ dissolve i part of diamond-fuchsln in 150 to 200 parts of 
boiling water. 

For blue ink^ take i part of bleu de nuit (anilin blue, soluble in water) 
to 200 or 250 parts of boiling water. 

For violet ink^ which is very extensively employed, i part of the color 
is dissolved in about 300 parts of water. This ink is very easily affected 
by ordinary black copying ink, a pen containing some of the latter ren- 
dering the former at once very pale and granular. 

Green anilin ink is the handsomest, but also the dearest, of all anilin 
inks. It is prepared by dissolving 1 part of so-called iodine green, 
which is soluble in water only, in 100 or 110 parts of boiling water. 
The writing is of a blue-green color ; if a more yellowish-green shade 
is desired, a little picric acid should be added. 

Telloiu anilin ink cannoc be recommended. A solution of i part of 
picric acid in 120 or 140 parts of water is better and cheaper. — Ding- 
ier^ s Poly tech n. Jour.^ 1874, Oct. ^ pp. 167-169. 

Impurity in Commercial Ammonia. — Dr. G. C. Wittstein calls atten- 
tion to the fact, that nearly all the commercial ammonia is made from 
gas liquor, which contains small quantities of anilin, toluidin, &c. In 
the purification of gas liquor these compounds enter with the ammonia 
into all other combinations, and remain finally in ammonia liquor in such 

Am. Jour Pharm. "I 
Feb., 1875. J 



decided traces that they may be recognized by the color of their oxida- 
tion products. If nitric acid is partially neutralized by such ammonia, 
a rose or deeper red color is produced, which disappears again on the 
further addition of ammonia to supersaturation. If the ammonia is at 
once added in excess, this coloration is not observed. — Ibid.^ Sept.^ pp. 

Volatile Oil of Garden Cress (Lepidimn sativum). — Dr. Hugo Tromms- 
dorfF prepared this oil by distilling the fresh herb, immediately after flow- 
ering, with steam. The distillate did not separate any oil, which was 
obtained by agitation with benzol, 73 kilograms of the herb yielding 84 
grams. Professor A. W. Hofmann found this oil to boil at 226*5° C, 
at which temperature three-fourths distilled over. The first portion 
contained a sulphur compound, the nature of which has not yet been 
ascertained ; the remainder of the distillate consists of the nitrile of 
phenylacetic acid, and is therefore identical with the oil of Tropaolum 
majus ("Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1874, p. 331), which it resembles closely 
m odor. — Bsr. d. d. Chem. Ges.^ 1874, p. 1293. 

Allylalcohol among the products of the dry distillation of zvood. — The 
penetrating odor of crude wood-spirit, according to B. Aronheim, is 
due to allylalcohol, which, in its pure state, boils at 97° C. (206*6° F.), 
the boiling point being, however, reduced to 88^-89° C. by the addition 
of water. — Ibid.., p. 1381. 

Oil of Eucalyptus. — A Faust and J. Homeyer state that the eucalyp- 
tol of Cloez (" Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1870, p. 465) is a mixture of different 
compounds, and that the oil of Eucalyptus consists of, i, a terpen, C^^^Hjg, 
boiling at I50°-I5i° C. ; 2, another terpen, CjqH^q, boiling between 172° 
and 175° C. ; 3, cymol, C^^H^^ ; and, 4, a body, C^^H^^O, which, by 
sulphur phosphide, is readily converted into cymol. The compounds 
2 and 3 constitute about nine-tenths of this volatile oil, and the pro- 
portion of the terpen to the cymol is 2 : I. — Ibid.., p. 1429. 

Volatile Oil of Olibanum. — By fractional distillation, A. Kurbatow 
separated this volatile oil into oliben and an oxygenated portion, the 
latter boiling above 175° C. Oliben = C^^O^g has an agreeable aro- 
matic odor, a specific gravity of 0*863 C, boils between 156 
and 158° C, and yields, with muriatic acid gas, crystals of the com 
position C^^H^gHCl. — Annal. d. Chemie., vol. clxxiii., p. i. 

V ilatile oil of calamus has been examined by the same author, who 
obtained from the portion boiling below 170° C, after treatment with 

66 Gleanings. {""""'Firis^yt""' 

sodium, a terpen, C^jH^^, boiling between 158° and 159°, and having 
a specific gravity of 0*8793 at 0° C. The portion boiling at a higher 
temperature was of a deep-blue color and not of a constant boiling 
point. — Ihid.^ p. 4. 

Iodine and arsen'ious acid yield, according to Prof. Zinno, (" Amer. Jour. 
Phar.," 1873, P- 445) prismatic crystals of iodo-arsenic acid. M. Weg- 
ner has repeated these experiments and comes to the conclusion that 
such an acid cannot be obtained by the published process. When iodine 
is dissolved in a solution of arsenious acid, as long as decoloration takes 
place, the liquid contains hydriodic and arsenic acids, the presence of 
which can be readily proven by the reaction with silver nitrate. On 
evaporation, iodine is set free and the arsenic acid is reduced to arsen- 
ious acid, which finallv crystallizes in octohedrons and flat tables, pro- 
duced by the enlargement of two opposite planes of the octohedrons ; 
these crystals are arsenious acid, retaining a minute quantity of hydri- 
odic acid. Precisely the same behaviour is shown by a mixture of 
solutions of hydriodic and arsenic acid. — Jh'uL^ voL clxxiv^pp. 129-133. 

The adulteration of beeswax ivith fapan wax appears to be carried on 
in some parts of France to some extent. Ch. Mene, in experimenting 
with the view of detecting this adulteration, has obtained the following 
results : 

-TA Fusing Congealing 

^^"^'^i'- pointr pSint. 

Degrees C. Degrees C. 

Japan wax, . . . i •00200(?)52-54 45-46 

Beeswax, .... 0*96931 64-65 63-64 

50 parts Japan wax with 50 parts beeswax, 0*93518 64-65 61-62 
60 " " 40 " " 0*92785 64-65 61-62 

0*90730 64-65 61-62 
0*90452 63-64 61-62 
0*90164 63-64 62-63 
0*88703 63-64 62-63 
085100 63-64 62-63 

65 " 35 

70 " " " 30 " 

75 " " 25 " 

80 " 20 

90 " " 10 " 

It will be observed that the specific gravity is a better means to de- 
tect such a fraud than either the fusing or congealing point. — Rep. de 
Pharm.^ 1874, />. 427. 

Salicylic acid^ according to Prof. H. Kolbe, retards or prevents the 
decomposition of amygdalin by emulsin, the generation of the vola- 
tile oil in powdered mustard, the fermentation of glucose, the produc- 

'^Veb:ri75""'} Decomposition of Salts by JVater. 67 

tion of fungous growth upon beer exposed to the air, and the spoiling of 
milk, wine and eggs. The observations of Prof. Thiersch, made in 
the surgical wards of the Leipsic Hospital, justify the expectation that 
sahcylic acid may possess the desirable properties of carbolic acid with- 
out the disadvantages of the latter. On account of its antiseptic 
proporties, H. Kolbe suggests the use of salicylic acid in cholera, etc., 
internally as well as in subcutaneous injection and in the form of clys- 
ters. The author has published a process whereby this acid may be 
easily obtained in considerable quantities, by heating dry carbolate of 
sodium in a current of dry carbonic acid gas, gradually, from 100^ C. to 
220*^ or 250^ C. — Journ. f.prakt. Chemie^ New Ser.^ vol. pp. 89-1 12. 

W. Knop affirms the antiseptic properties of salicylic acid also for 
the germination of seeds and the growth of young plants under various 
conditions ; the growth of mould is prevented until the free acid has 
been neutralized by the ammonia, generated by the decomposition of 
albuminous bodies. — Ihid..^ pp. 351-355. 




In a first note, Mr. Ditte has examined the action of water on mer- 
curic sulphate HgO,S03. In contact with water and at the ordinary 
temperature, the mercuric sulphate becomes immediately colored ; the 
subsulphate 3HgO,S03 precipitates, and the water becomes strongly 
acid. This reaction continues on the further addition of the neutral 
salt, until a certain proportion of sulphuric acid has been set free, 
when the sulphate will be simply dissolved until the liquid is entirely 

According to the experience of Mr. Ditte, water containing less than 
67 grams of free sulphuric acid to the litre will, at 12° C, decompose 
the salt HgO,S03 ; but as soon as it contains more than 67 grams of 
acid, it loses all its chemical action on the neutral salt, and dissolves it 
without decomposition. In the presence of an excess of subsulphate, 
some neutral salt will even be reproduced, so that^ whatever the start- 
ing point was, a liquid will always be obtained containing 67 grams of 
acid, provided the temperature remains the same. The liquid, which 

"'•'Translated from " Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie," December, 1874, p. 

68 Decomposition of Salts by Water. {^■"•FLbiriyt''"'' 

ceases to decompose the neutral salt at 12° C, will again decompose 
it and color it yellow on raising the temperature. The presence of 
another acid in the liquid makes no change in the reaction. 

The second note of Mr. Ditte treats of the action of water on nitrate 
and subnitrate of bismuth and chloride of antimony. 

At the ordinary temperature, the crystals of nitrate of bismuth 
Bi03,3N05,3HO are immediately decomposed by water, which be- 
comes strongly acid ; at the same time a white precipitate, always 
crystalline, appears. The crystals have the formula Bi03N05 with 
one, two, three or four equivalents of water, according to the temper- 
ature. The decomposition ceases as soon as the proportion of 
free acid is 83 grams to the litre, and then the nitrate simply dis- 
solves. On the addition of either water or nitric acid, the composi- 
tion of the mixture is modified, until it again reaches that quantity of 
free acid, which, if in excess, combines with the subnitrate to recon- 
struct the neutral salt, or, if insufficient, decomposes the neutral nitrate 
previously dissolved. Successive additions of water to an acid solution 
of neutral nitrate determine the precipitation of subnitrate, and the 
liquid returns always to its limit of acidity until the neutral salt has 
entirely disappeared. 

On heating a clear solution of neutral nitrate, a crystalline precipi- 
tate of subnitrate will be observed, which disappears on cooling. In 
raising the temperature the limit of free acid is augmented, which the 
solution must have to avoid decomposition of the neutral salt ; this is 
then decomposed but, on cooling, the free nitric acid and subnitrate 
again combine and the precipitate disappears. The subnitrate of bis- 
muth Bi03,N0-,H0, is also decomposed by water into free acid and 
an amorphous more basic salt. The decomposition is slow in the 
cold, but at 100° C. the water decomposes it until it contains about 4 
to 5 grams free acid per litre, finally forming the basic nitrate ^BiOg, 
NO5. Water of 100° C, containing less than 4 to 5 grams of acid 
per litre, becomes turbid and immediately decomposes the subnitrate ; 
the liquid becomes clear from 4 to 5 grams, while the free acid in ex- 
cess combines with the sub-salt 2Bi03,NO, formed, and the nitrate 
Bi03,N0- appears again with its crystalline form and its silvery lustre. 
In the same manner the neutral salt, treated with water, yields at first 
the crystalline subnitrate Bi03,N05, which, when washed with cold 
or warm water, is transformed into a white powder, which is a mixture 
of the basic salts 2Bi03,N05,and Bi03,N0.. After a prolonged wash- 

"^"'■Feris^jsr'"' } Bromine. 6 9 

ing, the uniform product 2Bi03,N05 is obtained. What has been said 
above on the subject of nitrate of bismuth applies likewise to chloride of 
antimony Sb2Cl5 ; it is decomposed bv water into a white precipitate 
of oxychloride Sb202Cl, and into free chlorhydric acid until the liquid 
contains about 159 grams to the litre, then it dissolves without decom- 
position. Every liquid which contains less acid^ decomposes the chloride 
nto oxvchloride and free acid while, on the contrary, an excess ot 
free acid reproduces the chloride. Oxychloride of antimony, like the 
subnitrate of bismuth, is decomposed by water, especially at the tem- 
perature of 100° C. C. J. M. 


From Circular No. 24, Philadelphia Drug Exchange. 

We have been kindly furnished with some interesting facts as to the 
manufacture of bomine by two of the largest producers in this country, 
and from their communications we extract the following : 

Bromine was manufactured in the United States as early as 1846, by 
Dr. David Alter, of Freeport, Pa., who continued the manufacture 
until about 1856. During this time bromine, in its compounds, had 
been used principally for daguerreotyping. When this method for 
taking pictures was succeeded by the ambrotype method, the dem.and 
for bromine decreased and soon became insufficient to the encourage- 
ment of home manufacture, and in consequence the production ceased. 

It was not until 1866, when the alkaline bromides, as means to re- 
lieve sleeplessness and nervous excitability, had been introduced to and 
adopted by the medical profession, that the manufacture of bromine 
n the United States was resumed. 

Again it was the mother-liquor or bittern from salt works on the 
Alleghany river, this time at Natrona and Tarentum, which furnished 
the bromine. In 1868, the demand increased rapidly, and soon ex- 
ceeded the production from the Pennsylvania salines. Other sources 
were looked for and found in the Ohio river and Kanahwa salt regions. 
In the early spring of 1868, the first'factory in this locality was erected 
at Pomeroy, utilizing the bitter water from the extensive salt works — 
the Dabney furnace. Since then factories have sprung up at all the 
largest salt furnaces, both in Ohio and West Virginia, now the prin- 
cipal seat for the manufacture in the United States. 

The preparation of bromine is conducted as follows : The bittern, or 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb., 187=;. 

mother-liquor from the brine, after all the salts separable by crystal- 
lization have been removed, contains the bromine in combination with 
certain metallic bases, such as magnesium and calcium. 

Acted upon by sulphuric acid, the bromine is displaced from its com- 
bination in the form of hydro-bromic acid, which, with the oxygen 
generated from binoxide manganese, chlorate of potash, chromate of 
potash, etc., and sulphuric acid, yields bromine and water 

The bromine is liberated as a gas by means of heat applied to the 
contents of the distilling retort ; the gas is evolved and escapes from 
the retort through a leaden or earthenware cooler, in which it con- 
denses to a liquid and as such discharges into the receiver. 

The distilling retort is generally a sandstone vessel, holding from 
100 to 300 gallons. Dr. Alter, in his first experiments, used earthen- 
ware made with a mixture of pulverized coke. Other material has 
been proposed and used, such as fire-clay, wood and lead. 

The following figures will show the increase of production from 
1867 to 1873. 

Estimated Yearly Production. 



























I 10,000 























Until 1870, the total production was consumed in the United States. 
In that vear the first parcel was exported to Germany. Since then, 
more or less, everv vear, finds its way to the European market. Of 
late the production has far exceeded the demand. 

Over-production has so depressed prices that there is very little en- 
couragement for those already engaged in the business, and no induce- 
ment for manufacturers to start additional factories, as may be inferred 
from the following particulars given by one of our correspondents : 

At this period the business had passed into the hands of so many 
that it was feared it was entirely ruined, and to prevent further spread, 
I erected an extensive factory on the Kanahwa river, seventy-five miles 
distant from this point, for the purpose of making the bittern of this 
valley tributary to my business. My business now includes large fac- 
tories at the Valley City Furnace, Hartford City, West Virginia ; at 

^""fICX"""'} Substitute for Chiretta. 71 

the German Furnace, Germany, West Virginia ; at the Hope Furnace^ 
Mason City, West Virginia ; at the Snow Hill Furnace, Kanahwa, 
West Virginia. 

The basin of the Ohio is eight miles wide, and on it are located 
the above-named furnaces. From the bittern of this district, and not 
from any other, can pure bromine be made at a price that will com- 
pare with present rates, as you are aware the manufacturers at Saginaw 
river and other Western points have suspended operations and torn 
down their factories. 

" The Kanahwa basin is a continuation of the Ohio basin, dipping 
with the coal in an easterly direction. In the manufacture we boil the 
bittern (or refuse water after extracting the salt) in iron pans, then 
transfer it to stone or fire-clay stills and treat it with sulphuric acid, 
chlorate of potash or manganese, and by means of coolers and other 
apparatus extract the bromine. 

When in full operation there are : 

4 factories producing say 75,000 pounds per year. 
I factory 25,000 " 

I " " 15,000 " " 

I " " 7,000 " 

4 factories " " 100,000 " " 

It is likely that next year these factories will not be worked 
up to more than one-half or two-thirds capacity, on account of over- 
production of salt." 

Present prices are very low for bromine and its preparations, and 
manufacturers have had only unsatisfactory results for some time past. 
When we consider the current quotations for bromine and bromides, 
and contrast them with the rates of ten or fifteen years agos we have 
a very good illustration of domestic competition reducing profits to 
mere nominal figures. At present, bromine and the preparations of 
bromine are selling at very little advance over cost. 



Honorary Member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. 

A few days since a sample of Chiretta was forwarded to me by a 
well-known wholesale firm in London, stating that its genuineness had 


Substitute for Chiretta, 

Am. Jour. Phaitn. 
Feb., 1875, 

been called in question, and asking my opinion as to whether it really 
was the true herb. 

Upon a superficial examination I found the sample to answer in 
color and general appearance, as stated by the sender, the description 
of the official Chiretta pretty closely ; but a practised observer would 
soon observe differences, more especially in the form of the stems of 
which the sample was composed, their less scarred character, and the 
less compact arrangement of the flowers and fruits, than in the true 

When more carefully examined, several marked distinctive charac- 
ters were noticed, the most important of which, in order to render them 
more evident, I have tabulated with the characters of true Chiretta as 
follows : 


Stem obscurely quadrangular below, 
its four angles being each marked by a 
somewhat prominent border or wing 5 
and very evidently quadrangular and 
winged above. 

Leaves when present, sessile, narrow, 
and tapering to each end, that is, some- 
what lanceolate in outline. 

Scars left by the fallen leaves, not very 
prominently marked, in consequence of 
the slight and comparatively narrow at- 
tachment of the leaves. 

Flo'zvers arranged in elongated loosely 
aggregated clusters, or cymose panicles. 
Flowers also larger and longer than those 
of true Chiretta. 

A transverse section of the stem exhibits 
a comparatively thick woody ring on the 
outside 5 and with the centre hollow, or 
presenting but faint traces of pith at- 
tached to the inner surface of the ring 
of wood. 


Stem round below and througliout 
nearly its whole length 5 and very faintly 
quadrangular above. 

Leaves embracing the stem, broad at 
their base, and tapering upwards into a 
long acute point, that is, ovate or cor- 
date-ovate in shape, and acuminate- 

Scars left by the fallen leaves, very 
evident, opposite to each other and al- 
most encircling the stem. 

Flo^ivers arranged in less elongated cy- 
mose panicles, that is, more compact, and 
more umbellate. 

A transverse section of the stem exhibits 
a comparatively thin woody ring, enclos- 
ing a large continuous easily-separable 
pith, which is yellowish in color. 

Such are the general distinctive structural and morphological charac 
ters between the spurious and true drug, which I have purposely given 
in as practical a form as possible in order to be readily available. An- 
other very marked difference is afforded when we make an infusion of 
the two drugs. Thus, the taste of the infusion of true Chiretta is in- 

Am. Jour. Pharm 


''islJ's!™'} Substitute for Chiretta. 73 

tensely bitter ; and that of the spurious drug, although bitter, far less 
intensely so than that of the official drug. An infusion of true ChirettE 
has also a somewhat greenish tint, while that of the spurious drug has 
a distinctly yellowish-brown color. 

The question of the botanical source of the spurious drug now arises. 
It is well known that in the Indian bazaars several plants are known by 
the name of Chiretta, besides the true drug, and are used for the same 
purposes as it. Thus, Royle, many years since, in his Illustrations 
of the Botany of the Himalayan Mountains," page 277, stated that 
Ophelia angustifoUa^ Don, is so used in Northern India, where it is 
called Puharee (hill) Chiretta^ to distinguish it from the true or Dukhunee 
(Southern) Chiretta ; and he adds that Exaciun tetragonum is also called 
Qoda (that is, purple) Chiretta. 

At least three other species of Ophelia^ namely, O, elegans^ Wight.^ 
O. densifolia^ Grisebach, and O. multiflora^ Dalzell ; two other species 
of Exacum^ as E. hicolor^ Roxb., and E, pedunculatuin^ Linn., may be 
also enumerated ; as well as Slevogtia orientalis^ Grisebach, which is 
known as Chota Chiretta (small Chiretta), as being employed in India 
like true Chiretta. 

The above mentioned plants are all derived from the same natural 
order, Gentianaceae, as that yielding the true Chiretta ; but besides 
these, as mentioned by Royle, Waring, and other writers, another 
powerful Indian bitter — that is, Creyat or Kariydt^ derived h-omAndro~ 
graphis [Justicia) paniculata^ Wall., of the natural order, Acanthaceic, 
is also often confounded in Southern India with the true Chiretta. 

It is somewhat surprising, considering the number of substitutes for 
the true Chiretta which are thus known in India, that some of them 
should not have found their way, accidentally or intentionally, into the 
English market ; but no English writer of repute on the Materia Medica 
has hitherto noticed any such substitution. Even Fllickiger and Han- 
bury, in their recently-published " Pharmacographia," say, page 393 : 
"We have recently examined the Chiretta found in the English mar- 
ket, but have never met with any other than the legitimate sort." 
Moreover, beyond the case of false-packing described by Mr. E. A. 
Webb, in the " Pharmaceutical Journal," vol i, third series, page 367^ 
in which the roots of Ruhia cordifoUa^ Linn. (^Munjeet)^ had been en- 
closed in bundles of Chiretta, I know of no published case of adulter- 
ation or substitution of true Chiretta in this country. 

The botanical source of the present substitute of Chiretta is, there- 

74 Value of Vegetable and Animal Oils. {^'"'y^C^IiI''^' 

tore, one of some interest and importance, and, upon examination, I 
believe it to be the sort of Chiretta which, as stated above, is called in 
India Puharee (hill) Chiretta., and which is derived from Ophelia angus- 
tifolia., Don. ; or if not from this plant, most certainly from a species 
of Ophelia very closely resembling it. Thus, it may be derived from 
Ophelia pulchella., Don. It is, therefore, closely allied to the true and 
official Chiretta, which is obtained from Ophelia chirata., Grisebach, 
and it possesses in some degree the bitter tonic properties of that drug. 
It is satisfactory to know that such is the case, and that, therefore, its 
use can lead to no serious consequences, but that as it is very inferior 
in its bitter tonic properties to the genuine drug, it ought not to be sub- 
stituted for it. I have, therefore, deemed it advisable to describe it at 
once. — Phar?n. Journ. and Trans.., Dec. 19, 1874. 


Nowhere in the domain of chemistry do we find such a large and 
important series of compounds, so similar in chemical and physical prop- 
erties, and so difficult of separation when mixed, as the fatty oils. 
Watts enumerates forty-nine vegetable oils, eleven fish oils, and five 
animal oils, making a total of sixty-five oils, and vet his list is defect- 
ive. Although possessing such a general family resemblance, they diffisr 
enough among themselves to cause a considerable difference in price, 
and hence cheaper oils are used to adulterate the more valuable. To 
recognize anv of these oils when unmixed is not particularly difficult, 
but to detect the presence of a few per cent, of one oil in a large quan- 
titv of some other oil is more difficult, and to determine the kind and 
quantitv of the adulterating oil is almost an impossibility. Because of 
the commercial value of an accurate and reliable method of detecting 
adulteration in oils, much attention has been paid to this subject, but 
long and patient researches have, as yet, been only partially rewarded. 
In a communication to the Chemical Section of the Philosophical 
Society of Glasgow, Mr. J. J. Coleman, F. C. S., gives a detailed 
account of the principal methods now in use for detecting adulterations 
in oils, a few of which we give below. 

The late Prof. Cah ert constructed a table showing the result ob 
tained by treating oils with acids and alkalies of various strengths. 
Twelve reagents were employed and one hundred and eighty reactions 
and colors produced are given, which he had observed in experimenting 

"^""■/eb'-ifz^ } ^^^^^ of Vegetable and Animal Oils, 7 5 

on fifteen different oils. Cotton-seed oil and olein from tallow are 
omitted, as well as fifty other of minor importance. 

Heidenreich, Penot and Marchand have also proposed color tests 
from the reaction of pure sulphuric acid on oils, but, like those of Cal- 
vert, thev are open to doubt and uncertainty, the coloration often de- 
pending on the accidental impurities of the oil. 

There is a great difference in the amount of heat produced on mixing 
one part of sulphuric ac'd with three parts of oil ; the gain in tempera- 
ture is 100° where rape-seed oil is used, as compared with 68°, when 
olive oil is experimented upon. A method based on this principle was 
suggested by Marmene and elaborated by Fehling ; it is easy of execu- 
tion and interesting in results. 

The relative viscosities of the fatty oils is determined by the time 
required for a given quantity of each oil to flow from a pipette which 
is heated to 120° F. by being surrounded by a glass tube into which 
steam is passed. In an experiment made by Mr. Coleman, German 
refined rape required 8J minutes ; olive, 8J minutes ; tallow, min- 
utes ; lard oil, 7 minutes ; cotton seed, 7 minutes ; sperm, 5 minutes. 

Spontaneous combustion ensues when a handful of cotton waste is 
imbued with oil and placed in an air bath at 130° to 200° F. Boiled 
linseed required i\ hour; raw linseed, 4 hours; lard oil, 4 hours; re- 
fined rape, about 9 hours. Mr. Gellatly found that an admixture of 
20 per cent, of mineral oil retarded combustion, and 50 per cent, pre- 
vented it entirely. 

There are three practical mothods of judging of the drying properties 
of oils : I. Nitrate of mercury, which indicates by the consistency of 
the mass subjected to the reaction. Resin oil, mineral oil, and the dry- 
ing oils proper, refuse to solidify. 2. Comparing a sample under ex- 
amination, heated in a shallow capsule to 200° F., with a light quantity 
of oil known to be pure. 3. Imbuing thick white blotting paper with 
the oil under examination, and comparing by a similar experiment with 
oil known to be pure, say at a temperatnre of 150° or 200° for some 
hours, or at ordinary temperatures for some days. 

The specific gravity of oils has been carefully determined, and is of 
some consequence. To be of value the specific gravity should be care- 
fully taken at a temperature of 60^ F. The oleometer should be 
marked with ordinary specific grayity degrees, water being 1,000, and 
the space allowed on the stem, for each degree should not be less than 

76 Value of Vegetable and Animal Oils. {^"Ver-xSyf 

i-io of an inch. As a rough rule, 1° of gravity may be subtracted 
for every 2J per cent, excess of temperature above 60° F. 

The presence of mineral and resin oils in a mixed oil must be the 
first point proved, and vv^hen it does exist, it increases the difficulty ot 
testing, for w^e have no easy method of separating them without actual 
destruction of the fatty oils. Saponification is not efficient, for mineral 
oil unites with the soap produced, forming an emulsion which does not 
separate after standing for months. Perhaps a lime soap might be pre- 
pared, pulverized, and the hydrocarbon extracted by some volatile sol- 
vent, but the most satisfactory method would be an ultimate chemical 

In practice, however, mineral oils can be easily detected by two 
characteristic tests : first, the fluorescent properties it imparts to all 
animal or vegetable oils ; second, the strongly-marked aromatic burn- 
ing flavor it communicates to mixtures containing it. The first-men- 
tioned propertv is brought out by smearing a metallic surface, such as 
tin plate or steel, with the oil, and then viewing it at different angles in 
the open air or sunlight. 

In examining a dark-colored oil, it mav first be necessary to refine 
the sample by successive treatments with concentrated sulphuric acid 
and weak soda solution or lime water. As small a quantity as 2h per 
cent, mav be detected by the bluish color noticed on viewing the oil at 
certain angles and by tasting it. 

The absence of resin oil must also be proved. Nitric acid is said to 
be a good test, as the color developed is much greater than in pure oils. 
Sometimes it may be detected by the smell. The presence of 10 per 
cent, of resin or mineral oil in non-dr)ing oils delays their solidification 
with the nitrate of mercury test. 

Oils may be classified according to their commercial value. The first 
class embraces only sperm oil. The tests recommended by Mr. Cole- 
man, for adulterations in this oil, are five in number : 

1. Examine for mineral oil. 

2. Examine into its drying properties by exposing some of the oil for 
some hours in a thin layer to 200° F. 

3. Notice that other ^sh oils darken much more notably than sperm 
oil when shaken up with dilute sulphuric acid. 

4. The most likely adulterant is African fish oil, which produces in- 
tense heat when mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid ; thus, a mix- 
ture of I part acid and 4 parts oil develops about 112° of heat, against 

"^"Fer'is^s''"'} ^^^^^ of Vegetable and Animal Oils. 77 

a development of upward of 250° with African fish oil. The spe- 
cific gravity of African fish oil is said to be about 0"866, and it is a 
very bad lubricant. Other adulterating oils may also be detected by 
this test. 

5. That, as the use of sperm oil is dependent upon its viscosity, an 
accurate test thereof, in a suspected sample, may be useful. 

Class II comes next in value to sperm oil, viz., the oleins obtained by 
pressure from animal fats, known in the market as tallow olein, lard 
olein and neatsfoot oil. Lard and tallow oils should have a specific 
gravity of O'gi^. If the oil is heavier, it may contain fish oils, seed 
oils, olive oils or cocoa-nut olein, Olive oil, cocoa-nut oil or fish oils 
can be detected by the smell, color, taste and Calvert's tests, so that 
the real difficulty lies with seed oils, one of which, rape oil, is nearly of 
the color, and exactly of the specific gravity, of animal oleins. If a 
sample of animal olein be too heavy, it probably contains some par- 
tially-drying oils like cotton seed, which range from -920 to '930. 
Those seed oils which cannot be detected by variations in the specific 
gravity are rape, henbane-seed, horse-chestnut and plum-kernel oils. 
The last three may be disregarded. The processes for the detection of 
rape are the following : 

1. Heating to 400° F. and allowmg to cool to 90°. Tallow and lard 
oils are rendered odorless, while the peculiar penetrating smell of rape 
oil is developed. 

2. One part, by weight, of the oil is mixed with 3 parts of concen- 
trated sulphuric acid, and the heat developed is compared with the heat 
developed by a similar experiment made with pure oil. 

3. The nitrate of mercury test is said to indicate the presence of 
even 10 per cent. 

Finally, lard oil is distinguished from tallow olein by difference of 

Class III embraces the olive oils. The adulterations to be sought 
are drying oils, fish oils, mineral and resin oils. The specific gravity 
of olive oil is 0*917. Rape oil would make it lighter, and cotton-seed 
oil heavier, but a proper mixture of the two could be adjusted exactly 
to the specific gravity of olive oil. Fish oils being proved absent by 
Calvert's tests or by the smell, the following tests are used for seed 
oils : 

1. The well-known nitrous acid or nitrate of mercury test. 

2. The characteristics of the amides produced by liquid ammonia. 


Agave Americana. 

( Am, Jour. Pharin. 
( Feb., 1875. 

3. Fehling's test of the rise of the temperature produced by mixing 
with concentrated sulphuric acid. 

4. The characteristics of the action of solution of carbonate of pot- 
ash on the oil. 

Class IV. — Rape oils are the border-land between drying and non- 
drying oils, and are employed both for burning and lubricating. The 
specific gravity varies from 0*9 12 to 0*916. It is quite likely to be 
adulterated with cotton-seed oil, which [i] increases the specific grav- 
ity (mineral and resin oils being proven absent) ; [2] it raises the treez- 
ing-point of rape oil, which is, when pure, perfectly liquid at 32^ F. 
The other tests applicable are those for estimating the drying properties 
of the oil, or its tendency to gum, either by exposing on blotting-paper 
or in small capsules to 200° F. 

Class V is represented by linseed oil, the drying oil proper, of specific 
gravity 0*937 at 60° F. Mineral and resin oils must be carefully looked 
for, and, in their absence, fish oils are easily detected by smell or Cal- 
vert's tests. Cotton-seed oil may be recognized [i] by decreasing the 
specific gravitv, [2] materially raising the point of solidification, 
[3] decreasing the drying properties, which can be proved as above 

Class VI. — Fish oils have a commercial value inferior to the other 
oils, because of their odor ; hence they are not much liable to adultera- 
tion. They may, however, be mixed with each other, some varieties 
being much cheaper than others. The points to be observed are, 
[i] looking for mineral and resin oil, [2] examining the drying proper- 
ties of the sample, [3] examining the viscosity. 

Oleographs, or the figures formed by oils dropped on pure water, 
do not seem to have been studied by Mr. Coleman. With care and 
practice thev mav be made of considerable value in testing oils quickly 
and easily. — Jour, of Jpp. Chem.^ Dec.., 1874. 


Curator of the Museums, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Some attention has lately been drawn to the common Agave {Agave 
Americana) on account of its supposed efficacy as an anti-scorbutic. As 
noticed in this journal last week, General Sheridan, whose name is as 
a household word in the United States, is said to have used the juice 
with great success amongst his men, who were suff'ering from scurvy 

Am. Tour. Pharm . ) 
Feb., 1875. J 

Agave Americana, 


in a small isolated spot on the Texas border. The disagreeable smell 
of the juice, which has been compared to that of putrid meat, causes a 
person at first to turn from it in disgust, but after awhile the odor is 
overcome, and a liking for it takes the place of the previous dislike. 
From the compulsory doses of this juice taken by Sheridan's small 
army, the effectual stay of scurvy is attributed. In Mexico the plant 
is very highly valued for its medicinal properties, the belief in which, 
amongst the Mexican peasants, has been handed dpwn from a remote 
period of history. Thus, the gum found in the lower part of the stem 
is used as a cure for toothache, whilst the juice of the leaf is applied to 
bruises and contusions. This juice forms a large article of interna! 
trade in Mexico. The plant is known as the " Maguey," or " tree of 
wonders," and even at the present time, in some parts of Mexico it is 
considered one of the most important productions of the soil. The 
discovery of the juice of the plant as an intoxicating beverage is said 
by some to date back to the days of the early inhabitants of the Mex- 
ican continent. In an interesting report on the history, culture and 
trade in the plant furnished to the Foreign Office some short time since, 
we read that more modern tradition has fixed the epoch of its discovery 
as having been about the year 1045-1050, under the reign to the eighth 
King of the Taltec tribe, named Tepancaltzin, at whose court a rela- 
tion of his, named Pepantzin, presented himself, and informed him that 
his daughter had discovered that a sweet and aromatic liquid sprung 
forth from the Metl plants in her garden. The King ordered her into 
his presence, and she brought him ' Tecomati,' or vase of the liquid 
she had discovered, which he tasted, and then ordered her to bring him 
more ; and, subsequently, becoming enamored of the maiden, whose 
beauty was great, and whose name was ' Xochil,' or flower, he mar- 
ried her ; of which union a child was born, to whom was given the 
name of Meconetzin, or 'Son of the Metl \ or Maguey, in allusion to 
the circumstance which was the origin of his parent's first interview." 

Leaving its very remote history, there seems " no doubt that the 
divers properties of the plant itself were known many years before the 
discovery of Mexico by the Spaniards, for not only is it mentioned as 
furnishing thorny scourges, as well as whips made of the fibres of the 
plants' leaves for the multitudes who annually met to celebrate a fes- 
tival in honor of the god, Texcatlipuca, in the great Temple of Ten- 
ochtitlau (the modern Mexico), but the use of the juice became so 
general that manv severe laws against the drunkenness resulting from 

So Agave Americana. {^"Flr;i8^75""- 

it were issued by the ancient Mexican kings ; mention being made of 
a widow who sold it promiscuously having been put to death by order 
of the king, Netzahualcoqatl : only women suckling infants, old people 
and soldiers upon the march being allowed to drink it." Several vari- 
eties of the plant are cultivated in Mexico, each being known for the 
greater or lesser quantity of the juice it produces, its color, whether 
yellow or greenish, its thickness, or sweet or bitter taste. These 
variations, as to the properties or consistency of the juice depend a 
sreat deal upon the nature of the soil, and of the range of tempera- 
ture ; thus it is the least muciliginous in a somewhat clayey soil, and 
is cultivated with the greatest success at an elevation of about 9,000 
feet. Though the plant is cultivated very largely in many parts ot 
Mexico, it is in the plains of Apam that the greatest Agave district is 
situated ; more than 600 square leagues are here almost covered 
with the plant, either in its wild or cultivated state. The mode of 
propagation is by removing the young plants or suckers from the old 
ones, and after spreading them on the ground for two or three months 
to partially dry them, so that they may not rot, instead of starting into 
growth, they are planted in rows, and barley sown between them, 
which is considered rather to assist their growth. In a good soil the 
agave plant requires a period of from ten to twelve years before attain- 
ing maturity. The plant upon attaining its full growth, which is 
easily discernible by its height and the prodigious extension of its 
leaves, brings forth a tall stem crowned with yellow flowers, and then 
a certain amount of pruning becomes necessary so as to form a kind of 
reservoir in the centre, and what is technically termed a " cara," or 

face," around it, so as to cause the juice to flow towards the same 
spot, and to facilitate the extraction of it by removing some of the 
interior leaves and thorns." 

To collect the juice, or " pulque," as it is called, as soon as the 
leaves begin to turn yellow a small concave aperture is scooped in the 
core of the plant, and an elongated tube-like gourd, the air in which 
is exhausted by suction, is thrust into the aperture ; each laborer carries 
with him, strapped to his back, an impervious sheepskin bag, into which 
the gourd tube is emptied as soon as it is filled. From 50 to 60 plants 
are usually alloted to the care of one man, and from these he extracts, 
on an average, about 110 to 120 arrobas of juice, called honey-water, 
per week. After each plant has been exhaused of its juice, — and often 
two collections are made in one day — the apertures or incisions are 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb. 1875. I 

Agave Americana. 


carefully covered up with leaves and stones to preserve them from the 
attacks of cattle, dogs and a kind of jackal, common in the country. 
The pulque " manufactories on the plantations, to which the juice is 
removed after collecting, consists of long, covered and well-ventilated 
galleries, in which are rows of vats made of bullocks' hides stretched 
over a framework, and covered with lime ; the juice is emptied into 
these vats, and allowed to stand for about thirty-six hours, when fer- 
mentation ensues, and its yellow transparent color changes into a milky 
white. After fermentation, the juice or pulque is ready for use, and is 
then sent off to the City of Mexico, Puebla, or the nearest market 
within a radius of 20 to 30 leagues \ the pulque very commonly under- 
going a considerable dilution of water by the way at the hands of the 
carriers who convey it in sheepskin bags upon mules or donkeys. The 
quantity of it which thus annually enters the City of Mexico alone may 
be estimated, on an average, to be about 2,000,000 arrobas, and that 
which enters Puebla to be about 500,000 arrobas, aud the cost of trans- 
port alone has been calculated, taking the approximate average of one 
real as that of each arroba, to represent the sum of $312,000; not 
less than 20,000 mules and donkeys laden with the beverage entering 
the city every month by the gate leading to the Maguey districts. To 
the quantity paying duty must also be added a considerable quantity 
which is smuggled in, and including this it may be calculated that 
about 50,000,000 bottles are now annually introduced into the City 
of Mexico. 

" From a chemical analysis of pulque it is found to contain, in dif- 
ferent proportions, according to its quality, alcohol, mucilaginous fecula, 
sugar, water and potash. It has been observed that the drunkenness 
produced by it under its different varieties is of a less violent descrip- 
tion than that produced by another common beverage of the country, 
' chinguirito ' (brandy made from the sugar-cane), and that delirium tre- 
mens is rarely produced by the immoderate use of the former, though 
often by that of the latter. It is also affirmed that the pulque drinker 
is commonly long-lived, whilst the reverse is the case with regard to 
persons addicted to ' chinguirito,' and that the former beverage, not- 
withstanding its somewhat acid taste, is, probably on account of the 
fecula contained in it, peculiarly beneficial to women suckling their 
infants, and to those people whose constitutions require a wholesome 

Besides this pulque which, as we have seen, is the chief product of 


Poisoning by Cypripedium, 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Feb. 1875. 

the Agave in Mexico, a strong spirit is prepared from the sap, known 
as mezcal, also a kind of brandy of 80 degrees of strength, a sweet, 
thick substance resembling honey, a concentrated gum used in medicine, 
brown sugar, loaf sugar, sugar candy, and vinegar of very excellent 
quality, so that the Jgave^ the value to us of which is mostly for its 
fibre, is, in fact, one of the most important economic plants of Mexico. 
— Pharm. 'Journ. and Trans. ^ Dec. \lth^ 1874. 



Working botanists have so often been poisoned by Rhus toxicoden- 
dron that many of them have come to regard it as their special bane. 

In the five seasons commencing with 1868, I was particularly care- 
ful not to touch this poisonous plant, not to pluck a specimen growing 
in its immediate vicinity, nor to receive from the hands of another 
person a freshly-gathered plant, for fear it might have come in contact 
with Rhus. In spite of these precautions, in the latter part of May 
or first of June in each year, I was poisoned so severely as to be con- 
fined to my room for several days. In June, 1872, after gathering 
many specimens of Cypripedium spectahile^ I observed that my hands 
were stained with the purplish secretion of the glandular hairs with 
which its stem and leaves are densely clothed, and shortly after expe- 
rienced a peculiar irritation about my eyes. The next day my whole 
face presented the appearance of a severe case of Rhus poisoning. On 
reviewing my notes of the previous years, I found that in each season 
the poisoning had appeared on the day after I had collected Cypripedium 
spectahile or C. puhescens. In 1873 and 1874, I collected more exten- 
sively than ever before, but suspecting that my previous sufferings had 
been caused by these two species of Cypripedium rather than the Rhus, 
took no unusual pains to avoid the latter, but refrained from touching 
either of the former with the bare hand. The result was what I had 
expected, for I escaped entirely the poisoning that I had begun to 
regard as inevitable, and am now convinced that upon myself, at least, 
Cypripedium spectahile and C. puhescens are capable of producing effects 
similar to those caused by Rhus toxicodendron. Is it not possible that 
others, also, have wrongly attributed to Rhus the annoyance caused by 
these plants hitherto considered inoffensive \ A decisive answer, either 
affirmative or negative, must depend upon the results of future experi- 
ment. Who will undertake it \ — The Pharmacist.^ J^^"> 1875. 

Chicago, December 15 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb. 1875. 




Toothache Drops. — The "Dental Cosmos" for November, 1874, publishes the 
following formulas : 

3-, R. — Oil of Peppermint, 
dd ^ii Rhigalene, 

I., R. — Chloroform, 

Sydenham's laudanum, 
Tinct. benzoin, 

2., R. — Creasoty 

Chloroform, dd^n 

Sydenham's laudanum, ^^^iv 

Tinct. benzoin, §i 


4., R. — Chloral, 

Camphor, dd ^'1 

Morphia, gr. ii 

Oil of peppermint, ^ii 

Preparation of Koumys. — 5 quarts of fresh milk, J lb. grape sugar, and fresh 
beer-yeast of the size of a hazel-nut, are mixed, heated upon a slow fire to 25° R. 
(88° F.), removed from the fire for a short time, then again heated as before, at 
once filled into champagne bottles to within an inch of the neck, and these well 
corked. The bottles should be agitated every fifteen minutes during the next forty- 
eight hours. If well prepared, Koumys must effervesce like soda water. — Allg. Med. 
Centralzeitung, 1874,/). 1108. 

Quotations for Opium Here and Abroad. — Reference to quotations for 
opium shows the rather singular fact that in this country prices are named for 
the article as being of one grade only, while abroad they are stated according to 

We would remark that it is a great mistake to suppose that all the opium that 
comes here is of one uniform grade — such is not the case — hence the singularity of 
not being governed in quotations by quality. 

Every experienced druggist is well aware of the great difference existing in the 
opium sold in the United States 5 some being very superior and well adapted for 
uses of the apothecary and manufacturing pharmaceutist, while some is quite inferior 
and fails to give satisfactory results. 

We desire to call attention to this point, believing it to be one deserving of no- 
tice, and feeling quite sure that every one interested, from the importer down to the 
consumer, would be best served by selling and buying at rates based upon intrinsic 

The following figures illustrate the statement just made, as to the singular difler- 
ence in quoting opium here, as compared with Smyrna and London. 

We select a Smyrna letter of November 7, 1874, a London letter of November 
7, 1874, and a New York broker's list of November 7, 1874: 
" Smyrna, Nov. 7. Sales this week — 

400 chequees Chicantee opium, @, 196 to 198P. 

400 " " " @/ 200P. 

800 <c « • @ 210P. 

84 Varieties. x'^-iZ-rl^^:'" 

36 baskets old Karahissar opium, @ 252P. 

10 " current quality " @ 252P. 

1 " " " ® 253P. 
24 " " " @ 254P. 

2 " Yerli opium, @ 258 to 260P. 
5 " selected Karrahissar opium, (a)j 268P. 
4 " Tschal opium, @ 286P. 
2 " Bogaditsch opium, @ 348p." 

Now, taking the extreme figures, or say 2oop for Chicantee, and 340P for Boga- 
ditsch opium, we have a difference in prices, based on difference in quality, of 
I40P per chequee, equal to fully ^4 per pound gold. 

'■'■London^ November 7. Chicantee, 25/. to ids. Old, 31/. Prime new trade, 33/. 
Finest soft, 40J'." 

Showing a difference of 15/., or about $3.75 gold per pound between inferior and 
finest grade of opium In the London market. 

Turning to the figures quoted on a broker's list published in New York — and such 
lists are considered to fairly indicate the prices current — we find — 

" Nenjo York, November 7. Opium, |8.6o gold, in cases. Jobbing, $9.45 to 
$9'A7h currency." 

And this is all it says. 

Taking Smyrna quotation of same date, and selecting from the list, say Yerli opi- 
um, @ 258 to 260P, which would cost fully ^^8.50 per pound gold, duty paid 5 or Lon- 
don prices and base, say on 32/. for good trade quality, equal to about $9 gold, duty 
paid, it seems somewhat strange, especially in view of short crop, prospective high 
prices, etc., that a good opium could be afforded in this country, through brokers, and 
hence subject to a brokerage, at #8.60 gold, and we cannot see any inducement to 
zVz/)or/ opium, of prime quality, such as "Yerli," " Karahissar," or even "current 
quality," if no better price than this can be obtained. 

But this view is no more discouraging than when we come to consider the margin 
left to the party who buys "in cases" and jobs "as wanted." Thus — 

'■^Ne-tv 7'ork, November 7. Opium, ^8.60 gold, in cases. Jobbing, (od ^9.45 to 
^9.47 ^- currency." 

Now, the large dealer, who bought opium about November 7, paid, we will pre- 
sume, say ^8.60 gold per pound, in cases, and we may assume paid promptly. The 
gold rate was, hence it cost him 1^9 46 per pound currency. He would, in all 
probability, be confronted with the quotation for "jobbing parcels, say ^9.45 to 
$9-47i currency," should he have an order for ten pounds, and. be expected to meet 
these figures, and thus probably have to sell not only at or below cost, but wait for his 
money the same length of time as for other merchandise. 

We think this peculiar position is one that must force the conclusion upon any 
mind that transactions in opium, so far as this country is concerned, are not very 
profitable to dealers who are expected to buy and sell at the same price, nor to im- 
porters of fine grades, as the superior value of such seems to be entirely ignored. — 
Circular No. 24, Philadelphia Drug Exchange. 

Camphorated Phenol. — Bufalinl, in " Campagna Med." (" London Medical 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
Feb. 1875. j 



Recoid") describes the combination of camphor and phenol, and gives its therapeu- 
tical conclusions. 

If equal parts of carbolic acid and camphor be dissolved in alcohol, and the mix- 
ture be allowed to stand for thirteen hours, a yellowish, oily stratum arises to the 
surface. This will not mix with the water Qr liquid, nor is the camphor precipitated 
by the alcohol. This substance is called camphorated phenol. It is best prepared 
as follows : One part of carbolic acid and two of camphor are mixed in a vessel and 
allowed to stand for some hours. A reddish-yellow oily liquid will be formed, 
which is to be purified by washing with water. The properties of this combination 
are reddish-yellow color, oily appearance, smell of camphor, insoluble in water, but 
soluble in alcohol and ether. From considerable experience in its use, Bufalini 
concludes ; 

(1) Camphorated phenol produces the same effects as carbolic acid, but is less 
dangerous. It may be used both externally and internally, viz., in enteric fever, etc. 

(2) It has the power of modifying unhealthy wounds and of destroying the para- 
sites which are present in certain diseases, as septicaemia, typhoid fever, etc. 

(3) The medical use of camphorated phenol is to be preferred to that of carbolic 
acid, as the former does not present the disadvantages of the latter. 

(4) Camphorated phenol, when applied to wounds does not irritate them or act 
as a caustic or disorganizing substance on them, and may be used in large doses, 
without producing symptoms of poisoning. — Kansas City Med. Jour., Nov., 1874, 
from Det. Rev. of Med. 

Refined Camphor. — Crude camphor, as brought to this country, is refined here 
by being introduced together with quicklime into cast-iron vessels, which serve as 
retorts, over which are placed covers of sheet-iron connected with the lower vessels 
by a small aperture. 

A number of these stills are placed in a large sand bath, and, after the melting of 
the camphor within them, kept at a uniform temperature that the process may go on 
quietly. The quicklime serves to retain the moisture that otherwise would interfere 
with the condensation of the pure camphor. This takes place under the shelf u]3on 
which the cone stands, the vapor, when in excess, passing into the loosely affixed 
cones of sheet-iron, care being taken to keep the hole open. 

A great deal of attention and experience are requisite to successfully refine cam- 
phor, but the process is now well understood in this country as well as in Europe, 
and what is sold in this market is refined here, and is of satisfactory quality and ap- 
pearance. — Philadelphia Drug Exchange, Circular No. 10. 

The Cultivation of Castor Beans. — A California letter says of this crop: — 
"The method of gathering and preparing for market is as follows: Every day 
the ripe spikes are gathered by hand, put in sacks, and hauled to the ' popping" 
ground,' which is a space of about an acre, made smooth and hard, like an old- 
fashioned buckwheat threshing ground. Here the spikes are spread, and during 
the day they pop open, from the heat of the sun, throwing out the beans. Each 
morning the straw is raked ofi\, the beans shoveled up, cleaned in a fanning mill, 
and sacked, ready for market. By the time the field is once picked over it is 
ready for another picking, like cotton, and the season, commencing in August, 
is not yet over. The yield is estimated at fifteen hundred pounds per acre, worth 
four cents per pound, or a gross yield of ^60 per acre. The expense of cultiva- 
tion, etc., is estimated this year at one-half this amount, but is greater than it 
probably will be another season, owing to inexperience and preparing new land. 
There is probably no crop so easily raised that will yield so large a return." — 
Med. arid Surg. Rep., Nov. 7, i 874. 


Minutes of the College, 

C Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Feb. 1875- 

Expectorant Properties of Apomorphia. — It is pointed out by Dr. Jurasz, 
in the " Centralblatt," for July 4th, that this drug has been proved to be a useful ex- 
pectorant in all the cases in which it has been used, comprising cases of tracheitis 
and bronchitis, and also inflammation of the larger and smaller bronchial tubes. 
The tenacious sputa were in all cases readily dislodged, and their discharge was 
greatly facilitated. The rhonchi, at first dry, blowing and whistling, became moist, 
and always diminished. The remedy was administered according to the following 
formula: Hydrochlorate of apomorphia, i to 3 centigrams (0-15 to 0-46 grains)^ 
distilled water, 120 grams (4 ounces) 5 hydrochloric acid, 5 drops 5 simple syrup, 30 
grams (about i ounce) 5 a tablespoonful to be taken every two hours. The amount 
of apomorphia in each dose was thus from i to 3 milligrams (o'i5 to 0*46 grain). 
The patients stated that the first spoonful caused slight uneasiness, which, however, 
did not follow the administration of the second dose. The hydrochloric acid was 
added to remove the tendency of the apomorphia to assume a green color when in 
solution. — Med. and Surg. Reporter, Oct. 24, 1874. 


At a stated meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, held at the College 
hall on the afternoon of December 28th, 1874, seventeen members registered their 
names. Dillwyn Parrish, President, occupied the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees since the semi-annual meeting in Septem- 
ber, were also read by Wm. C. Bakes, Secretary of the Board, and, on motion, 

Joseph P. Remington, on behalf of the Committee on Deceased Members, read 
an interesting memorial of our late respected fellow-member, Charles Ellis, which 
was accepted, and referred to the Publication Committee to be inserted in the "Jour- 

[The Memoir will be published in the next number of the Journal.] 

The reading of this paper called forth remarks from Dillwyn Parrish, Charles 
Bullock, Thomas S. Wiegand and James T. Shinn, the purport of which was, that 
the College had sustained a great loss in the death of Charles Ellis, as he had been 
one of its earliest advocates and supporters, and continued so throughout his life. 
They all bore witness to his uniform urbanity and kindness to all who were in any 
way connected with him in business or in social life. 

A letter was received and read from James P. Wood, resigning his membership 
in the College, which was, on motion, accepted. 

A bust of Benjamin Franklin, made from stearic acid, was presented to the Col- 
lege by Henry Bower. On motion, it was accepted, and referred to the Curator to 
be properly placed in the hall. 

The thanks of the College were ordered to be presented to Mr. Bower for his 
acceptable gift. 

There being no further business, on motion, adjourned. 

William J. Jenks, Secretary. 


Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 87 


The fourth meeting of the session was held January 19th, 1875, I^r. Wilson H. 
Pile in the chair ; number in attendance, forty-five. The minutes of the previous 
meeting were read and approved. 

J. T. Shinn presented to the library, on behalf of Thomas H. McAllister, four 
volumes of the "American Journal of Pharmacy," and a copy of the General Index 
published in 1850, which were received with the thanks of the College. 

Prof. Maisch, from the collection of the late Prof. Procter, presented Penghaivar 
Djambi, portions of the stipes, with the hair-like chaff still attached, of ferns from 
the East Indian islands, the hairs being used as a haemostatic, acting mechanically \ 
also, from Dr. J, W. Eckfeldt, a portion of the large root of Populus monilifera^ from 
Delaware County, Pa., where it is grown as a shade-tree. It is very evident that the 
false cotton-root bark, described in the January number of the "Journal," is not 
•derived from this species. 

R. V. Mattison presented a handsome specimen of true cotton-root bark, from 
Wallace Bros. & Stephenson, of Statesville, N. C. j and Mr. Blair, six samples of 
cotton-root bark, one of which was from Boston, being the true root-bark, with 
some stem-bark j one from Baltimore, similar in appearance; one from New York, 
almost free from stem-bark, and three from Philadelphia, one of which was in fine 
powder, another cut and containing considerable stem-bark, while the third was 
mixed with plenty of wood. 

Three samples of fluid extract of cotton-root bark were shown by Mr. Blair 5 one 
from a well-known house in this city, and another from his own store, made one 
year ago. Both had the characteristic red color of this fluid extract, while the third 
was more of a greenish-brown color, caused by heat being used in a part of the pro- 
cess, which seemed to entirely destroy the red color. 

Prof. Maisch had prepared tinctures of both the true and false bark, that of the 
latter being destitute of the peculiar red color. David Preston had prepared the 
fluid extract, and two samples were shown, both being of the characteristic red color. 

Dr. A. W. Miller presented specimens of glucose, of American manufacture. 
Commercially, the term glucose is applied to the liquid form, and grape sugar to the 
solid. The samples shown are both of good quality, and will compare favorably 
with the imported article. They are made from corn starch, by the well-known 
process with sulphuric acid. Glucose i§ largely used by brewers as a substitute for 
imalt. A very handsome specimen of white grape sugar, of American manufac- 
ture, was shown, and stated to have been made from wheat starch. 

J. L. Lemberger, of Lebanon, Pa., presented yellow beeswax, of unexceptional 
quality, purified, by himself, by filtration through paper. With proper arrangements, 
fifty pounds of wax may readily be filtered in a day. 

Dr. A. W. Miller called attention to what he believed to be pure oil of Ceylon 
cinnamon, obtained by him through a reliable source, the price being much beyond 
the ordinary quotations for this oil. 

The Chairman asked for information as to the difference between light and heavy 
oil of Ceylon cinnamon, which are quoted at different prices. 

88 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. {^"""■^Z;!^^''^' 

Prof. Maisch suggested the probability of the light oil, and the impure oil noticed 
at the last meeting [see "Am. Jour. Phar.," 1875, p. 37), being derived from cinna- 
mon leaves, which are said to have an odor somewhat reminding of cloves. 

Dr. Bridges exhibited a large collection of anilin colors, and Dr. Miller a speci- 
men of anilin black, soluble in water, and writing ink made from it by dissolving i^r 
ounce of the former and i|- fluidounce of mucilage of gum arable in one gallon of 

The practical uses to which anilin colors had been put for coloring candies, 
syrups, liquors, hair-oils and the like, were commented upon by several speakers, 
and attention was drawn to the formulas for inks by C. H. Viedt {^see page 64 of 
this number). Insoluble anilin black is used for indelible stencil inks and for calico 
printing. The cheaper grades of anilin colors sometimes contain arsenic, and 
should be used with care. Ordinary anilin red does not answer for boiled candies^ 
being changed to a pale, dull purple; cochineal coloring is used for this purpose. 

Dr. Miller exhibited specimens of a garlic, which is probably a hybrid, and en- 
tirely different from the officinal, consisting of a bud enclosed in a solid, fleshy mass^ 
which has a strong garlicky odor. 

The following note, from H. N. Wilder, on an indispensible implement for the 
prescription counter was read : 

"The accompanying style of funnel I have been using for several years for strain- 
ing mixtures. Let the component parts of a mixture be ever so clear when ready, 
the mixture will seldom fail to exhibit particles floating about. Straining through 
linen is quite w^asteful and disagreeable — through the funnel the liquid passes quickly., 
and to the last drop. The funnel is tin, the strainer, soldered into the lower part, 
of brass, yet it is so short a time in contact with the liquid, that a contamination 
with this metal becomes quite an impossibility 5 however, if any fears are entertained, 
it may be tinned previous to soldering. The wire gauze is of the finest to be had — 
I think, a hundred meshes to the inch. I make it a rule, as soon as used, to put the 
funnel under the hydrant for a miiUite or two," 

Other methods of accomplishing the same end were spoken of by members, as 
fine Swiss muslin, loose cotton in a glass funnel, etc. The Chairman cautioned 
against straining out precipitates which may contain the virtues of a mixture. 

E. M. Boring exhibited ointment of mercuric nitrate, made by the formula of 
Mr. Rother, published in the "Am, Jour. Phar.," 1870, p. 419. This specimen, al- 
though one month old, and exposed in an ordinary dispensing jar in the shop for 
that time, still retains its citrine color, and«looks as nicely as when first made. Dr. 
Pile said he had used this formula for some time, and excepting a little alteration in 
the temperature when making large quantities, had found it satisfactory. Mr. Bor- 
ing also exhibited glyconin, made of five parts of glycerin and four parts of the 
yolks of eggs, by weight 5 also, two samples of emulsion of cod-liver oil, made with 
it. Mr. Hirsh, in the "Am Jour. Phar.", 1870, p. 155, says that it is perfectly 
stable, and will keep for years. The oil emulsions were made by emulsionizing four 
parts of oil with one of glyconin, and diluting so that the emulsions contain re- 
spectively 50 and 66t per cent, of oil. The former is quite mobile, while the latter 
has about the consistence of a 50 per cent, emulsion made with gum arabic and sugar. 

Mr. Boring exhibited coca leaves, from Erythroxylon coca^ and the Fuller's teasel. 

^'"'Fer'is^s.''''"'} Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 89 

the mature heads of Dipsacus Fullonum, Mill. , native of Europe, and sometimes cul- 
tivated for the use of the clothiers, who employ the heads with their hard, recurved 
bracts, to raise the nap upon woolen cloth. 

Dr. Pile had repeated Prof. Goddefroy's test for glycerin [see " Amer. Journ. 
Pharm.," 1875, P- 40) with that of Price, Bower and Hartman, Laist & Co. The 
residues in each case were shown, and seem to be very nearly alike. 

It was stated in answer to inquiry that Trommer's test, with the addition of tar- 
taric acid, was a ready test for glucose in glycerin. 

Mr. Blair read the following letter in reference to a subject mentioned at the pre- 
ceding meeting : 

Philadelphia, December 21st, 1874. 
Messrs. H. C. Blair's Sons, cor. Eighth and Walnut streets. City : 

Gentlemen, — I received your favor of the 17th instant at Washington, and brought the matter to the 
attention of Mr. Kimball, who has charge of this Department, and to whom such matters are generally 
referred by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. He read the letter carefully, and seemed to be in 
entire accord with you. He stated to me that the wishes of the Department will be fully met if the 
Deputy Collectors con'fine their examination to goods exposed for consumption or sale, and that it was 
not the desire of the Department that they should extend their investigations into upper rooms, cellars, 
etc., as that would be an unnecessary interference, in many cases, with the domestic arrangements of 
families, it frequently happening that druggists reside in the same building as that in which they do bus- 

He observed, further, that in his opinion the officers would be fully justified in extending their investi- 
gations to the small room that is usually found in the rear of most drug stores. I told Mr. Kimball that 
if the officers should go further than this, it would, in my opinion, be in violation of the rights guaranteed 
to American citizens by one of the early Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, which 
guarantees immunity from search, except where there are good grounds for supposing that something is 
wrong; and even in such cases it is necessary to have a warrant. 

I have no hesitation whatever in saying that I consider the efforts made by officers to go further than 
the examination of such goods as are exposed for consumption or sale, as contrary to the wishes of the 
Department : my own personal view is, that it is contrary to the Constitution of the United States. 

I shall probably embody the facts of this case in the next issu^ of the Drug Exchange Circular, but you 
can state to the officers, without hesitation, that Mr. Kimball very clearly and definitely stated the 
wishes of the Department to be limited to the examination of goods exposed for consumption or sale in 
the stores of druggists and in the small room in the rear, but that the officers were not expected to go iiUo 
the upper parts of the building, or into the cellar, where goods were simply stored. 

Yours truly, A. H. JONES. 

A paper by George W. Kennedy, on suppositories, was read [see page 55). Mr. 
Mattison objected to the opinion therein expressed of manufactured goods, as en- 
tirely too general \ his experience with suppositories is in favor of moulds. M. 
Boring had used the process described, and found a piece of linen advantageous iru 
avoiding contact with the hands. Prof. Remington had made suppositories by hand^ 
and failed to see matters in the same light as the writer of the paper, the supposi- 
tories being brittle. Mr, Shinn urged that small lumps of cacao butter could be 
avoided only with difficulty. To prevent this, Mr. Lemberger called attention to 
grating the oil of theobroma previous to admixture with the other ingredients. 
Wm. Mclntyre believed that the process possessed sufficient merit to warrant atten- 
tion to it. It was safe to say that in cases where the activity will admit of nothing- 
but positive equal distribution, or the call is very urgent, it is possible to prepare, in 
from five to ten minutes, a few suppositories in condition for immediate use, which, 
for shape and utility will be in keeping with all requirements. By proper attention 
to all the details of this process, and by inserting the cones prepared with the fingers 

90 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. {^'"'Feb!'^i8'^5.^'^"'' 

and a spatula, while yet plastic, into a hinged mould, which has previously been well 
cleaned and dusted with powdered arrow-root or lycopodium, and pressing them 
well home, after a few moments they can be readily detached from the opened mould 
by pressure upon the end of each suppository. 

Dr. A. W. Miller read an interestting paper on the orthography of asa foetida 
{^see page 49) 5 after some remarks by Prof. Maisch in approval of asa in place of 
assa, the papers read were referred for publication. 

Adjourned. William McIntyre, Registrar. 


The New York College of Pharmacy appointed a Committee consisting of 
Messrs. William Hegeman, Daniel C. Robbins and William Neergaard, to prepare 
resolutions relating to the late John Milhau 5 the following was submitted and 
adopted : 

"Whereas, It ha« pleased an all-wise Providence to remove by death our late 
associate and friend John Milhau, therefore, 

" Resolved., That the College of Pharmacy, of which he was so long an officer and 
Trustee, loses in him one of its best-known, most able and respected friends, and his 
associates in the Faculty one of their oldest and most honored members. 

" Rosolnjed^ That while we lament his death we recall with satisfaction his long, 
laborious and useful life, his devotion to the best interests of his profession, his num- 
berless acts of charity and philanthropy, and the warm affection and earnest respect 
which he ever inspired among those who were brought in any relations with him. 
Full of years and of honors, his loss leaves a vacancy in our ranks which cannot be 

^''Resolved., That we tender to the family of the deceased our sincere condolence 
upon the sad bereavement which has removed from the domestic circle its beloved 

Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — At the Annual Meeting, held Tuesday, 
January 12th, the following officers were elected for the ensuing year : President, 
E. S. Wayne ; Recording Secretary, Joseph H. Feemster ; Corresponding Secretary, 
Charles H. Van Slyck ; Treasurer, W. H. Negley j Trustees, J. F. Judge, F. L. 
Eaton, A. W. Bain, A. Schaefer. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — M. Planchon presided at the Meeting 
held December 2d, at which M. Coulier was elected Vice-President and M. Fr. 
Wurtz, Secretary, for the year 1875. 

M. Petit spoke on the sugar contained in grape-vine leaves, which was estimated 
by Fehling's solution, the results being controlled by fermentation and by the pol- 
ariscope, both before and after inv^ersionj it was thus found that the sugar consists 
in part of reducing and of non-reducing sugar, the latter, which has all the proper- 

Am. Jour, Pharm.l 
Feb. 1875. ]■ 



ties of cane-sugar, reaching occasionally three-fourths of the total quantity, which 
varies between 20 and 25 grams per kilogram of leaves. Earlier experiments in- 
duce M. Petit to the conclusion that, at the period of maturation, the reducing 
sugar of the melon is converted into the non-reducing kind, the same transformation 
taking place if the melon is detached before it is ripe. 

M. Buignet called attention to his old researches on bananas, in the sugar of 
which considerable difference exists, depending upon its production under the action 
of the vegetative forces, or removed from their influence; in the latter case, cane- 
sugar is not formed in bananas, but in its place invert sugar appears. 

M. F. Boudet read an abstract of his report made to the Board of Health, October 
23d, 1874, relating to the alteration of the Seine water caused by the drainage of 
Paris, and to the purification of the latter. 

The Society voted a contribution of 250 francs, for the proposed monument to 


The Philadelphia Pharmacy Law, as we informed our readers in our last 
issue, we expected to be destined to be contested in regard to its constitutionality 
and its supposed oppressive provisions. A second meeting of the opponents was 
called, through the daily papers, for January 5th, at No. 349 N. Fourth street. At 
this meeting we had hoped to hear of the promised resolutions, explaining all the 
shortcomings of the Pharmacy Act, and to learn the steps to be taken to sweep this 
obnoxious law from the statute book. We are sorry to say, however, that for some 
time after the appointed hour, as we are informed by the " Public Record," only 
three persons responded. It seems, then, that the first meeting must have been 
largely composed of persons who went there out of curiosity, or that the malcon- 
tents must have come to different conclusions from the prominent speakers. 

The number of the derelict pharmacists fined by Alderman Beitler, December 
8th, was three ; the attendants at this second opposition meeting was exactly three, 
including the malcontent physicians. How many of the latter were included in the 
former three > 

We are sorry that these gentlemen will apparently be deprived of the pleasure of 
vindicating their supposed rights ; we believe that the law contains certain pro<visions 
which are not as good as they might be. But the fault, as we see it, is not in its 
intentions, but simply in its expressions, which, to some, appear to be not definite 
enough. If that is what the opponents object to, we desire to say that we agree 
with them entirely, and are ready to join in any movement which promises to result 
in unmistakable clearness, greater stringency, and hence greater benefit and security 
to the people. 

The Stamp Tax on Medicines. — During the last seventeen months we have 
endeavored to keep our readers informed on the steps taken to secure a modification 
of the Internal Revenue Law, with the view of preventing a recurrence of conflict- 
ing decisions in regard to what medicines require to be stamped. On page 351 we 


Reviews, etc. 

("Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Feb. 1875. 

printed a section of a bill pending before Congress, which we think will be acqui- 
esced in by all concerned. Unfortunately that clause was incorporated into a bill 
referring to tariff matters as well as to internal revenue, and some of its provisions 
appear to be of such a nature as to prevent, perhaps, the final enactment of this law,, 
through which pharmacists and druggists would be freed from some of the annoy- 
ances to which they had been lately subjected, and from some arbitrary decisions 
rendered by the Internal Revenue Bureau, which, it seems, now begins to fear that 
it would lose considerably by such a provision. In view of this possibility, the sug- 
gestion of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange appears to be very appropriate — to in- 
duce Congress to have the bill considered for final action 5 omitting, if its passage 
cannot be secured in any other way, the disputed clauses now under consideration 
by the Conference Committee appointed by both Houses^''. 


Die chemische Werthhestimmung einiger stark njuirkender Droguen und der aus ihnen 
angefertigten Arzneimischungen, von Dr. G. Dragendorff, Professor der Pharma- • 
cie an der Universitat Dorpat. St. Petersburg : 1874. Kais. Hof buchhandlung. 
8vo, pp. 126. Price: in paper, i thaler. 

The Chemical Valuation of some Powerful Drugs, and of the Medicinal Preparations 
made from them. 

This little volume, which is dedicated to the Fourth International Pharmaceutical 
Congress, is a very important publication, which originated in the desire of the 
author to find or examine analytical methods for estimating the true value of cer- 
tain drugs and their preparations, and, more in particular, to determine their reliability 
and to search for the sources of errors and for the means of avoiding them. 

The drugs selected for this work are aconite, aconitum ferox, belladonna, stra- 
monium, hyoscyamus, ipecac, conium, tobacco, guarana, tea and co^^'ee, nux vomica 
and Ignatius seed, colchicum, opium, poppy, celandine, cantharides and aloes. 

It will be observed that most of these articles owe their efficacy to one or more 
alkaloids, for the quantitative determination of which, the iodohydrargyrate of 
potassium solution, as first proposed by the late Prof. F. F. Mayer, is used, Ot 
great interest are the determinations of the actual strength of many galenical pre- 
parations made by the various European and the United States Pharmacopoeias. The 
necessity of separating, particularly from complex preparations, many principles, 
the presence of w^hich would interfere with the correct determination of actual 
strength, rendered a large number of experiments necessary, the results of which 
are given in the directions for isolating as much as possible and requisite, the active 
constituent. Thus, without going too much into details, the work has been ren- 
dered exceedingly valuable as a manual for use in the analysis of the substances 
mentioned above ; while those seeking further information, will find many refer- 
ences to other publications. 

We earnestly recommend this work, which the author promises to continue at 
some future time 5 the notion, which is still prevalent in some quarters, that the 

* Since the above was in type, the " Httle tariff bill" has passed both Houses of Congress, and now 
awaits the, signature of the President. 

Am. ]ovir. Pharm. 1 
Feb. 187J. X 

Reviews, etc. 


value of a drug is in direct proportion to the amount of extract obtainable, can have 
no better commentary or find a more thorough refutation. 

Therapeutics and Materia Medica. A Systematic Treatise on the Action and Use 
of Medicinal Agents, including their Description and History. By Alfred Stille, 
M. D., Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine, and of Clinical Med- 
icine, in the University of Pennsylvania, &c. Fourth edition, thoroughly revised 
and enlarged. In two volumes. Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea, 1874. 8vo, I944 
pages. Price, in cloth, $105 in leather, ^12. 

The rapid exhaustion of three editions, and the universal favor with which the 
work has been received by the medical profession, are sufficient proof of its excel- 
lence as a repertory of practical and useful information for the physician. The edi- 
tion now before us fully sustains this verdict, as the work, has been carefully revised, 
and in some portions rewritten, bringing it up to the present time by the admission 
of chloral and croton-chloral, nitrite of amyl, bichloride of methylene, methylic 
ether, lithium compounds, gelsemium, and other remedies, among which the author 
has even not neglected to sketch the brief career of that short-lived medical wonder 
cundurango, which will forever retain a well-deserved celebrity for the unusual 
amount of fraudulent misrepresentation attending the attempt to introduce it into 
medical practice. 

It has evidently not been the author's aim to discuss the action and remedial em- 
ployment of e^ery drug mentioned in the Pharmacopoeia 5 indeed, we observe 
accounts of a number of medicinal agents not mentioned in the Pharmacopoeia 5 
many of the secondary list and a few of the primary list (Pareira) have been omitted, 
likewise pepsin, the manufacture of which, in a reliable and uniform condition, has 
made such marked progress within the last few years. 

Intended as a work of practical utility to the medical practitioner, and as a repos- 
itory of the observations of others at the bedside mainly, the pharmacognostical, 
chemical and pharmaceutical portions have been but briefly treated, insufficient to be 
of much usefulness to the pharmacist, but sufficient in most cases to suggest to the 
practising physician suitable forms for administration and combination. 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the Twenty-second Annual 
Meeting, held in Louisville, Ky , September, 1874. Also the Constitution and 
Roll of Members. Philadelphia: Sherman & Co., Printers. 1875. 8vo, pp. 655. 
Price in paper, ^5 j bound in cloth, $5.50. 

Although one of the largest volumes published by the Association, it will be 
earlier in the hands of the members than the preceding ones. This is in a great 
measure due to the different arrangement now adopted, and the main features of 
which are, that the Report on the Progress of Pharmacy during the preceding year 
is printed first, followed by the reports of committees, the volunteer and special 
reports, and finally by the minutes of the last meeting. If this new arrangement 
proves as satisfactory as is hoped, it will very materially shorten the time of publi- 
cation, and if no unforseen accidents happen, the annual volume may hereafter be 
expected to reach the members by about January ist following the meeting. 

In the October number, 1874, we have reported the transactions at this meeting 
in full, and hope to be enabled to lay before our readers, in a future number, an ab- 



( Am. Jour. Pharm . 
t Feb. 1875. 

stract of the papers, several of which are of more than ephemerous value. It should 
be mentioned yet, that this volume is embellished with a number of well-executed 
woodcuts, illustrating chiefly several new apparatus and some articles of Materia 
Medica ; also, with the excellent likeness of the late Professor Procter, first pub- 
lished in our November number. 

The different volumes of the " Proceedings " contain such a vast amount of use- 
ful, practical and scientific information, and are sold at a mere nominal price, so 
that no progressive pharmacist should be without them. They may be obtained 
singly or in complete sets by addressing Prof. J. M. Maisch, 145 North Tenth street, 

Accidents, Emergencies and Poisons. Distributed through the Howard Hospital and 
Infirmary for Incurables, 15 18 and 1520 Lombard street, Philadelphia. 

This pamphlet of 125 pages is intended to instruct in the management of acci- 
dents, emergencies and poisons until the arrival of skilled assistance. Intended for 
the general public, the directions given here are simple, easily understood and very 
practical, and for this reason we regard it of very great value to the pharmacist, who 
is usually applid to in such cases if the services of a physician cannot be at once ob- 
tained. It is for sale by James Hammond, 1224 Chestnut street, Philadelphia. 

Bulletin of the Bussey Institution (Jamaica Plain, Boston). Part III. 1875. Cam- 
bridge : John Wilson & Son. 8vo. 

We have reported on Part I of this publication on page 496 of our last volume, 
and now mention the papers published in the third part, the second not having been 
received : On the valuation of the soluble phosphoric acid in superphosphate of 
lime \ On the average amounts of potash and phosph.oric acid contained in wood- 
ashes from household fires 5 and On the importance as plant-food of the nitrogen in 
vegetable mould. These thiee essays are from the pen of Professor Frank H. Storer^ 

Contributions to the Annals of Medical Progress and Medical Education in the United 
States before and during the War of Independence. By Joseph M. Toner, M. D. 
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874. 8vo, pp. 118. 

The title fully explains the aim of this pamphlet, of giving biographical and his- 
torical notes> concerning the medical profession during the Colonial period of our 
country's history 5 it is intended to form a part of a complete representation of the 
rise, progress and present condition of the system of education in the United States. 


John Milhau died at his residence, in the city of New York, December 23d, 
1874, at 2 A. M., in the eightieth year of his age, having been born in Baltimore, 
Md., in the year 1795. His parents were of French origin, and had fled to Mary, 
land, having lost their entire fortune in the great French Revolution. He was edu- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Feb. 1875. 



cated at the Emmittsburg Seminary, and commenced business at the early age of 
eighteen, but soon after lost, by fire, his entire stock and fixtures, upon which there 
was no insurance. Aided by some friends, he soon re-established himself, and by 
his undaunted energy, industry and economy, he was enabled to repay the advances 
and, in 1823, to retire from business wath what was then considered a competency. 

Having married, in 1825, Miss Guillou, of Philadelphia, who was likewise the off- 
spring of French refugees, he visited Europe, in 1829, for the third time, and studied 
pharmacy and chemistry under the celebrated teachers at Paris. After his return to 
this country he visited the West, extending his tour to St. Louis and New Orleans^ 
and finally settled at New York city, where, in the fall of 1830, he opened a drug 
store on the the northeast corner of Maiden Lane and Broadway, where subsequently- 
the Howard Hotel was located. In the following year, he moved opposite to No. 
183 Broadway, which property he afterwards purchased, and where the business, 
established by him, is still carried on by his sons. The many improvements he made 
to the building and store were all of a substantial character, without exhibiting a 
craving for what may be called the drawing-room style of some pharmacies of the 
present time. He placed in his store the first marble-floor ever laid in New York 
city, outside of the public buildings, and subsequently added two stories, an iron 
front and other improvements and conveniences. In 1869, he retired from active 
business life, having lost the use of his right arm by a fall, and lived in retirement 
to within a few weeks of his golden wedding, which would have occurred on the 
tenth of Frebruary 5 his wife, the faithful companion during half a century, and 
four sons surviving him. 

Mr. Milhau, although not a writer on pharmaceutical matters, has done valuable 
and lasting service to the cause of pharmacy in this country. On settling in New 
York, he at once identified himself with the recently established College of Phar- 
macy, and was one of the charter-members in 1831 5 he served for a long period as 
Vice-President and President, and retained a lively interest in its welfare. The con- 
dition of the drug-market attracted his attention at an early date, and the fact that 
inferior and worthless drugs were abundant in this country, being often manufac- 
tured in Europe especially for the American market, suggested to him the idea of 
excluding this evil, and the passage of the U. S. drug law of 1848 is mainly due to 
his persistent and conscientious efforts. 

The subject of uniform and correct standards for the guidance of the special ex- 
aminers of drugs and medicines, appointed under that law, induced the New York 
College of Pharmacy to call a convention of delegates of the colleges of pharmacy 
in the United States, which met in that city, October 15th, 1851, and one of the 
fruits of which was the organization of the American Pharmaceutical Association 
in Philadelphia, in October, 1852. Mr. Milhau joined the Association in 1855 j 
served as its first Vice-President for the term 1862-63, and as President, in i?,6j-6'S,, 
in which latter capacity he presented, at the meeting of 1868, an address which is 
full of sound observation and good advice, embodying some of the views matured 
during a long life of activity and usefulness. 

Highly respected as a citizen, Mr. Milhau acted for many years as one of the 
Trustees of the Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank and of the Bowery Savings Bank, 
and in the memorable litigation which prevented the speculative companies from en- 

96 Obituaries. {^"-/erisys""- 

joying the fruits of extraordinary charters, procured by questionable means, for 
laying the tracks in Broadway, his name was placed at the head of the list as the 
oldest property holder on that thoroughfare represented in the case. 

Accustomed to do his full duty, he expected the same of others 5 kind and genial 
m disposition, his bearing was always courteous and dignified 5 sociable and friendly 
an his inclinations, those in whom he felt an interest were always welcome to him j 
prompt, reliable and judicious in his business relations, he possessed the qualities in- 
suring success. 

Professor Carlos Murray died at Buenos Ayres, July 17th, 1874. The de- 
ceased was one of the founders of the "Asociacion Farmaceutico Bonaerense," in 1856, 
which, after the incorporation of Buenos Ayres into the Argentine Republic, was 
changed into the Argentine National Pharmaceutical Society. Since the publication 
of the " Revista Farmaceutica," in 1858, he was one, and, for a long period, its sole 
editor. In 1861, he was elected Secretary, and, in 1864, President of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society, to which latter position he was re-elected several times. 

In 1863, he presented a project for the establishment of a School of Phar- 
macy. The Society accepted the idea, but the Government, for economical 
reasons, unable to carry this project out, ordered the foundation of the School, in 
connection with the School of Medicine, by establishing two new chairs of Pharma- 
cology and Natural History. The deceased was a member of the Committee which 
perfected this plan with the Rectorate of the University, and, in 1864, he was selected 
to fill the chair of Pharmacology, which he occupied until his death. Two years 
later, he published his " Tratado de Farmacia y Farmacognosia," which was noticed 
in this Journal in 1866, page 412. 

Carlos Murray was at the head of a successful pharmaceutical establishment, and 
sTOtwithstanding his numerous duties pointed out above, he wrote a number of valu- 
able papers, which were published in the " Revista Farmaceutica," served as Sec- 
retary of the Palaeontological Society of Buenos Ayres, and maintained a scientific 
correspondence with ten or twelve American and European societies with which he 
was connected as honorary member. 

By his death, the cause of pharmacy in the Argentine Republic has lost one of 
its most active and energetic promoters. The deceased waf- an honorary member 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

The successor of Carlos Murray in the chair of Pharmacology is one of his for- 
mer pupils, D. Martin Spuch. 

Dr. Leonhard Elsner died at Postdam, Germany, November 29th, in his 73d 
year. Originally a pharmacist, he studied chemistry, and was, in 1834, selected Pro- 
fessor to the Polytechnic School at Berlin, and, in 1852, chemist at the royal porce- 
lain factory. Besides a number of essays on chemical subjects, he published a guide 
for qualitative analysis, and, since 1845, the widely known annual " Chemisch-tech- 
nische Mittheilungen." 

Correction. — "American Journal of Pharmacy," 1874, page 549, thirteenth 
line from top, read ten (physicians) instead of tivo . 



MARCH, 1875. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meetings February x6th.) 

The bent of modern pharmacy being towards elegance, we corres- 
pondingly find, by comparing magistral and official formulae of old with 
those now in use, a desire to make preparations not only agreeable to 
the sense of smell and to the palate, but also pleasing to the eye, when- 
ever it has been possible to do so without detriment to their medicinal 
activity. Of official preparations there are at least two * which had 
better be left inelegant, as they were formerly — syrups of tolu and of 
ginger. As now prepared they look very nice, but are of very little 
value except as flavoring syrups, the medicinally active resins having 
been removed ; a remark, by the way, made already in i860 (vol. 
xxxii, p. 113) by the present editor. 

The old, well-known " Brown Mixture " forms a solitary excep- 
tion, looking to-day just as uninviting as when first made (1815). The 
late Aug. Duhamel (1840, vol. xi, p. 284), after giving the original 
formula (which does not contain sweet spirits of nitre), recommends to 
prepare it by precolation from licorice-root, with the addition of a 
small quantity of powdered extract, for the sake of the color. 

Instead of percolation, I propose simply to substitute the purified ex- 
tract of licorice of the German Pharmacopoeia (extractum glycyrrhizae 
depuratum) for the powdered crude extract, and to use gum arabic in 
lumps instead of the powder. The resulting Brown Mixture will be 
found to be of a pleasing dark brown color, by no means limpid, but 
without a sediment. 

* I think that some of the fluid extracts would be more reliable if less attention 
were paid to their appearance 



On Suppositories. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm 
\ Mar., 187s. 

Said purified extract is made by exhausting the crude extract of com- 
merce with cold water (thus leaving behind all starch, gum and other 
extraneous matter), and evaporating to consistence of an extract. For 
the particulars of manipulation see Lochman's translation of " Phar- 
macopoea Germanica," p. 255. I think this purified extract might 
form a useful addition to the next revised Pharmacopoeia, since it forms 
perfectly limpid solutions with water. 

Since Dr. Ad. W. Miller, in the February number, has corrected 
the misspelling of the word asa fcetida^ I may be permitted to call atten- 
tion to the incorrect use of the words officinal and offc'ial. These words 
are generally considered as synonyms, but this is not correct. Officinal 
applies to every drug and preparation found in drug stores, but offcial 
can only be applied to those drugs and preparations which are found in 
the Pharmacopoeia ; hence, everything official is, of course, officinal. 
For instance, quinoidia is officinal, but not official ; angelica and sodae 
valerianas are both no longer official, but only officinal, having been 
dismissed at the last revision. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, February 16th.) 

At our last meeting, the paper by Mr. Kennedy gave rise to some 
discussion, eliciting various ideas from the members. 

The writer had hoped that the subject of suppositories had been 
thoroughly talked over, and the matter definitely settled in favor of 
moulds^ but it seems that there is at least one yet unconverted ; and in 
protest against the views expressed in that paper we offer the following 
remarks : 

The paper states " that the process by moulding may answer the 
purpose of the manufacturers of pharmaceutical preparations who make 
them in large quantities and in a hurry, regardless of the equal distri- 
bution of the medicament." 

Gentlemen, we contend that the process of moulding answers the 
purpose of the retail pharmacist much more perfectly and satisfactorily 
than they can be prepared by any process whatever, without the use of 

Without moulds, suppositories cannot be made to compare in ap- 
pearance, by one apothecary in a hundred, with those prepared with the 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Mar., 1875. / 

On Suppositories. 


use of moulds. They lack the smooth, glossy surface, the elegant 
shape, the perfect distribution of medicament, which characterize well- 
made moulded suppositories. 

Another very important feature they lack, is the firmness, the solid- 
ity which is always apparent with suppositories when made by melting 
the cacao butter, and allowing it to solidify in the moulds. 

Moulded suppositories, when properly prepared, never deposit the 
extract or heavy medicinal ingredient in the tip. Should this occur, it 
is evidence of imperfect skill in manipulation. It need not and should 
not ever occur. 

There is much difference of opinion among pharmacists, as to 
whether the cacao butter should be melted or not, a large majority 
favoring the melting process — and it is certainly the best. 

Mr. William Mclntyre, of this city, differs from us in this respect, 
and proceeds as Mr. Kennedy in forming a plastic mass with the cacao 
butter and the medicament, and, instead of rolling in cylinders and 
shaping by hand, he cuts in short cylindrical pieces, and introduces into 
the hinged moulds. With simple pressure, by this means he produces, 
in a few minutes, suppositories nearly equallmg in appearance those 
made in the regular way, the only difference being the absence of gloss 
and the almost invariably mottled appearance, thus rendering them 
much less elegant-looking, though certainly a very great improvement 
over the old fogy process of preparing them by hand. The process 
requires less time and deserves attention ; but to furnish suppositories 
of uniform consistence and color requires considerable skill and care. 

At the meeting, in Louisville, of the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation, Mr. Geo. W. Sloan, of Indianapolis, took much interest in 
the discussion on this subject, and the mould exhibited here is an evi- 
dence of the concentration of his ideas upon its practical working. 

It consists of a short brass barrel with piston, much, in fact, resem- 
bling a syringe, with the exception that the nozzle of the syringe is 
replaced in this by a stout block of brass, in which a conical cavity has 
been turned, resembling the apex of a minie rifle-bullet, and into which 
the barrel fits as in a sockec. The medicinal ingredient is thoroughly 
incorporated with the cacao butter, and thirty grains of the mass weighed 
and introduced into the barrel which stands in the socket ; the piston is 
now entered and forced home, the barrel removed from the socket and 
the finished suppository drops from the foot. One advantage of this 
mould is that the compression is so great that the finished product has 
the firmness of an ordinary moulded suppository, yet is liable to similar 


On Suppositories. 

Am. Jour. Phaim„ 
Mar., 1875, 

objections as Mr. Mclntyre's in regard to elegance of appearance. To 
those gentlemen who are pledged to the cold process," this mould we 
regard as very superior to anything ever offered to the profession. 

In a recent letter to us, Mr. Sloan says : " The seat or foot of 
brass, in which is turned the conical cavity, should be slightly warmed,, 
otherwise the point of the cone may break off, leaving an inelegant ap- 
pearance Any practical pharmacist can, with half an hour's 

practice, prepare suppositories with this mould expertly and rapidly, it 
taking no more time than a lot of pills or powders. Now, for a man- 
ufacturer I could not recommend my machine, but for a dispenser, who 
has frequent calls at all hours for perhaps from two to twelve supposi- 
tories, I think the ease with which he can use this will at once sug- 
gest itself to his mind." 

Just here we will make a digression in favor of manufacturers whom 
Mr. Kennedy so soundly berates. 

We think the manufacturers of this country are generally as honest 
as the retail pharmacists. They do not " prepare suppositories, hc.y 
regardless of the equal distribution of the medicament, never once 
thinking of the poor sufferer, who expects immediate relief only to be 

We have had some experience in the manufacture of the pharmaceu- 
tical preparations known as suppositories, and we have frequently, in 
turning out a gross of them, calculated the quantity upon the first trial^ 
so as to mould one hundred and forty-four, no more nor less. 

This, we think, is as accurate as any retail pharmacist is in the habit 
of preparing them. The point at issue seems to be this : Many of our 
otherwise intelligent writers, in recommending a pet process through 
the journals which has little to recommend it, base their main argu- 
ment on the stereotyped formula of manufacturers are so unreliable ;" 
" they have no conscience," etc. 

It is of no use ; an imperfect or impracticable process cannot be 
foisted upon the profession and trade by means of any such nonsense. 

In the opinion of the writer, the best mode of dispensing supposito- 
ries with dispatch, insuring at the same time a perfect distribution of 
their medicinal ingredients, avoiding all foreign matter, for the purpose 
of hardening and giving the satisfaction of knowing that the cones will 
melt at animal heat, is the following, which we offer to the readers of 
the " Journal," hoping it will be of benefit to those pharmacists who 
have experienced trouble and loss of time in their preparation : 

Place the mould, preferably a hinged one, capable of holding twelve 

Am. Jour. Pharm, 
Mar., 1875. 



or fifteen suppositories, upon ice, and put the quantity of cacao butter 
in a capsule, and melt quickly, thoroughly incorporating the powdered 
opium, for instance, with the melted cacao butter. Stir, while cooling, 
until brought to the consistence of thick honey ; pour into the moulds, 
and allow to solidify. Upon opening the mould the suppository will 
usually drop out. No lycopodium or steatite is necessary, as there is 
no difficulty experienced through sticking. 

The breakage will not amount to i per cent, of the number pre- 
pared. With these directions strictly followed, no separation will 

If an extract is used, dissolve in as little hot water as possible, and 
pour the melted cacao butter upon the diluted extract. Incorporate 
thoroughly, and proceed as above. 

In dispensing, place white or pink cotton in a box, and place the 
suppository thereon ; cover with cotton, and label as usual. 

Philadelphia, February 16th, 1875. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meetings February \6th.) 

I have read with pleasure the paper of Mr. Kennedy on " Sup- 
positories," in the "Journal of Pharmacy" for this month (February), 
and agree with him in most particulars of his plan, as being the most 
satisfactory mode of preparing them yet offered. 

I discarded the mould long ago and always use the mortar and pes- 
tle, rubbing freely (with a little warmth if necessary) until the cacao 
butter (about twenty grains for each suppository) is reduced to a pliable 
mass, then incorporate thoroughly the ingredients ordered (having 
previously reduced to a fine powder — if santonin, sugar of lead, or any 
other ingredient requiring it), and roll out with the spatula into suitable 
length, cut into the number wanted, shape with the fingers, and, with 
the spatula, roll into a smooth cone. 

Although the lycopodium, as directed by Mr. Kennedy, answers ad- 
mirably to prevent sticking to the fingers, I prefer the flour of the elm 
bark, on account of its action on the mucous membrane of the anus 
and alimentary canal, while the lycopodium is of a non-absorbing char- 
acter, and answers admirably to prevent adhesion, it also retards 
slightly the absorption of the material by the mucous membrane with 
which it comes in contact, the elm is just the opposite, and, being an 

102 Notes on Pronunciation and Orthography .Y^^-^^]-^'^ 

absorbent, becomes moistened and produces a very healing, softening 
mucilage to an inflamed mucous membrane. Care should be taken to 
have the elm very fine, and use just enough to prevent them from ad- 
hering to the fingers. 

At the suggestion of A. W. Griffith, M. D., of this city, I have 
been using, for some time, waxed paper to wrap each suppository. It 
answers admirably to prevent adhesion, and keeps their shape in case 
they should become warmed. It is as well to advise the applicant to 
remove the covering before applying, as I had one case where they 
used the suppository without removing the waxed paper, and com- 
plained to the physician at his next visit " that them things didn't do him. 
no goodr 

Philadelphia^ February^ 1875. 



[Read at the Phar?naceutical Meetings February 16th.) 

Having recently had a new and very handsome edition of shop furni- 
ture labels ofi'ered to me, which is replete with such numerous and 
varied grammatical and orthographical errors, it occurred to me that it 
might be profitable to enumerate a few of the deviations from polite 
language which are of daily occurrence amongst pharmacists. No 
doubt the majority of well-informed druggists are acquainted with the 
points which I am about to present, yet in many cases daily usage seems 
to have accustomed their eyes and ears to these inelegancies. With 
perfect propriety, the general public looks up to the apothecary as an 
authority in pharmaceutical matters, and it is therefore important for 
him to be himself correct and accurate in the use of his language. 

In this connection, I cannot too severely condemn the new book of 
Latin labels, which evidently has been carelessly prepared, without 
having been revised and corrected by competent authorities. The ten- 
dency of having such coarse blunders constantly before the eyes of the 
aspiring apprentice, undoubtedly is to engrave them on his memory, so 
that they can afterwards be eradicated only with great difficulty. Occa- 
sional errors of spelling may be pardoned on the part of ignorant paint- 
ers, who prepare but a single label at a time ; but when similar errors 
are duplicated perhaps a thousandfold by the lithographic press, they are 
certainly just so much the more reprehensible. I regard it, therefore,, 
as a special discredit to our city — the cradle of American pharmacy — 

^'^Mar'\i^5^''^'}^oUs on Pronunciation and Orthography, 103 

that such barbarous Latin grammar and such wretched spelling should 
be disseminated from this locality. 

Althaea, often written althea. There is authority for both forms, 
but althaea is preferred, as more in consonance with the derivation from 
^ AXdata^ and also on account of being in accordance with the German 
and the United States Pharmacopoeias. 

Apparatus (ap-pa-ra^-tus), frequently pronounced ap-pa-nt'-tus, tor 
which there seems to be no authority. 

Arabic (a'-ra-bic), very often erroneously pronounced with the accent 
on the penultimate syllable, a-ra^-bic. 

Boil (furuncle), frequently called hile. This was formerly correct, 
but has now become obsolete among good speakers. 

Cacao, much oftener written and pronounced cocoa or coco. Although 
authorities for all these forms may be adduced, it will be infinitely better 
to adhere rigidly to the word as given by the Pharmacopoeia, cacao, so 
as to avoid confusion with the products of Cocos nucifera and Ery- 
throxylon coca. 

Calcimine (China clay). Every painter who inscribes the word on 
his sign-board, appears to consider himself fully entitled to spell it 
entirely according to the dictates of his individual fancy, and, as a nat- 
ural consequence, some of the most grotesque variations are with. 
Although a few of the Dictionaries give kalsomine^ derived perhaps 
from the Chinese kao-l'ing^ I find it difficult to reconcile the term with 
any other derivation than that from calx^ calcis. If this should prove 
to be its origin, it will tend to confirm the form calcimine, which is 
used in most of the trade-lists at present. 

Caraway, sometimes written carraway^ particularly in some of the 
New York lists. Johnson gives carraway, but the other Dictionaries 
agree on caraway, derived from the Arabic karawya^ perhaps through 
the Spanish alcarahiieya. 

Carbolic (car-boF-ic), often sounded car-bdl-ic. 

Centaury, very frequently written and pronounced century.^ in open 
defiance to its derivation from KkvTaupoQ. 

Diarrhoea. An evident stumbling-block to the geniuses who feel 
impelled to invent panegyrics for their quack nostrums. 

Diphtheria, sometimes written diptheria. 

Eczema (ek'-ze-ma), more frequently pronounced ec-zc^-ma. 
Foenum-graecum, in Latin, and fenugreek, in English, written in 
almost every possible manner rather than the proper one. 

Glauber's salts, more frequently met with as Glaubers' salts. 

I04 Notes on Pronunciation and Orthography J^^^'^-J^^"-J^\^^' 

Guaiac, sometimes written guiac, 

Italian (it-taF-yian) often pronounced I^-tal-ian. 

Jamestown weed, vulgarly known as jimson weed. 

Naphtha, sometimes written naptha. 

Net, much better English than nett. 

Ochre, often spelled ocher. 

Pareira. As this word is derived from the Portuguese parreira^ a 
vine, it ought properly to be sounded pa-ray'-ra, in like manner as 
Janeiro (ja-nay^-ro). The German pronunciation, pa-ri'-ra, should 
be abandoned. 

Pharmacopoeia becomes pharmacopoea in connection with the phrase 
Pharmacopcea Germanica. 

Platinum (plat^-i-num), often pronounced plat-i^-num. 

Process (pros'-es), much more elegant than pro-cess. 

Prussian, Prussiate, Prussic and Russian are frequently sounded with 
the u long, while there is better authority for u short in all of them ; 
and it is certainly more elegant. 

Pumpkin (pump^-kin), vulgarly, though almost universally, pro- 
nounced punk'-in. 

Retort (re-tort^), sometimes accented on the penultimate syllable, 

Rhubarb (ru^-biirb), occasionally pronounced rhubarb ; while, prop- 
erly, the a should be sounded as in far. 
Senna (sen'-na), often called seen^-na. 

Stramonium, occasionally spelled strammonium, for which there 
seems to be no shadow of authority. 

Taraxacum, derived from the Arabic tarakhshagun^ is sometimes 
erroneously written taraxicum. 

Tragacanth (trag^-a-canth), almost constantly pronounced tra'-je- 
canth, which appears but little better than the still more vulgar corrup- 
tion to gum dragon. 

Troche (tro^-ke), much more frequently pronounced with the soft 
sound of the ch. 

Turmeric, sometimes written tumeric. 

Vermilion, often written vermillion. 

I have endeavored to call attention only to those subjects concerning 
which some druggists themselves appear to be at fault. It would be 
quite unprofitable to enumerate the perversions and mistakes of the 
illiterate portion of the public. I have also disregarded changes of 
names caused by the new chemical nomenclature, as very many of our 

Am. Jour. Pharm. l 
Mar., 1875. ; 

Oreodaphne Californica, 


older friends have not yet thoroughly familiarized themselves with 
these, and in fact the whole subject seems to be still in a transition 
stage. In conclusion, however, I feel bound to denounce emphat- 
ically and unequivocally the following bad customs : 

1st. Unnecessary combinations of Latin and English names in one 
phrase, as Semen Canary, Oleum Hemlock, Radix Doggrass, &c. 

2d. The government of a Latin genitive case by an English nomi- 
native, as Tincture Rhei, Gum Opii, Infusion Cinchonae. 

3d. The use of pure Latin phrases without the proper terminal in- 
flections, as Aqua Ammonia, Cannabis Indicus, Hydrargyrum cum 

4th. The pronunciation of the abbreviated forms of Latin pharma- 
ceutical names ; such as, Pil. Ferr. Carb., Rad. Gran. Cort., Pulv. 
Sacch., &c. 

Philadelphia, February ^^th, 1875. 



[Abstract from a Thesis presented to the California College of Pharmacy, Jan., 1875.) 

Botanical description. — Flowers hermaphrodite ; perianth short, cam- 
panulate and deeply six-cleft. The divisions are somewhat rigid, equal 
and deciduous. Twelve stamens, of which the exterior nine are fer- 
tile, and the three interior are sterile. The sterile stamens are shaped 
differently from the fertile. Stigma is peltate and shortly-lobed. The 
flowers are in axillary umbels^ surrounded by an involucrum, which 
falls off during the development of the flowers. Fruit is a one-seeded, 
fleshy berry or drupe. Leaves are alternate, simple, lanceolate, 
slightly acuminate, petiolate, exstipulate, pinnately-veined, coriaceous, 
and marked with minute pellucid dots. The margin is entire, and the 
upper surface reticulated. 

The Oreodaphne Californica^ more familiarly known by the name of 
" California Bay Laurel," is an evergreen tree indigenous to California 
and the Pacific slope. It acquires considerable size and age, and grows 
abundantly throughout the State, particularly in the vicinity of ravines 
and moist, shady localities ; it flowers in June. The wood is much 
valued for ornamental cabinet-work, on account of its grain, which, 
when polished, presents a fine appearance. The tree is never attacked 
by insects, owing, as it is supposed, to the volatile oil it contains. Some 
of the native Californians have peculiar ideas concerning this tree. It 
is believed by them to aggravate asthmatic complaints, and that sleep- 

io6 Oreodaphne Calif ornica. 

ing in the vicinity of the tree will even produce asthma. That it is 
not without some action on the system has been proved by the inhal- 
ation of its odor, often producing dizziness and violent headache. 

All parts of the tree contain volatile oil, but the leaves yield the most, 
about four per cent, being obtained by distillation. The oil is of a 
straw-color, limpid, and has a pungent aromatic odor, resembling a 
mixture of nutmegs and cardamoms. Its taste is warm and camphor- 
ous. It burns with a bright, smoky flame, leaving a carbonaceous 
residue. Its specific gravity "936. It is soluble in about looo parts 
water, and mixes in all proportions with alcohol and ether. The oil, 
when inhaled, produces dizziness and headache, and is therefore 
deemed to have a marked action on the nervous system, a property 
which has been applied to its medicinal use. Dr. Silver recommends 
the smelling of the oil in nasal catarrh and nervous headache, and 
speaks of successful results. 

Exain'ination of the Oil. — The method of investigation adopted was 
that recommended by Frederick Rochleder in his work " On the Prox- 
imate Analysis of Plants and Vegetable Substances." 

The oil being neutral to test-paper, it was tested for aldehydes with 
a concentrated solution of bisulphite of soda, with which no combina- 
tion could be effected, even after the application of heat. 

A fragment of sodium introduced into the oil, previously dried by 
contact with chloride of calcium, produced no effect until a gentle heat 
was applied, when the metal dissolved slowly, with the disengagement 
of numerous gas bubbles, the oil assuming a reddish-brown color. It 
now possessed an alkaline reaction, and the peculiar pungent odor was 
not distinguished. 

To prove whether the oxygenated body present was a compound 
ether, the oil was treated with ammonia without producing an amide, 
and no acid was separated by prolonged treatment with baryta. 

By slow distillation, with an excess of coarsely-powdered soda lime, 
a colorless, limpid distillate was obtained, of an aromatic odor, resem- 
bling oil of nutmegs. It gave a slight reaction with sodium, but, after 
redistillation over soda lime, and again over sodium, it was obtained 
neutral. It possessed all the characteristics of a hydrocarbon, free from 
oxygenated bodies. 

Two fluidounces of the crude oil, freed from moisture by contact 
with chloride of calcium, were introduced into a small glass retort, 
having a thermometer inserted in its tubulure. It was slowly heated 
up to 190° C, and about four drachms of a colorless oil was obtained. 

/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 Mar., 1875. 

Am. Jour. Pharm, 
Mar., 1875. 

Oreodaphne Californica, 


The thermometer rose with the successive portions obtained as follows : 
three fluidrachms were obtained from 190° to 202° C, three fluidrachms 
between 202° and 205° C, three fluidrachms between 205° to 220° C.^ 
two fluidrachms between 220° to 230° C.,and one fluidrachm between 
230° to 245° C. The remaining oil in the retort possessed a very 
dark color and a thick consistency. Its odor was also less decided, the 
taste greatly less pungent, and it ignited less readily than the crude oil, 
burning with a brilliant, but sooty flame ; evaporated from bibulous paper,, 
the vapor first given off was very pungent, while the latter portion 
was almost devoid of this odor. The boiling-points of the different 
fractions were next ascertained by heating them in a test-tube, with a 
thermometer inserted. The first fraction began to boil at 175^ C, the 
second at 180° C, the third at 185° C, the fourth at 196° C, the 
fifth at 214° C, and the sixth at 220° C. The existence of tw^o dis- 
tinct oils in the crude oil is therefore quite probable ; but, by cooling 
the oil with ice for twenty-four hours, no separation could be effected. 

Two fluidounces of the crude oil were carefully and very slowly dis- 
tilled from a small glass retort, having a thermometer inserted, at a 
temperature not exceeding 180° C. ; about one ounce of an almost 
colorless distillate was obtained, possessing the penetrating, pungent 
odor of the crude oil to a high degree. On gradually raising the 
temperature to about 210° C, but not to exceed 220° C, a distillate 
of about six fluidrachms was obtained, which was of a light straw- 
color, less limpid, and had an acrid, pungent odor, differing greatly from 
that of the crude oil or the previous distillate. Its taste was sharp and 
camphorous. The residue in the retort had turned quite black, and of 
the consistency of syrup. 

The fraction obtained at 180° C. was treated with sodium, with 
which no reaction was observed until the application of a gentle heat. 
The second fraction, obtained at 220° C, gave, with sodium, the char- 
acteristic reaction of an oxygenated oil. 

To avoid the oxidizing action of the atmosphere and the decom- 
posing influence of direct heat, two fluidounces of the crude oil were 
again distilled from a glycerin bath, and carbonic acid gas, dried by 
passing through sulphuric acid, conducted into the retort. The dis- 
tillate obtained at 175° C. was colorless, limpid, and had lost nearly all 
of its pungency, having a pleasant aromatic odor, resembling oil of 
nutmegs ; it gave less reaction with sodium than in the previous ex- 
periment. The second distillate, at 220° C, was of a much lighter 

io8 Oreodaphne Californica. {'^"'fc" x^sys'""' 

color and a more agreeable odor, but retaining its previous pungency. 
All the oil which came over under, but not to exceed 175° C, was 
reserved for the separation of the hydrocarbon, while that between 175° 
and 220° C. was used for the separation of the oxygenated oil. The 
fractions having the lower boiling-point were rectified in an atmosphere 
of hydrogen over caustic potassa and over soda lime, both processes 
yielding identical results — the distillates being obtained absolutely free 
from oxygen when rectified over iodium. The portion with the higher 
boiling-point, distilled completely between 180° and 210° C, and was 
collected in three fractions, each of which commenced to boil between 
205° and 210° C. when heated separately. 

Hydrocarbon. — The pure hydrocarbon is a colorless, limpid liquid, 
possessing an agreeable aromatic odor, bearing some resemblance to a 
mixture of camphor and oil of nutmegs. Its taste is like that of car- 
damom. Its specific gravity is '894 at 15*5° C, and its boiling-point 
is 175° C. It is very volatile and highly inflammable, burning with a 
brilliant, slightly smoky flame. It is nearly insoluble in water ; soluble 
in about five parts by volume of 95 per cent, alcohol. It dissolves 
iodine slowly, acquiring a deep red color. Nitric acid, added to it and 
heated, causes a violent reaction, with the disengagement of nitrous acid 
fumes, the production of a yellow color, and the disappearance of the 
odor of the hydrocarbon. Nitrous acid occasioned a rapid and violent 
reaction, with the production of heat. When heated with sulphuric 
acid, a thick, reddish mixture was obtained, becoming black, and dis- 
engaging sulphurous acid gas. 

Oreodaphnol. — This is the oxygenated portion of the crude oil, and 
was obtained between 175° and 220° C. It is an oily liquid, of a 
light straw color, and of a pungent and penetrating odor. Its taste is 
hot and camphorous ; its specific gravity "960. It is very inflammable, 
burning with a bright flame, giving off pungent vapors, and leaving a 
carbonaceous residue. Its boiling-point is 210° C. It dissolves iodine, 
with the generation of a slight heat, and the production of a reddish- 
brown solution. When treated with sulphuric acid a reaction was 
observed, accompanied with increase of temperature and the disengage- 
ment of sulphurous acid. Nitric acid exerted no action in the cold, 
but when heated, a violent reaction resulted, and nitrous acid fumes 
were given off. Treated with sodium, a reaction was observed. 

Oreodaphnene. — Oreodaphnene is generated when oreodaphnol is dis- 
tilled with glacial phosphoric acid, in an atmosphere of dry hydrogen 

^Vanris'zt™'} Constituents and Properties of Potentilla, 109 

gas. Thus obtained, it exhibits a light straw color, and possesses a pun- 
gent terebinthinate odor. Its taste is hot and camphorous, followed by 
a feeling of acrimony, which remains in the mouth for a length of 
time. It is specifically lighter than oreodaphnol, its specific gravity 
being '934, and has a boiling-point of 204° C. It burns with a white 
flame, giving off very pungent vapors. It is soluble in about 4 parts 
of 95 per cent, alcohol. Iodine dissolves in it, producing a reddish- 
brown solution. Nitric acid changes its color to a deep red, with the 
elevation of temperature and disengagement of nitrous acid fumes. 
Nitrous acid gave a violent and rapid reaction, and sulphuric acid a 
reddish-brown solution. Treated with sodium, no reaction was observed. 
It is therefore the hydrocarbon of oreodaphnol, generated by the 
abstraction of water. 

The hydrocarbon and the oreodaphnol are contained in the crude oil 
in about the proportion of one part of the former to two parts of the 
latter. It is upon the oreodaphnol that the peculiar pungency of the 
crude oil depends. 




[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, February i6th.) 
The genus Potentilla belongs to the natural order of Rosaceae, tribe 
Dryadeae, and comprises mostly herbs, together with some shrubby 
plants, which are indigenous mainly to the temperate zones of the old 
and new continents. The generic name appears to have been formed 
from potens^ powerful, in allusion to the reputed medicinal properties of 
some of the species. At the present time there are but few drugs 
officinal in any of the pharmacopoeias which are obtained from plants 
belonging to the Dryadeae, the most important being kousso, the inflor- 
escence of Brayera anthelmintica^ Kunth, and tormentilla^ the rhizome of 
Potentilla tormentilla^ Sibthorp ; s. P. erecta^ Nestler ; s. Tormentilla 
erecta^ Lin. ; s. T. officinalis^ Smith. The former, which, by End- 
licher, is placed in the suborder Spiraeeae, but amongst the Dryadeae, by 
DeCandolle, contains in its dry condition, besides very little volatile oil, 
a considerable proportion of tannin, some koussin, resins, &c., to which 
it owes its taste, which at first is somewhat astringent, but afterwards 
bitter, and to a certain degree acrid. The latter, tormentil^ has, when 
fresh, a rather roselike odor, which is lost by drying, after which it re- 
tains an astringent taste, due to the presence of a considerable quantity 

1 lo Constituents and Properties of Potentilla. {^""■Jan/iSys'"'' 

of tannin, from which the so-called tormentil-red, the red coloring 
matter of the drug, which is likewise present to the extent of about 
one-sixth of the weight of the rhizome, is probably a derivative. 

Similar constituents will doubtless be found in the roots and herbs of 
the plants which are botanically allied to the genus Potentilla^ if we 
may be allowed to judge from their sensible properties ; the following 
plants of the suborder Dryadeae (De Candolle's tribes of Sanguisorbeae 
and Dryadeae) contain in their roots and herbaceous portions very little 
or no volatile oil, as is evidenced from their slight odor, but they possess 
a more or less marked astringent taste, in some cases accompanied by 
some bitterness : Geum rivale^ Lin., and G. urhanum^ L., or avens ; 
Poterium sanguisorha^ Lin., and Sanguisorha officinalis^ L., or burnet ; 
Alcheinilla aphanes^ Laers (s. Aphanes arvensis^ Lin.), and A. vulgaris^ 
L., or lady's mantle; Agrimonia eupatoria^ Lin., or agrimony, and Rubus 
villosus^ Alton, and R. cayiadensis^ Lin., the North American blackberry 
and dewberry, the rootbark of which is officinal in the U. S. Pharma- 

Of the genus Potentilla^ of which about one hundred species are 
enumerated, tormentil is the only one occasionally still used in medicine, 
though formerly several species now obsolete have been employed. 

Potentilla anserina^ Lin., silver weed, is indigenous to Euiope and the 
northern portion of the American continent. Both the herb and the 
perennial root have a mild astringent taste, and are said to have been 
used by the Indians as an antidote to snake-poison ; while in Europe, it 
was employed in diarrhoea, hemorrhages, pulmonary complaints, some 
hepatic disorders and in dropsy. The leaves are radical, interruptedly 
pinnate ; the leaflets, 9 to 19 in number, oblong, deeply serrate, silvery 
white and downy underneath. 

P. fructicosa^ Lin., shrubby cinquefoil, likewise inhabits the northern 
portions of the Northern hemisphere. The five to seven pinnae are 
linear to lanceolate oblong, entire, silky underneath, and have a mild 
astringent and bitterish taste. They are used by some Siberian tribes 
like tea, and were formerly reputed to possess febrifuge properties ; ex- 
ternally, the leaves were used as a vulnerary. 

P. rupestris^ Lin., is a native of mountainous regions of Europe and 
Siberia. The radical leaves are pinnate, and the stem-leaves usually 
three-lobed \ they have an astringent taste and are used in Siberia like 

P. palustris^ Scop. s. Comarum palustre^ Lin., marsh-cinquefoil, 

^"^itZ'^^^s'"^-] Constituents and Properties of Potentilla. 1 1 1 

occurs in cool, boggy localities of the Eastern and Western hemispheres. 
It is easily distinguished from the preceding and following species, 
which bear yellow flowers, by its dark purple petals. The three to 
seven leaflets are oblong-lanceolate, sharply serrate, hoary beneath, 
and have a somewhat astringent taste. 

The species just mentioned have the leaves pinnate ; in the following 
they are palmate, and mostly composed of five leaflets : 

P. argentea^ Lin., silvery cinquefoil, occurs in dry localities of the 
old and new world. The wedge-oblong leaflets are entire towards the 
base, deeply incised and almost pinnatifid near the apex, green and 
smooth above, and silvery canescent beneath ; their taste is astringent. 

P. tor?nentilla^ Sibth., tormentil, a native of Europe, grows in 
meadows, and has obovate or wedge- lanceolate, deeply serrate, green 
and somewhat shining leaflets, possessing an astringent taste, similar 
though somewhat weaker than the rhizome. 

P. reptans^ Lin., creeping cinquefoil, is a European and Asiatic plant, 
growing in damp localities. Its thin, creeping stems bear solitary 
flowers on long peduncles, and are of a golden-yellow color ; the leaf- 
lets are elliptical to oblong-obovate, sharply serrate, bright green and 
slightlv hairy above, paler and somewhat pubescent beneath. The 
taste of the root and herb is sweetish and astringent. This plant (or 
the tormentil) was probably the pentaphyllon of the ancients. 

As far as may be judged from the taste, and from the few published 
chemical experiments, all the species enumerated before contain some 
tannin, upon which the comparatively feeble medicinal properties mainly 
depend. The indigenous P. canadensis^ Lin., the common cinquefoil, 
or five-finger, resembles the former in taste, and, like them, may be 
supposed to act like a mild astringent. In the January number of the 

Charleston Medical Journal and Review," however, this plant is 
highly recommended for other purposes. Dr. Wm. Hauser, of Bar- 
tow, Jefferson county, Georgia, writes of it as follows : 

" It is the best and most powerful sudorific I have ever found. And 
like all of its class, it is, under certain circumstances, diuretic also. 
Dr. Edwin Le Rov Anthony, son of Dr. Milton Anthony, founder of 
the Medical College of Georgia, assured me, many years ago, that he 
had cured gonorrhoea with it. But my purpose, in this short article, 
is to ask the attention of the medical profession to it in the treatment 
of peritonitis of any kind, but especially puerperal peritonitis. In a 
large practice of more than twenty years, I have never found anything, 

1 1 2 Constituents and Properties of Potentilla. {^"'•iiar.?i8^7t™' 

nor all other things combined, to equal this simple plant in the treat- 
ment of this exceedingly painful, dangerous and sometimes stubborn 
disease. I have never failed with it once in all this time, to the best 
of my recollection. A recent case that gave much trouble and anx- 
iety to two of my honored medical brethren, has brought it afresh to 
my mind, though I have not been in practice myself for eight years. 
My method with it is simply this : Make as strong a decoction of the 
plant (leaves, vines and roots) as possible, and give the patient, at any 
stage of the case, large draughts of the tea, as hot as she can drink it^ 
every half hour, or oftener, till she be thrown into full perspiration. 
All pain and fever will soon be gone, and then you have the entire 
mastery of the case." 

Some years ago. Dr. Richard Moore, of Sumter District, S. C.^ 
called attention to this plant as an efficient and useful remedy in the 
treatment of chronic colds, threatening phthisis ; he used it in the form 
of decoction."^ 

Both Dr. Moore and Dr. Hauser, name the plant employed by them 
Potentilla reptans. The Linnaean plant bearing this name, however, is 
a native of Europe and Asia, and does not occur in this country ; it 
is represented on this continent by Potentilla canadensis^ Lin., which re- 
sembles it, and is a rather variable species, growing in dry fields and 
moist thickets. P. sarmentosa^ Wild., P. caroliniana^ Poir., P. simplex^ 
Michaux and P. pum'ila Pursh, are now regarded as mere varieties of 
this species, which occurs from North Carolina to Mississippi, and 
northward throughout Canada. The plant is, however, distinguished 
from P. reptans^ by the latter having many slender, nearly smooth and 
purplish stems, the leaves on longer petioles, leaflets elliptical to obo- 
vate, obtuse, serrate and somewhat hairy, the lateral pairs approximate, 
or united at base; stipules small oval-lanceolate, entire or few-toothed; 
petals yellow, obcordate. P. canadensis has even the summer runners 
thicker, green, or occasionally purplish, always silky hairy ; stem-leaves 
on shorter petioles ; leaflets obovate oblong, rather acute, coarsely ser- 
rate, hairy ; stipules ovate, acutely toothed ; petals roundish obovate, 
entire or notched. 

The botanical characters, it will be observed, are sufficiently distinct 
for the two species, although their sensible properties are alike as far 
as odor aad taste are concerned. It is scarcely to be supposed that the 

* See " Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests." By Dr. F. P. Porcher, 1869, 
p. 166, 

Benxoate of Lithium, 113 

American plant be possessed of more potent properties than the ma- 
jority of the plants of the same genus and tribe mentioned above ; but 
the statements made of its efficiency are such that they invite to a 
carefully-undertaken trial. 



This salt has been proposed as a remedy for certain disorders of the 
urinary organs, and appears to possess advantages over the forms in 
which lithium has heretofore been exhibited. The comparative insol- 
ubility of the carbonate has always proved a bar to its general employ- 
ment, and though the citrate is in this respect much more eligible — 
only twenty-five parts of water being required for solution — yet the 
salt is of an unstable and deliquescent character, and somewhat trouble- 
some to prepare and dispense. The benzoate is not open to any of 
these objections, and has the additional advantage of containing, in 
combination, an acid which is itself of no inconsiderable repute in 
the treatment of patients suffering from various forms of urinary de- 

This salt is not usually to be met with in commerce, but is not diffi- 
cult to prepare. I am not, however, aware of any work of reference 
which contains any directions or formula for this purpose ; and am, 
therefore, induced to believe that a few remarks on the subject may 
prove acceptable. 

Benzoate of lithium may be most advantageously prepared from the 
carbonate : 

L,C03 +2HC,H,Q3^ 2LC,HA 
74 244 256 

In a wedgewood dish put one ounce, avoir., of carbonate, mixed 
with nine ounces of water. Heat gently by aid of a spirit lamp, and 
add gradually, and by small portions, benzoic acid, until effervescence 
is no longer produced. About three and a quarter ounces will be 
required. Evaporate to dryness, stirring constantly, and reducing the 
heat towards the close of the operation. The product may, for con- 
venience, be powdered. The yield will be nearly three and a half 

By following this process, a much less quantity of water, and conse- 
quently less evaporation, will be needed than if the benzoic acid be 

Am. Jour. Pharm, 
Mar., 1875. 


The Jalap Plant. 

/Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Mar., 1875. 

dissolved and the carbonate added thereto. If, by reason of impurity 
or discoloration of the benzoic acid, it is necessary to filter the solu- 
tion, three ounces more water may be added before evaporation ; and, 
if required, a little purified animal charcoal may be used. The ben- 
zoate may be obtained in crystals by withdrawing the heat, and setting 
the solution aside immediately after the benzoic acid is all added. 

Watts* says the lithium salt of benzoic acid is uncrystallizable. 
This is incorrect \ the benzoate may be crystallized without the slight- 
est difiSculty. It takes the form of glistening, pearly scales, or laminae, 
somewhat resembles iodide of cadmium, but less lustrous. The crys- 
tals feel soapy or greasy to the touch \ have a cool, sweetish, and not 
disagreeable taste, and are perfectly permanent in the air. The solu- 
tion has an acid reaction. 

I have found the salt to be soluble in three and a half parts of water 
at 60° F. \ in two and a half parts at 212^ F. ; and in ten parts of 
cold alcohol, specific gravity 838. — Canadian Pharm. Jour.^ Feb.^ 1875. 

'Toronto, Jan. i^tJi, 1875. 


Of all autumn -flowering hardy plants, there is, perhaps, none more 
beautiful than the Jalap {Exogonium purga). Of its complete hardi- 
ness there can be little doubt. It has lived at Bitton without any pro- 
tection for four years, and each year it has flowered beautifully. We 
have also heard of its doing well at Drayton Beauchamp, Kew, and 
Fulham. We believe it has also lived out of doors, and flowered, in 
the Edinburgh Botanic Gardens. Mr. Ellacombe grows it in a shel- 
tered corner, and gives a tall wire cage to grow up, with a spreading 
top. It does not flower in the lower parts ; but the entire top, and 
the pendent shoots, become a mass of most lovely blossoms. At 
Bitton, if not checked by late spring frost, it comes into blossom early 
hi September, and continues to flower till cut down by frost. Mr. 
Ellacombe states that, if he were to plant another, he should place it 
under a south wall near a peach or apricot tree, and let it wind its way 
through the branches. With a very little training, it would do no 
injury to the tree ; and, in such a situation, it would probably flower ear- 
lier, and perfect its seeds. As regards its history, it gets its name of jalap 
from its native habitat, Xalapa, in Mexico. It is the true jalap of com- 

*"Dict. of Chem.," p. 552. 

Am. Jour Pharm ] 
Mar., 1875. J 

The Jalap Plant. 


merce \ by which is not meant that it alone produces genuine jalap, but 
that it is the plant that gives the name to the medicine. The best 
jalap is made from the Exogonium ; but good jalap may also be got 


from many other species of the Cojivolvulace^ — even from our British 
species. " Corvolvulus arvensis^ Soldanella^ macrocarpus^ and probably 
many others, may likewise be used with equal advantage," says Dr. 
Lindley. The habit of the plant is well given in the " Botanical Reg- 

1 16 Beer Tongue in Perfumery. {^"•£:%875""' 

ister," V, 33 ; but the color is not bright enough. It is also figured in 
the Botanical Magazine," v, 73. Can any one say if Convolvulus 
(^Batatas) Jalapd^is in cultivation, and if it has been found to be hardy? 
E. purga has, as will be seen, roundish tubers of variable size, those of 
mature growth being about as large as an orange, and of dark color.. 
These, as we have said, are the true jalap tubers. 

With reference to the foregoing question as to Convolvulus Jalapay 
Mr. J. Tyerman, of Torquay, writes to the "Garden" as follows: 
" There is a plant of it in the Botanic Gardens at Liverpool, where it 
has been for the last fourteen or fifteen years, growing on a bed of 
gravel, the roots being about the size and shape of the double cocoa 
nut. I do not think it has been tried in the open ground ; perhaps 
the curator (Mr. J. Richardson) will possibly act on the suggestion,, 
and give it a trial, and report the result. Exogonium purga matured 
seeds with me this season for the first time ; these are now in the 
hands of Mr. Thompson, of Ipswich, and I have no doubt that it has 
done so, and much more freely, in the College Botanic Gardens at 
Dublin, where both Mr. Ellacombe's and my own plants originally 
come from, nine or ten years ago. Both the jalap and the scammony 
grow luxuriantly with me, and I originally intended to recommend 
theit cultivation on a large scale in this country for m.edicinal purposes -y 
but I find that although they grow freely, and produce, like the common 
bindweed, abundance of fleshy root-stems, from which they may be 
readily increased, they produce but slowly the tuberous roots from 
which the active property is extracted; and those are very deficient in 
resin, compared with prime imported samples. Judging from my short 
experience, it would require from four to six years to fully mature a 
crop, which would render it impossible in this country." — Pharm. 'Jour.y 
{London^) Jan. ()th^ from the Garden. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, February iGth.) 

Deer tongue, or Southern vanilla [Liatris odoratissima., Willd.), seems 
destined to become a commercial staple of some importance, chiefly, 
so far, on account of its large consumption as a flavor for tobacco. It 
is stated to be also used to some extent in the South for the purpose of 
preserving clothing, woolen fabrics, etc, from the attacks of moths. 

^^tZ'^^n^""'] ^eer Tongue in Perfumery, 117 

To the best of my knowledge, these are the only applications which 
have yet been found for these highly odoriferous leaves. The chem- 
istry of deer tongue has been treated of very ably and exhaustively by 
Prof. Procter, in the 31st vol. of this Journal (1859), proving it to 
contain a large percentage of coumarin. 

As it has been a matter of surprise to me that no perfumer has, 
as yet, availed himself of the Southern vanilla, I have contrived the 
following formulae, which, in my opinion, furnish quite satisfactory 
results, and I invite a special examination of the specimens herewith 

Tincture of Deer Tongue. — Percolate two ounces of ground deer 
tongue leaves with cologne spirits until one pint of tinctuie is obtained. 
This is of a handsome light-green color, so that it can be readily em- 
ployed as an addition to various extracts, colognes or toilet waters. In 
its pure state, it may be used as a substitute for the essence of May 
wine (a tincture of the fresh leaves of Asperula odorata)^ which is used 
extensively in Germany as a pleasant addition to wine, converting it 
into the so-called May drink (Maitrank). 

Extract of New-mown Hay. 
Tincture of Deer Tongue, .... 8 ounces. 

Extract of Rose from Pomade, . . . , 4 " 

" Orange Flower from Pomade, . . . 4 " 

Oil of Rose, Virgin Serail, . . . .16 drops. 

New-mown Hay Sachet Powders. 

Ground Deer Tongue Leaves, . . . .2 ounces. 

" Florentine Orris Root, 
" Damascene Rose Petals, 

" Orange Flowers, . . . .of each, i ounce. 

Mix thoroughly and sift. 

Sachet Bouquet. 

Ground Deer Tongue Leaves, . . . .2 ounces. 

*' White Santal Wood, . . . . ^ ounce. 

Florentine Orris Root, . . . , i " 

" Ambretta Seeds, . . . . . -\ " 

" Benzoin, . . , . . . ^ " 

" Damascene Rose Leaves, . . . • i *' 

Mix, and sift to remove coarse particles. 

"Gray's Botany" states that the leaves, when bruised, exhale the odor 
of vanilla, but I cannot confirm the assertion. I have tried various com- 

ii8 Matico. {''"■Jar:;^75""' 

binations of vanilla and deer tongue, with a view to its use as a flavor,, 
but each of them was unsatisfactory. The odor aiid taste of coumarin 
appear to be so much stronger and so much more persistent than that 
of vanilla, that it is only spoiling good vanilla to add tonka or deer 
tongue to it. 

Deer tongue is specially adapted to imitating the odor of new-mown 
hay, as the perfume of this also resides in the coumarin contained in 
Anthoxanthum odoratuj?!^ Lin., or sweet-scented vernal grass. 


As to what plant is the real original " Matico, there seems some 
doubt. There are at least "two Richards in the field," and each has 
some claim to the title. According to Flartweg, ¥/hose remarks are 
quoted in a recent number of the ''Pharmaceutical Journal," "Matico 
is the vernacular name applied by the inhabitants of Quito to Eupato- 
rium glutinosum^ or the ' chessalonga ' in the Quichua language. It 
forms a shrub three to five feet high, which is common in the higher 
parts of the Quitinian Andes, where its properties were discovered 
some years back by a soldier called Mateo, better known under his 
nickname Matico (little Matthew), who, being wounded in action,, 
applied accidentally the leaves of some shrub to his wound, which had 
the immediate effect of stopping the bleeding. This shrub happened 
to be the Chessalonga, which has since been called, in honor of the 
discoverer, Matico. That it is the true Matico of the inhabitants of 
Quito and Riobamba, I have not the slightest doubt ; both the leaves 
and specimens have been gathered by myself, and upon comparing the 
latter with Kunth's description I found them to agree exactly with 
his Eupatorhnn glutinosum.''^ 

This origin of the name Matico, it may be remarked par parenthhey 
reminds us of that of the genus Quassia, which commemorates a negro 
slave named Quassy, who first discovered its good qualities as a febri- 
fuge, and employed its bark and wood as a secret remedy against the 
malignant endemic fevers which were so frequent in Surinam. He 
was at last induced to part with his secret for a considerable sum, by 
a Swede named Rolander, by whom, in 1756, the wood was first 
brought to Europe. This perpetuation of the name of the discoverer 
in association with the plant connected with him is common enough 

From the '* Gardeners' Chronicle.'' 

™' } Matico. 1 1 9 

not only in scientific but in popular use ; thus the " Tinker's weed" 
of North America {Trio steum per foil atuni) has reference to a Dr. Tin- 
ker, who was the first to employ it in medicine as an emetic ; and Mr. 
Ransted, the introducer of the common yellow toad flax {Linaria vul- 
garis) to the United States, where it has become an agricultural pest, 
is commemorated in its popular name, "Ransted weed." 

In spite of this identification of Eupatoriinn glutinosum as the original 
Matico, it is certain that the plant so called in commerce is in most 
cases not that species, but an Artanthe [J. elongatuni)^ the Piper angus- 
tifolium of older writers. This was introduced to English medical 
practice by Dr. Jeffreys, of Liverpool, who published an account of it 
in the ''Lancet" for 1839. It was recommended for use in cases of 
diarrhoea and cholera, but its real value is as a styptic, not from any 
astringent properties, but from its mechanical action, the structure of 
the leaf promoting the coagulation of the blood. It is chiefly imported 
from Peru, but specimens in the Exhibition or 1851 were from the 
province of Chiquas, in the eastern extremity of Bolivia. Another 
species of Artanthe [A. adunca) is sometimes substituted for A. elongata 
in commerce. This was the case during the American war in 1863. 
According to Professor Bentley, however, " it may be at once distin- 
guished from the oflicial Matico by being in a less compressed state, 
by the upper surface of its leaves not being so tesselated or rough, and 
by the almost entire absence of pubescence on the under surface of 
the leaves." The true officinal Matico, as imported, "consists of the 
dry leaves, stalks and spikes (some unripe, others ripe), more or less 
compressed into a lump, which has a greenish color. The leaves are 
from two to eight inches long, veined and tessellated on the upper sur- 
face, downy beneath, with an aromatic slightly astringent warm taste, 
and an agreeable, aromatic odor." 

Another plant, which has also obtained the name of Matico, is JVal- 
theria glomerata^ the leaves of which are used as a vulnerary in the 
Panama region, where the shrub is known as Pado del Soldado, or 
Soldier's Tree ; and a story similar to that given above is connected 
with it. Dr. Seeman says that "the same story, with more or less 
variation, is told of many other vulneraries of Spanish America." Mar- 
tius was inclined to consider that the true Matico was furnished by a 
species of Phlomis^ but that genus is only represented in America by 
P. fruticosa^ which has been collected in Mexico, where it was prob- 
ably an introduction. — Fharm. fourn. and Trans. ^ Jan. 2, 1875. 

120 Economic Uses of the Hibiscus Family. { "^"^ Ma"'' 1^875';''' ' 


As attention is now being directed prominently in France to the 
Hibiscus esculentus as a paper-making material, a few words of descrip- 
tion as to its economic uses and those of the allied species will not be 
out of place. Its value as a fibrous plant has long been recognized, 
and the late Dr. Riddell, of India, often exhibited paper, cordage, etc., 
made from it, at the various International Exhibitions, and before the 
Society of Arts. This plant, though indigenous to the West Indies, 
has long been naturalized in India. Its pods produce the well known 
vegetable known as Ochro by the English, Gombo by the French, 
Chimbombo by the Spanish, and Bendikai in India, which is so much 
esteemed in imparting a mucilaginous thickening to soups. The young 
pods are gathered green, and pickled like capers. The seeds may be 
boiled like barley, and the mucilage which they contain is both emol- 
lient and demulcent ; they have also been recommended when roasted 
as a substitute for coffee. An analysis, given by E. Landron, of the 
seeds shows the following composition : 

Watei, ........ 4*21 

Oil, ........ 16-50 

Resin, ........ 1-21 

Mineral matters, , . . . . . 6-38 

Undetermined, ....... Ji'yo 


The oil has a disagreeable flavor, which would prevent its use as a 
comestible, but containing much stearic acid, it could be used for soap- 
making. The oil-cake remaining would form a rich manure, as it con- 
tains 4"i8 per cent, of nitrogen and 1-55 of phosphoric acid. Messrs. 
Boujon Brothers have taken out a patent, in France, for making paper 
from the fibre, and propose introducing the culture of the plant into 
Algeria. They prepare the fibre, solely by mechanical means, in a cur- 
rent of water, and without any bleaching agent, and the pulp, washed 
and bleached, makes a strong, handsome paper, equalling that from pure 
rags. The different parts of the stem and the fruit yield in washing a 
large quantity of guaimy mucilage, to which the name of gombin has 
been given, and which can be used by pharmaceutists for making a pec- 
toral lozenge called pate de goniho. Besides this substance, the plant 
contains a resin which reddens under the influence of acids and bleach- 
ing agents. This obstacle is removed, however, by decomposing, in 

^"'uiZ'Sis''^'} Economic Uses of the Hibiscus Family. ill 

the bleaching process, the chloride of lime in sulphate of alumina, which 
precipitates the resin at the same time. The following is a proximate 
analysis of the stem of the plant : 

Water, ........ 13*82 

Gombin, . . . . . . . 

Cellulos, ........ 60-75 

Kesin, . . . . . . . . 0-93 

Mineral matters, . . . . . . .4-75 

Loss, ........ 0-25 

This proportion of cellulose is a little below the industrial yield, 
which is about sixty-six per cent. We pass on now to notice a few 
other species of Hibiscus. The musk seed of commerce (yAhelmoschus 
moschatus) is the " Kala Kustooree " of the Hindoos, the " Hubbul 
mooshk " of the Arabs, a celebrated ingredient used in their coffee 
with such wonderful improvement of its flavor as to have led to its in- 
troduction for the same purpose amongst Europeans even in India. 
The sorrel plant {Hibiscus Sahdariffa) is cultivated in most gardens in 
South Africa and India, because its calyces, as they ripen, become 
fleshy, and being of a pleasant acid taste, are much employed for mak- 
ing tarts as well as an excellent jelly, A decoction of them, sweetened 
and fermented, is commonly called, in the West Indies, sorrel-drink. 
The leaves are used in salads, and the root is said to be a purgative. 
The stem is cut when in flower, and a fibre got from the bark, which 
is rather fine and silky. Excellent tow and hemp might be made from 
several species of Hibiscus, the staple being long, fibres uniform, silky 
and fine. Cordage of greater compactness and density could, there- 
fore, be made from them than from many of the coarser fibres. All 
plants of this kind should be sown thick, for the simple reason that 
they will grow tall and slender, thus giving a greater length of straight 
fibre-yielding stem. No plant yielding fibre should be gathered for 
more than one or two days before prepared, as the drying up of the sap 
stains the fibres, and the sooner the fibre is cleaned, the stronger and 
whiter it will be ; newly-cleaned fibres must not be exposed to the sun, 
as they acquire a brown tinge, and it should be recollected that all 
plants are usually in greatest vigor when, in flower or fruit, and it is at 
that time they yield the greatest amount of fibre. The bark of the 
Deckanee hemp (Hibiscus can?iabirius)^ is full of strong fibres, which 
the inhabitants of the Malabar coast prepare and make into cordage 

12 2 Some Physical Properties of ^inia. { '''^■JZ'^llr^ ' 

and it seems as If it might be worked into good, fine thread of any 
size. It goes by various names in different parts of India. The fibres, 
which are from five to ten feet long, are harsh, and more remarkable 
for strength than fineness, but might be improved by care. It is as 
much cultivated for the sake of its leaves as its fibres, which former 
are acidulous and eaten by the natives. The bark of Hibiscus furcatus^ 
a very prickly plant, yields abundance of strong white fibre, but not so 
tough and tenacious as the hemp-like Hibiscus. The shoe flower plant 
or China rose {Hibiscus rosa sinensis^ is a shrub twelve to fifteen feet 
high. In China they make its handsome flowers into garlands and 
festoons, on all occasions of festivity and even in their sepulchral rites. 
The astringent petals of the flowers are used for blacking shoes, and 
the women also employ them to color their hair and eyebrows black ; 
they are also eaten by the natives as pickles. The flowers are used to 
tinge spirituous liquors, ai:d the petals when rubbed on paper com- 
municate a bluish-purple tint, which forms an excellent substitute for 
litmus paper, as a chemical test. The leaves are considered in Cochin 
China as emollient and slightly aperient. The bark furnishes, a beauti- 
ful bast, strong, white and flexible. Ala hoe fibre is obtained from the 
Hibiscus elatus of Linnaeus, the Thespesia populnea of Correa. The 
Hibiscus trilobus^ Sev., furnishes a good brownish flax. The Malvaceae 
family is perhaps one of those which furnishes the most and best fibre. 
— your, of Applied Science^ Feb.^ 1875. 



Several chemists have during recent years published the results of 
their experiments upon the solubility of the salts of quinia, and they 
have specially occupied themselves with the substitution of the ordinary 
sulphate of quinia by a compound more soluble in water and better 
adapted for hypodermic use. The author proposes to test the correct- 
ness of the frequently discordant statements by means of well-defined 
salts prepared by himself from perfectly pure quinia. In the present 
preliminary note he treats of the solubility of the free alkaloid in water, 
alcohol, chloroform and sulphuric ether. 

Solubility in Water. — Pelletier and Caventou, in their ^'Analyse 
chimique des Quinquinas," say simply, " Boiling water dissolves about 

■^"Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie " [4], vol. xxi, p. g. 

^"''m.Z'^Z^''' } ^^^^ Physical Properties of ^inia, 1 23 

0*005 of quinia ; cold water dissolves still less." From this it might 
be inferred that the solubility of quinia in water is pretty considerable ; 
for, calculating according to the co-efficient 0-005, one gram of quinia 
would dissolve in 200 grams of boiling water, and would require a 
larger, but undetermined, quantity of cold water. The greater portion 
of French standard treatises give different numbers, but unfortunately 
do not indicate their origin. The disagreement may be illustrated by 
the following examples : 

^.antity of Water required to Dissolnje one gram of ^inia. 

According to At + 15° C. At 100° C. 

Dumas ..... .... 200 grams. 

Gerhardt . , . . 350 grams . . . 400 " 

Pelouze and Fremy . . . 400 " . . . .150 " 

Wurtz .... 400 " . . . 350 " 

At + 19° C. 

Berthelot .... 480 grams. . . . 200 " 

According to the same authors one gram of ordinary sulphate of 
quinia, (C2oH24N202)2H2SOj, requires about 750 grams of water (the 
author has found about 755) at 15*^ C. to dissolve it. Yxom which it 
would result that an aqueous solution of quinia upon being neutralized 
by sulphuric acid, throws down, under the form of a deposit of insoluble 
sulphate, nearly half the alkaloid it contained ; an inference manifestly 
incorrect. In fact, the figure given for the solubility of quinia in water 
by Pelletier and Caventou, and other French chemists, is exaggerated. 

Dragendorff, in his " Toxicologic," represents the solubility of 
quinia in water as i in 1667 j this number, though widely differing 
from the preceding, is still, according to the author's experiments, con- 
siderably beyond the true one. Three experiments were made by him 
with pure quinia, from which all traces of the other cinchona alkaloids 
had been carefully removed. This quinia was anhydrous, and presented 
the appearance of vitreous, amorphous, completely colorless and trans- 
parent scales. Finely pulverized in a glass mortar, and then agitated 
during twenty-four hours with a large excess of pure distilled water, 
previously made to boil, it yielded a solution which, after being kept 
during two hours at a temperature of 15° C, gave the following 
results : 

Saturated Sr)lution Pure Quinia dried 

atisOC. atiio'^C. 

ist Experiment, . . . 49-8278 grams. 0-025 grams. 

2d " . . . . 49-9780 " 0-024 " 

3d ... 49-6950 " 0-025 " 

Am. Jour. Phari 
Mar., 1875. 

1 24 Some Physical Properties of ^inia. { 

These figures give for each 100 grams of saturated solution at 1 5° C. : 

Pure Quinia 
dried at + iio° C. 

1st Experiment, ........ 0-0501 grams. 

2d " • . 0-0480 " 

3(1 " . 0-0503 " 

Or a mean of 0*0494 gram of quinia in each 100 grams of solution; 
from which the author concludes that the co-efficient of solubility at 
that temperature is i in 2024 ; or that one gram of pure quinia requires 
for its perfect solution at 15° C. rather more than two litres of distilled 

The solubility is considerably increased at 100° C, as stated by 
most authors, and as is shown by the following experiments : 

Water saturated Pure Quinia dried 

at ioqO C. at no" C. 

ist Experiment, . . . 64*5430 grams. 0-0870 grams. 

2d " ... 65-5265 " 0-0840 " 

Or a mean for each 100 grams of 0*1314 gram; from whence the 
author concludes that the co-efficient of solubility of quinia in water 
at 100° C. is I in 760. Therefore water saturated with quinia at 
100° C. deposits in cooling to 15° G. nearly two-thirds of the alka- 
loid originally dissolved. 

Solubility in Jlcohol. — The author used absolutely pure and anhydrous 
ethylic alcohol. One carefully conducted experiment gave a result 
so nearly concordant with what is stated in chemical treatises that it 
was not repeated. 

Absolute alcohol saturated Quinia dried at 

atisOC. hqOC. 

41-454 grams. 19-428 grams. 

This is equal to 46-866 grams to 100 grams of solution, and the 
co-efficient of solubility at 15^ C. would be i in 1*133 ; other 
words, I gram of pure quinia will dissolve in I'I33 gram of absolute 
alcohol at 15° C. Several chemists have mentioned the great solu- 
bility of quinia in alcohol. Dragendorff and Wurtz have it as 1 in 2, 
which is too low. The difference, however, probably depends upon 
a slightly hydrated alcohol having been used, for the solubility of quinia 
in alcohol decreases rapidly with the smallest addition of water. 

Solubility in Chloroform. — lOO grams of chloroform saturated at 15° 
C. gave 34*177 grams of quinia dried at 110° C, being equal to i in 
1*926. This number is substantially in agreement with Pettenkofer's 
statement of 55 per cent., or i in i*8oi. The co-efficient i in 6*58, 

} ^^^^ Physical Properties of ^inia. 1 2 5 

corresponding to 15*2 per cent. (Schlimpest), mentioned by Dragen- 
dorfF, is evidently erroneous. 

Solubility in Sulphuric Ether. — The ether used in these experiments 
was entirely free from aldehyde, alcohol and water. 

Ether saturated at 15° C. Quinia dried at 110° C. 

1st Experiment, . . . Z'^'ZSA-S grams. i-399o grams. 

2d " ... 18-6590 " 0.7965 " 

Or a mean equal to 4*23 14 of quinia to each 100 grams of solution. 
From which the author concludes that the co-efficient of quinia in pure 
sulphuric ether at 15° is i in 22*632. This value is very different 
from that indicated by Dragendorff, who, according to Pettenkofer, 
supposes that 100 grams of ether dissolve i"66 grams of quinia, or 
equal to i in 60, instead of i in 22. 

Observations upon Aqueous Solution of ^uuiia. — The determination of 
the exact composition of the aqueous solution afforded the author op- 
portunities for making numerous experiments upon some of the reac- 
tions of this alkaloid. The solution of i part in 2 000 is bitter, and 
presents very clearly the emerald-green coloration under the influence 
of chlorine and ammonia. Gallo-tannic acid causes an abundant pre- 
cipitate. By means of mixtures consisting of definite proportions of 
this solution and distilled water, the author ascertained that it is neces- 
sary to dilute one part of this solution of i in 2,000 with ten parts of 
distilled water before the opalescence resulting from the formation of 
the tannate ceases to be visible in the sunlight, gathered in the focus of 
a convergent lens ; i part in 20,000 is therefore the extreme limit of 
the sensitiveness of this reagent. This experiment shows that the 
solubility at a temperature between 10° C. and 20° C. is extremely 
slight, and that some statements that have been made upon this point 
are incorrect. 

The fluorescence of the aqueous solution of i part of pure quinia 
in 2,000 is almost invisible if the solution be examined in the direct 
sunlight. It is, however, perceptible up to an extreme limit of i in 
20,000, if, according to the method proposed by Stokes,* the rays 
converging from a lens or a concave metallic mirror be thrown upon it. 

It is known that the presence of an excess of sulphuric acid increases 
the fluorescent power of quinia, and the author has found that this 
singular influence renders the solution of i in 20,000 twenty times 
more energetic. In fact, he has found that a solution of i part of 

* " Philosophical Transactions," 1852, p. 463. 

126 Production of Anilin Colors without Arsenic,{^'^-^^^]ii^^""^- 

quinia in 500,000 of water, when sulphuric acid has been added, 
possesses still a visible flourescence, which is instantly destroyed upon 
the addition of hydrochloric acid, as stated by Stokes.* 

From the facts above stated the author deduces thefollowing prop- 
ositions : 

(1) . The solubility of quinia in water is at 15° C, i in 2,024, 
at 100° C, I in 760 ; in absolute alcohol, at 15° C, i in 1,133 ' 
chloroform, at 15° C, i in 1,926; in pure sulphuric ether, at 15° C, 
I in 22-632. 

(2) . The solubility of tannate of quinia in warer is below i in 20,000. 

(3) . The fluorescent power of quinia becomes twenty times more 
energetic under the influence of an excess of sulphuric acid. 

(4) . By means of this exalted fluorescence, it is possible to recog- 
nize the presence of the alkaloid in a solution containing quinia only in 
the proportion of one part in five hundred thousand ; a degree rather 
beyond that stated by Fiuckiger who recommends this reaction. The 
author finds it to surpass in delicacy, in the ratio of 5 to 4, the opales- 
cence caused by the double iodide of mercury and potassium, which, 
however, furnishes no clue as to the nature of the alkaloid of which it 
reveals the existence. 



It will be within the remembrance of readers of the Chemical 
News " that Coupler, of Paris, was the first to succeed in producing 
fuchsin by the action, at a suitable temperature, of hydrochloric acid 
and iron in small quantities on pure anilin and nitrotoluol. Though 
Coupler's experiments were confirmed by Schiitzenberger, who showed 
the anilin-red obtained by Coupler's process to be identical with that 
usually manufactured, and found the yield somewhat greater than that 
obtained by the use of arsenic acid, the process was not applied indus- 
trially before 1872, when Meister Lucius and Brlining, of Hoechst, 
Germany, succeeded in working it on a large scale. This firm, how- 
ever, appear to manufacture their colors only in part by this method, 
as they still supply the market with dyes containing arsenic. 

More recently, the Gesellschaft fiir Anilin P^abrikation, of Berlin, 
have erected new woiks, where no arsenic acid is used in the prepara- 
tion of colors. Not only fuchsin (rubin), but all the colors derived 

* " Loc. clt." 

^Va°n,''i?7^''"''} Action of Lohelina on the Circulation. 127 

from it which are manufactured by this company, are wan anted to be 
produced without the employment of arsenic, and to be entirely free 
from this poisonous reagent. 

The Berlin Company are working Coupier's process with several 
important modifications, and produce from 200 to 300 kilogs. of fuchsin 
per diem. Some specimens of fuchsin and other colors manufactured 
by this company appear to be products of unrivalled beauty, purity and 
strength. The fuchsin is stated to be not only purer, but stronger than 
that made by the aid of arsenic acid, and is the pure hydrochlorate of 
rosanilin. The rosanilin base, from its great purity, is admirably 
adapted for the preparation of anilin blue, and is largely used by other 
manufacturers of anilin colors. 

Being free from arsenic, these dyes are not only fitted for coloring 
sweetmeats, liqueurs, syrups, and pharmaceutical preparations of every 
description, but may be used in many other industrial purposes where 
poisonous colors would be more or less dangerous, as in the staining of 
paper, paper-hangings, toys, &c. 

It is to be desired that other manufacturers of these dyes will adopt 
the new method, and relinquish the old arsenic acid process, which, 
apart from the inconveniences it has caused both manufacturers and 
consumers, has led to many lamentable accidents. — Chem. Nnus 
\_Lond,\ Feb. 5, 1875. 


Dr. J. Ott, of Easton, Pa., has experimented with this alkaloid, 
which was prepared by Messrs. Hance Bros. & White, after the process 
of Professor Procter. The experiments were made upon rabbits, cats 
and dogs, the author arriving at the following conclusions : 

" Reasoning from the above data, the inference would be that lobe- 
lina in small doses increases the blood pressure by acting as an excitant 
on the peripheral vaso-motor system. The pulse seems temporarily 
reduced and then increased ; the necessarily limited number of our 
experiments precludes saying more about it. I will state here that I 
have found lobelia to be mainly a respiratory poison, and that in the 
cat it greatly reduces the temperature. The above experiments on 
lobelina were made in Professor Bowditch's Physiological Laboratory 
at Harvard Medical School ; to him I am indebted for opportunities of 
study and many highly important suggestions in the investigation." — 
Boston Med. and Surg, your.., 1 875, Feb. 4. 



Am. Jour. Pharni 
Mar. 875. 

VA R I E T I E S. 

Opium Trade at Smyrna. — We clip from Circular No. 25 of the Philadelphia 
Drug Exchange, the following information of the amount of opium received at 
Smyrna and shipped from that port : 







Receipts to Dec. 19, 

1705 -c 






2798 baske 

Stocks, new. 







741 " 

" old, 







" second-hand, 







100 " 

" inferior. 






1 1 25 

950 " 








1791 " 


2 3 OP 


2 1 OP 




Shipments of Opiu?n from Jaftuary i to December 31, 1874. 

To London, . . . . . 

• 505 


To Liverpool, .... 


To Rotterdam, njia Liverpool, 

• 331 


To America, " 



To " .... . 



To Rotterdam, .... 


To Marseilles, &c., . . . . 

. 96 


To Trieste, &c., .... 


To Singapore, Batavia, &c.,f 


: 2986 

Iodine. — From recent advices regarding this article, we make some extracts^ 
which may prove of interest. 

At present, iodine is ruling at very low^ figures — very much lower, indeed, than 
it has for years past — but it is now firmly held, and an advance is not improbable, 
as prices are regarded as not being remunerative. In this connection it may be 
]>roper to observe that quotations for iodide of potassium also are quite low, even 
at the minimum rates named for crude iodine. 

" Iodine — an article of so much importance in medicine and the arts — is produced 
chiefly in Scotland, where it is made from kelp. Sea-weed is collected on the w( st 
coast of Ireland and the western islands of Scotland. The sun-dried sea-weed is 
incinerated in shallow excavations, at a low temperature 5 for, if the temperature was 
allowed to rise too high, a considerable quantity of iodide of sodium would be lost 
by volatilization. The half-fused ash, or kelp, which remains, is broken into frag- 

* "Computing the crop at 2,750 baskets, which figure may easily be attained, if not exceeded, inasmuch 
as receipts between here and Constantinople are now nearly 2,300 baskets." 
I 70 cases at 80 chequees (Dutch Co. 
90 " at io " 

Varieties. 129 

ments and treated with boiling water, which dissolves about one-half the ash/' 
*'The liquid, thus obtained, is evaporated, and in cooling, the more crystallizable 
salts separate, namely, sulphate and carbonate of sodium, with some chloride of 
potassium. The mother-liquor still contains the iodide of sodium, sulphite of sodium, 
sulphide and carbonate of sodium." 

" The liquor is then mixed with sulphuric acid, and allowed to stand for some 
hours. Carbonic and sulphurous acid and sulphuretted hydrogen gases escape, a 
fresh quantity of sulphate of sodium crystallizing out, mixed with a precipitate of 

" The supernatant acid-liquor is then transferred to the still, and then heated and 
binoxide of manganese added. The iodine sublimes into condensers, and may be 
purified by resublimation." 

" The average produce of a ton of kelp is about ten ( lo) pounds of iodine. Besides 
Iodine, kelp yields muriate and sulphate of potassium." 

" Iodine is also made in Peru, from the mother-liquor of the ' caliche,' which 
contains, on an average, about one-third of one per cent, of iodate of soduim." 

*' Iodine is imported into England as iodine and iodide of copper. The present 
quotation is %d. per ounce. Since July, 1874, price has, in consequence of the 
accumulation of the Chilian make in England and on the continent of Europe, 
gradually declined from one shilling to the above quotation." 

" The demand for the article not being sufficient to absorb the Chilian importa- 
tions, as well as the undiminished production of Scotland, it is now thought that we 
are at a point where makers, either in Peru or in Scotland — or probably in both 
countries — will regulate their productions more in accordance with the wants of con- 
sumers. Indeed, there are already symptoms of such a policy being adopted by 
makers and importers, and therefore buyers have great confidence in the stability of 
prices, and are making contracts with greater freedom." 

^^Peru. — Regarding iodine, we beg to state that we have never heard of its being 
produced in Chili, but only in Peru, on this side. It is produced in the province of 
Tarapaca, out of the 'caliche.' 

"In our * officinas,' we produce it in the form of iodide of copper, which contains 
about 60 per cent, of pure iodine. This iodide of copper has been frequently sent 
to London, but it has met with very few buyers. Of late it has been sent to Ger- 
many, where it is sold in its original form as iodide, or after having been trans- 
formed into kalium iodatum or iodum resublimatum. .... 

" In some of our ' officinas,' in Tarapaca, it is produced in the form of pure 
iodine, and, so far as we know, sent, for sale, to England. 

" When, formerly, the production of iodine was a monopoly in this country, it 
was separated in the form of moist, diity paste 5 but now this has ceased. 

"The form in which the iodine is extracted out of the 'caliche,' depends upon 
the opinions of the different chemists. Some consider that the form of cuprum 
iodidum is the most profitable one, and that the production of pure iodine is 
too expensive. The necessary arrangements for the manufacture of iodine are quite 
costly, and the machinery to be used requires a large sum of money, and therefore 
only iu few ' officinas' in Tarapaca, this article, as such is produced. 

" The manufacturers all consign their product to England, or elsewhere, so that 
there is no possibility to buy it here in this country. 


Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar. 1875. 


Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1875. 

" Regarding the contents of the iodine in the ' caliche/ we beg to say that some 
* cah'che'' does not contain iodine at all j other contains more or less. According 
to our experience in this business, 1,000 quintals of ' caliche' yield about 25 lbs. 
iodine." (The quintal of Castille, Chili, Mexico, Peru = ioi"6i-lbs.) 

As to the future ])rice of iodine (and this, of course, will regulate the rates for 
iodide of potassium and other preparations) a great deal will depend upon circum- 
stances, about which considerable uncertainty still exists 5 but from such facts as 
we have it would seem probable that extremely high figures (such as ruled in 1871 
and 1872 — 25^. per ounce) are not likely to be demanded again. 

Much depends — and this applies to every commodity — upon supply and demand. 
Now, as to the supply — it would appear that the South American manufacturers 
will be able to furnish it in considerable quantities. A correspondent sVates : " The 
quantity of iodine in Peru will be increased during the present year" (1874) 5 and 
this added to the amount made in Europe Will certainly furnish an abunda-nt sup- 
ply for every demand likely to occur, at least for medicinal purposes — hence excess- 
lue prices, based on limited production, can hardly be anticipated. 

lod ine, however, is also employed in the arts — by color makers. The require- 
ments of fashion are somewhat arbitrary and exacting, at times, and certain shades 
of color become extremely popular, so that immense quantities of material are re- 
quired, occasionally at short notice, resulting in an enhancement of prices. Such 
has been the case In years past with corrosive sublimate, iodine and other chemicalsj 
and, of course, a repetiti' n is not impossible. 

Again, the quality of the South American iodine must enter Into consideration. 
We can readily appreciate the prejudice that must exist in the minds of those so 
long accustomed to use Scotch iodine, against any new material j but, as stated in 
our circular No. 22, " It has been acknowledged, we have been advised, in the 
London market to be equal to the Scotch," and, although all that has been sent 
from South America to London has not been equally pure, It generally been 97 
975 pt^r cent pure, and it can be bought by test. We do not see, therefore, why 
the price of the Scotch iodine (which we may take as the standard) should be higher 
than the South American, and. In fact, they now rate about the same. 

It must be expected that the European manufacturers will not be disposed to 
relinquish the business so long as it pays a profit 5 and it may become a question 
who cm make iodine the cheapest and control the market. We think it quite 
likely that iodine can be produced in South America at a comparatively low cost, 
being a by-product, extracted during the process of manufacturing nitrate of soda : 
but what the effect of a great fall in price would be upon the producers of Peruvian, 
we are unable to say, as we are unacquainted with the method by which they ex- 
tract it. 

Neither can we spe: k definitely as to the cost of the European, but in our circular 
No. 22 it is stated : " The production in France is certainly less now than last year, 
and two factories of importance are closed already, and others threaten to follow, 
as they pretend they work under a loss, particularly by the enormous depreciation 
of muriate and sulphate of potash." It is generally supposed that the present rates 
are not very remunerative to the Scotch and French makers. 

If the Peruvians can produce iodine to the extent indicated by advices received 
from South America, and can make it so much more cheaply as to afford to send it 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Mar., 1875. J 


to Europe and undersell their competitors, and still be content with the profits, the 
entire business may eventually be absorbed by them. Under such circumstances a 
combination would be improbable. 

If, on the other hand, the cost to manufacture shall be found to be about equal, a 
combination for mutual protection might be formed and prices be advanced. 

The question has received serious consideration in Europe as to combination or 
competition between the foreign and home producers. So far a conservative policy 
seems to have been observed by the agents of the Peruvians, in London and else- 
where, and an indisposition manifested, on their part, to unnecessarily depress prices. 
Should they offer their consignments on arrival, without reserve, the result would be 
that, in a short time, they would discover^ — 

First, Whether a much lower price would stimulate consumption. 

Secondly, Whether such concession in price would affect production either in 
Scotland or South America, or in both. 

From such information as we have, therefore, a combination to materially advance 
prices seems quite improbable, but it is possible that about present rates may be 
steadily maintained. — Philadelphia Drug Exchange Circular No. 25. 

The Prevention of Sea-sickness. — Dr Giraldes has published, in the last num- 
ber of the "Journal de Therapeutique,'" an account of the means by which he 
avoided sea-sickness during two passages to England and back. He was at Boulogne 
last June en route for London, when the weather was so rough that many intending 
passengers hesitated to cross the channel. Dr. Giraldes was informed by a colleague 
at Boulogne that American physicians used the syrup of chloral as a preventive of 
sea-sickness with successful results. He therefore obtained some syrup of chloral, 
put himself into a quiet corner, and took his syrup directly the vessel was in motion, 
when, although his fellow-passengers experienced the usual unpleasant consequences, 
he arrived at Folkestone without having suffered the least inconvenience. The same 
results were obtained on the return voyage 5 but he increased the amount of chloral. 
He had again occasion to cross the channel at the end of September, by the night 
boat from Calais to Dover, and thinking, with reason, that the sea would be rougher 
at that season than usual, he had a drauglit made up composed of chloral, 3 grams 
(45 grains) 5 distilled water, 50 grams 5 gooseberry syrup, 60 grams 5 and French 
essence of pepp-rmint, 2 drops. He took half of the draught as the vessel left the 
harbor, and arrived at Dover without having suffered in the least from sea-sickness, 
whilst his companions were in the usual condition of prostrate misery, A very 
heavy sea was running. On his return from London on October 30, there was a high 
sea and much wind 5 he accordingly took the remaining portion of his draught, soon 
went to sleep, and only awoke on hii arrival at Calais in the best possible condition. 
Dr. Giraldes remarks that he is, as a rule, affected by sea-sickne^s when he crosses 
the channel, and that his two trials of chloral have convinced him of its efficacy as 
a preventive of that most disagreeable malady. He adds that he never goes down 
into the cabin, but makes himself as comfortable as circumstances will allow on 
deck. — Medical Ne^xus, Feb., 1875, from Lond. Med. Record, Dec. 9, 1874. 

Determination of Tannin, — MM. Muntz and Ramspacher. — The principle 
of the method is as follows: — A solution of tannin, filtered by pression or aspira- 

132 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. {^"^Afcs^ys.^'"'' 

tion through a piece of hide, gives up to it all its tannir, whilst the rest of the dis- 
solved matters pass through the animal tissue. The authors have satisfied them- 
selves by direct experiment that the matters which may accompany the tannin, such 
as saccharine and gummy substances, organic salts of potash, lime, magnesia, &c., 
are not retained by the hide. On evaporating to dryness equal quantities of the 
solution, filtered and unfiltered, and deducting the weight of the former residue from 
that of the latter, we find the exact weight ol' the tannin absorbed by the hide. As 
an example, 50 grms. of oak-baak, ground in a coftee mill, are exhausted with boil' 
ing water, so as to make up 250 c. c. of liquid. A piece of hide, free from hair, 
and previously softened in water, is stretched over a small zinc drum of about o'o6 
metre in diameter, and secured in its place with a copper wire. The opposite eiid 
of the dram forms a tube, to which is attached a tube of caoutchouc from 1*5 to 
2 m. in length, and terminating above in a funnel. Into this is poured the solution 
of the sample. The first 4 or 5 c.c. of the filtrate are rejected because they con- 
tain certain albumenoid matters expelled from the hide by displacement. After 
having thus collected by filtration a certain quantity of liquid, 25 c c. of the filtrate 
are evaporated to dryness at 100°, and also 25 c.c. of the unfiltered solution j we 
have then — • 

Weight of tannin and foreign matter, .... 0465 grm. 
Weight of foreign matter alone, . . . . . 0175 " 


being the weight of tannin present in 25 c.c. of liquor. The total volume of this 
liquor being known, and the amount of bark from which it is obtained, the per- 
centage of tannin in the latter is found by a very simple calculation. — Chem Ne-ivs 
[Lon.]j Dec. 24, 1874, from Bull, de la Soc. Chim. de Parisy Nos. 6 and 7, Oct. 5, 1874. 


The fifth meeting of the session was held February the i6th, 1875, the President, 
Dillwyn Parrish, in the chair. The Minutes of the previous meeting were read and 

The following presentations were made to the Cabinet and Library, and the 
thanks of the College awarded to the donors : 

From A. W. Miller, M. D., a handsome specimen of white grape sugar ; also, 
swimming bladders of weak fish or ocean-trout, Otolithus regalis ; from Wilson H, 
Pile, M. D., two hydrometers made without the usual bulb, this shape permitting them 
to be introduced into bottles, etc. ; from Prof Remington, Armstrong's Graduated 
Plaster Apparatus — a covenient instrument for measuring correctly the size of 
plasters and preserving a straight edge — consisting of a board with two graduated 
squares, having bevelled edges, controlled by side pieces and set screws 5 from the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, a copy of their Proceedings, vol. xxii, 1874 j 
from H. N. Rittenhouse, the Ninth U. S. Census Report in four volumes. 

^"'mZ'i^js^'"''} ^^^^^-^ of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 133 

W. H. Waliing exhibited a specimen of an impure carbolic acid, which was re- 
cently offered as creasote, and spoke of the difficulty of obtaining genuine wood-tar 
creasote. Prof. Remington remaked that dealers were in the habit of furnishing 
coal-tar creasote, unless wood tar creasote was specified, when it was supplied. 
Prof. P^aisch called attention to the variable composition of creasote, as furnished 
by different makers, and exhibited six specimens, all of which were free from carbolic 
acid, yet differed more or less In smell and reaction. 

A. P. Brown had used spiritus ajtheris nitrosi as a test. Prof. Maisch believed 
that the reactions and properties of creasote, made in different countries and by 
different manufacturers, would continue to vary more or less, until creasote ceased 
to be a mixture of several products of the dry distillation of wood, and its correct 
chemical composition had been ascertained 5 at present, perhaps, the most reliable 
test is its mlscibility with collodion without coagulating it. 

A, W. Miller, M. D., exhibited two samples of oil of sandal wood — -one pure, 
the other adulterated — and a fine specimen of German oil of juniper berries. 

Prof, Remington exhibited four specimens of the seeds of Theobronia cacao, Illus- 
trating the most important commercial varieties. Maracalbo is sold at the highest 
price, and is considered the best. 

Wm, Mclntyre had procured some of the oil of Ceylon cinnamon, presented by 
Dr. Miller, at the last meeting, and with it prepared cinnamon water, which was 
found to possess the sweet ta^te which he had presumed was characteristic of cin- 
namon water prepared by distillation. 

Dr. Miller read a paper entitled, " Notes on Pronunciation and Orthography " 
[see p. 102), which called forth many remarks urging more attention to the correct 
rendering of many words in common use. 

R. V. Mattison read a paper " On Suppositories " [see p. 98), advocating the mak- 
ing of these preparations in moulds 5 the mould of Mr. Sloan, and samples made by 
the process described, were shown. Prof Maisch read a note of James Kemble on 
the same subject, but advocating the hand method [see p lOl). 

Dr. Miller exhibited a glass syringe for moulding and introducing suppositories. 
A somewhat similar contrivance was introduced upon a previous occasion by Alfred 
B. Taylor, and by him named suppositer [see " Amer. Jour. Pharm.," 1861, p. 202)* 

A paper by H. M. Wilder " On Mixtura Glycyrrhizas Composita and Purified Ex- 
tract of Licorice " was read [see p. 97), advocating the use of the latter in preparing 
the former. Regarding the use of the words officinal and official, it was stated that 
Prof. Attfield had advocated, some years ago, the views expressed by Mr. Wilder, 
and that the two words were now thus used in Great Britain 5 but that in other 
countries the word officinal appeared to be used, like in the United States, to express 
both meanings. It was suggested that Dr. Miller might find it convenient to ex- 
amine into this matter. 

Prof Remington read a letter from Emlen Painter, transmitting the first thesis 
presented to the California College of Pharmacy, on volatile oil of " Oreodaphne Cal- 
ifornica, California Bay Laurel, by John P. Heaney." An abstract of this thesis is 
published on page 105. A fowering branch of the tree accompanied the docu- 

Dr. Miller read a paper, entitled " Deer Tongue in Perfumery " [see p. 116), giv- 
ing formulas for various pre])arations containing lAatris odoratissima, and exhibited 
samples of the same. 

34 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 

Prof. Maisch read a paper " On the Constituents and Properties of the Genus 
Potentilla'''' [see p. 109), and exhibited herbariuin specimens of the described species. 
These papers were all referred to the Publication Committee. 

W. H. Walling urged upon members the propriety of curtailing Sunday traffic. 
He had consulted in regard to the proper p'ace to introduce this subject to the 
notice of the College, and asked that all should do something. Dr Pike believed 
that no rule could be adopted 5 but, as it was an individual matter, each one must 
depend upon himself. He found no difficulty in closing, and was aware that many 
were in the habit of furnishing required medicines only on Sunday. 

Dr. Miller presented a sophistication of spigelia, to which his attention was drawn 
by S. W. Brown, of Manayunk. Upon inquiry he learned it was known in the 
market as East Tennessee pink-root j but the-plant from which it is derived has not 
been ascertained. It is said to be largely sold to manufacturers of fluid extracts. 
Wm. Mclntyre related his experience in obtaining powders of the proper fineness for 
percolation, recourse to the mortar and pestle frequently being necessary with 
articles like ergot. Prof. Maisch suggested to take advantage of the cold weather to 
powder ergot and other articles of a similar oily nature j and Mr. Mattison stated 
that he had obtained good results thereby. 

Yellow glassware is being introduced by Maris & Co., of this city. A tincture 
bottle made with this glass, which is colored by uranium., was exhibited. Prof. 
Maisch said that it would be interesting to have its value ascertained, by experiment, 
as a protector of substances prone to change by the action of light. The Danish 
Pharmacopoeia directs the following preparations to be preserved in either yellow or 
Z'/^r^ glass vessels : mercurous and mercuric iodide, white precipitate, calomel and 
chlorine water. 

On motion adjourned. 

William McIntyre, Registrar. 


The New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association held its fifth annual meeting 
in Camden, at Morgan's Hall, on Wednesday, February loth, 1875. The meeting 
was called to order by the President, James R. Mercein. After the business for 
which the Association was convened had been transacted, and the address of the 
retiring President had been delivered, an election for officers for the ensuing year 
was held, with the following result: 

For President, J. L. De la Cour, of Camden ; Vice-Presidents, C. C. Wells, of 
New Brunswick j R. W. Gardner, Jersey City 5 Treasurer, William Rust, New 
Brunswick 5 Recording Secretary, P. W. Levering, Jersey City; Corresponding 
Secretary, C. B. Smith, Newark. Standing Committee, Julius Fehr, Hoboken ; S. 
T. Ringel, Camden; James Stratton, Bordentown ; C. H. Dalrymple, Morristown ; 
C. C. Wells, New Brunswick. 

The afternoon session was occupied in reading of essays and answers to queries, 
after which the Association adjourned, to meet during the summer at Long Branch. 

MTn'iSjs"™"} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 135 

Tn the evening a banquet was given to the members of the New Jersey Pharma- 
ceutical Association by the Camden Association, at Rudolph's Palace of Luxury, 
where Mayor Jones and several members and guests addressed the company. Later 
in the evening an informal reception of the Association was given at Morgan's Hall, 
where most of the prominent citizens of Camden assembled to witness the display 
of drugs, chemicals, apparatus and pharmaceutical preparations. Music was dis- 
coursed by the Sixth Regiment Band, and, after a promenade concert, dancing was 
indulged in by those so inclined, and at a late hour the assemblage departed, well 
pleased with the results of this meeting, and with the exhibition, to which a number 
of the members and several of the most prominent firms of Philadelphia and New 
York had freely contributed. 

Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — At the monthly meeting of the College, 
held Tuesday, February 9th, Professor E. S, Wayne exhibited and presented to the 
College a splendid mass of crystals of caffein, and made some remarks upon a new 
method for its manufacture from tea or coffee 5 which is, to boil the powdered tea 
or coffee with one and a half times its weight of finely- powdered litharge in water. 
A bright and almost colorless solution is thus obtained, which contains a little lead. 
Thi> is removed by passing sulphhydric acid gas through the solution, and filtering 
off the sulphide of lead. On evaporation to the crystallizing point and cooling, the 
caffein crystallizes out in colorless crystals. The mother liquid will be found slightly 
yellow; treated with animal charcoal, upon evaporating, it yields another crop of 
crystals The process was said to be a cheap and rapid one for preparing cafiein, 
and to yield largely. 

He also exhibited a very rich and rare gold ore from near Boulder, Col. (from 
the Grand View mine), called sylvanite (a telluride of gold and silver), and the 
results of its assay, consisting of tellurium beautifully crystallized on the surface, 
and the gold and silver 5 some specimens assaying as high as .^29,000 to the ton. 

He also presented to the College some fine specimens of English rhubarb root, 
round and flat, and a specimen of the cardamom, described by Pereira as the hairy, 
round, Chinese cardamom. They are about half an inch in diameter, almost spher- 
ical, have much less aromatic taste and smell than the officinal sort ; and, as pre- 
sented, were deprived of their capsules, and had evidently been limed. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the pharmaceutical meeting 
held February 3d, the President, Mr. F. H. Hills, in the chair, Mr. Greenish pre- 
sented a number of treatises describing the results of various original investigations 
carried on in the laboratory of the Pharmaceutical Institute at Dorpat, under the 
supervision of Prof. Dragendorff, such investigations being undertaken during the 
second year of attendance, and the results being embodied in theses presented upon 
the application of the students for the degree of "Magister" of Pharmacy. He 
would be glad to see the highest honors of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain become the reward of original research rather than the result of an examina- 
tion, and he hoped that at some future time there would exist a College of Phar- 
macy in Great Britain which would grant degrees as the reward of original 

136 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. {^'^■^iZ'i'^^-'^' 

Mr. Francis Sutton read a paper on the construction of an international Pharma- 
copoeia, describing the work performed by a commission of thirteen, appointed by 
the Paris Pharmaceutical Society, the results of whose labors were presented to the 
International Pharmaceutical Congress, at St. Petersburg, in a work, consisting of 
534 pages of manuscript, post quarto, many of which not half filled. The com- 
mission have evidently largely consulted the various Pharmacopoeias of Europe and 
the United States. The general outline and features of the work are similar to those 
of the Paris Codex. It is divided into three parts, Part I, Preliminary Matters^ 
containing tables of weights, measures, specific gravities, temperatures, alcoholic 
strengths, &c. 5 Part II, Materia Medica, giving the pharmacognostic history and 
description of natural products, and Part III, The Pharmacopceia, comprising the 
chemical and pharmaceutical preparations arranged — in this provisional copy — in the 
alphabetical order of their French names. In the choice and compilation of the for- 
mulas, numbering between 300 and 400, preference was given to those which are 
most simple, rational and frequently used, without distinction of origin. 

The discussion following the reading of this paper was of great interest; a few 
members appeared to be in favor of such a Pharmacopoeia superseding the national 
Pharmacopoeias, and acknowledged the many difficulties to overcome which would 
probably require a number of years. Most speakers, however, expressed themselves 
opposed to such a view, their sentiments being, perhaps, most concisely expressed 
by Professor Redwood, who said that " he could conceive that some benefits would 
result from a work which bore the character of an International Pharmacopoeia, if 
it were possible to have a work which would describe the principal and most active 
medicines which were used in every country, and if at the same time it were possi- 
ble to induce the medical and pharmaceutical authorities in those countries to adopt 
one uniform standard with reference to every medicine which bore a specific name.''^ 
Professor Attfield pointed out that, before any very close approximation could be 
made, there must be an interregnum, during which a compilation of the formulas 
adopted by the various Pharmacopoeias would be necessary and desirable as a work 
of reference. 

The selection of the articles, as made by the Paris Commission, was likewise 
criticised. It was urged that definite chemical compounds were needless in such a 
book, and attention was drawn to the large number of ointments (33) and plasters 
(20) contained in the submitted draft, and to the omission of ammonio-citrate of 
iron, tartrate of iron, and similar preparations. 

Regarding the language in which such a work should be published, some speakers 
advocated Latin as the only one which would be understood throughout Europe, 
while others favored the use for each nation of their own vernacular. 

Mr. E. M. Holmes read a " Note on a Spurious Senna,'' which will be published 
in our next number. This spurious senna does not act as a cathartic. It is impor- 
tant to state now, that in color and size it somewhat resembles the Tinnevelly 
variety, and that not less than two hundred tons have been shipped to London. Mr. 
Hanbury was unable to find any mention of its being used for any purpose in any 
part of the world. 

Mr. Moss called attention to a specimen of absolutely pure carbolic acid, in the 
form of a coarse crystalline powder, which did not become damp on being kept in 
paper for two or three weeks. He thought it highly probable that the claims which 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Mar., 1875. J 



had recently been made for using salicylic acid as an antiseptic dressing (j^^'"Amer 
Journ. Pharm.," 1875, P- 6^)5 might be set aside in favor of this pulverulent and 
faintly-fragrant phenol. 

Several samples of artificial salicylic acid were exhibited, as also artificial oil of 
gaultheria, prepared by Mr. John Williams, who stated in a " Note on Salicylate 
of Methyl," that it is easily produced by mixing salicylic acid, pure wood spirit 
(methyl alcohol) and sulphuric acid together in a retort, and distilling in an oil bath, 
the temperature required being about 208° C. 


Covers for the Journal. — The Publishing Committee has procured covers in 
which the numbers of the Journal may be fastened for preservation, and to prevent 
their being lost or soiled during the year. Each cover is large enough to hold one 
volume, which, when complete, may either be taken out to have it bound in any 
desired style, or the cover itself may be used for the permanent binding of one 
volume. Two styles have been prepared, one being half cloth, with marbled paper 
sides, at 50 cents each 5 the other being full cloth, embossed, and with " American 
Journal of Pharmacy " in gilt letters on side, at 75 cents each. The covers will be 
mailed by the Business Editor to any address, on receipt of the money. 

The Stamp-Tax on Medicines. — In a footnote to an editorial in our last issue 
(p. 92), we have informed our readers that the so-called "Little Tariff' Bill" had 
passed both Houses of Congress. The law is entitled "An Act to Amend the 
Existing Customs and Internal Revenue Laws, and for other Purposes," and received 
the official sanction of the President, February 8th. The twenty-second section 
has been adopted in the form reported by us on page 351 of our last volume j it has 
been framed in clear language, and will, it is hoped, do away with the numerous 
vexations to which pharmacists have formerly been subjected. It is well to call 
attention to it here, that medicines put up for sale, in order to be relieved from the 
stamp-tax, must be actually prepared according to certain formulas, which must 
either ht printed in full upon the label, or else the label must state <Tjjhere (in which 
standard Dispensatory or Pharmacopasia in common use, or in which pharmaceutical 
journal of an incorporated college of pharmacy) such formula is to be found ; more- 
over, no proprietorship must be claimed for the preparation. In accordance with this 
we would regard labels reading " A B's Solution of Citrate of Magnesium," or 
"Solution of Citrate of Magnesium prepared only by A B " as making the article 
liable to be stamped ; while no stamp is required if the label reads : " Solution of 
Citrate of Magnesium, U. S. Pharmacopoeia, 1870, p. 2175 prepared by A B," and 
is actually prepared by that formula. 

For the benefit of our new subscribers we reprint here the section in full : 
" Section 22. That hereafter nothing contained in the Internal Revenue Laws shali 
be construed so as to authorize the imposition of any stamp-tax upon any medicinal 

138 Editorial {^"■iTln-'"' 

articles prepared by any manufacturing chemist, pharmaceutist or druggist, in ac- 
cordance with a formula published in any standard Dispensatory or Pharmacopoeia 
in common use by physicians and apothecaries, or in any pharmaceutical journal 
^ssued by any incorporated college of pharmacy, when such formula and where 
found shall be distinctly referred to on the printed label attached to such article, 
and no proprietary interest therein is claimed. Neither shall any stamp be required 
when the formula of any medicinal preparation shall be printed on the label attached 
to such article, where no proprietorship in such preparation shall be claimed." 

Prosecutions for Alleged Adulterations. — Since the Adulteration of Food 
Act has become a taw in England, quite a number of prosecutions have taken place 
under it, wilful adulterations having been shown in some cases, while in some the 
public analysts could not agree as to whether a substance found had been added for 
the purpose of increasing the weight. Recently, however, proceedings were insti- 
tuted in two cases, which appear to be so curious in some of their features that we 
cannot refrain from laying them before our readers. 

At the Wolverhampton Borough Court, Thomas Smith, soda-water manufacturer, 
was charged with having sold adulterated soda-water. The borough analyst, E. W. 
T. Jones, after examining it gave the following certificate : "The title under which 
this sample was sold is quite a misnomer 5 it is an anomalous specimen altogether, 
containing no carbonate of soda, and hence devoid of the valuable properties peculiar 
to genuine soda-water. Carbonate of lime is preseyit in considerable quantity, and it 
shows traces of copper. I consider it is an adulterated article, and injurious to 
health." We have italicized the portions which appear to us the most curious, and 
upon the strength of which any American manufacturer of soda-water would be 
liable to a penalty under British laws, particularly if hard water had been used in its 
manufacture, as was shown to be the case on this occasion. The defendant was fined 
40J. and costs j it is not stated whether the fine was imposed on account of the unde- 
termined traces of copper, the likewise undetermined considerable quantity of car- 
bonate of calcium, or the total absence of carbonate of sodium. 

A case of still greater interest and importance was the charge against John Hal- 
Lowell of having sold adulterated milk of sulphur, tried at the Leeds Borough Police 
Court February 3d. Our readers will perhaps remember the paper by Prof. Attfield, 
on adulterated precipitated sulphur, published in this Journal in 1869, page 249, and 
the interesting discussion which followed its reading before the Pharmaceutical So- 
ciety of Great Britain, and in which it was proven, that under the name oi milk of 
sulphur, the old form of sulphur precipitated by sulphuric acid, and consequently 
containing much sulphate of calcium, was sold in England, while the officinal 
article, which is precipitated by hydrocliloric acid, and is therefore free from calcium 
salts, is sold by its officinal English name — precipitated sulphur. This was again 
particularly brought to the notice of American pharmacists by Mr. H. T. Brady, 
formerly President of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, when he was present 
at the nineteenth meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, at St. Louis, 
in 1871 [^see Proceedings, 1871, p. 60). 

In the case referred to, the admixture of sulphate of calcium was admitted, and 
no witnesses were called by the defence, which rested its merits entirely upon the 

Am, Jour. Pharm. 
Mar. 1875. 

Reviews^ etc. 


statements and admissions of the borough analyst, Thomas Fairley, who fairly 
writhed under the searching cross-examination, ably conducted by Mr. Simpson, 
counsel for the defendant j and while admitting on the one hand that two distinct 
substances were sold under two distinct trade names, would insist that they ought 
to be chemically alike. The prosecution was abandoned and the summons with- 

We felt obliged to call attention to these cases, in order to show to what annoy- 
ances persons may be subjected who endeavor faithfully to comply with the spirit of 
the law. Pharmacists and druggists in this country have had considerable experi- 
ence in such matters under the changing and variable rulings under the provisions 
of our Interna] Revenue Laws 5 and while we rejoice that the latter have now been 
njerbally altered, so as to express unmistakably the meaning originally intended for 
one partic\dar provision, we may be permitted to express the hope, that if ever an 
adulteration of food act should be passed here, we may have profited from the ex- 
perience of other countries, so that its provisions may be clear, and not liable to be 
used as means for annoyance under erroneous preconceived opinions on the part of 


Compendium of Children s Diseases. A Hand- Book for Practitioners and Students. By 
Dr. Johann Steiner, Professor of the Diseases of Children in the University of 
Prague, etc. Translated from the second German edition by Lawson Tait, 

F. R. C. S., Surgeon to the Birmingham Hospital for Women, etc. New York : 
D. Appleton & Co. 1875. 8vo, pp. 408. 

The first edition of this work was so well received in Austria and Germany that 
after a very short period a second edition had to be prepared, which is now pre- 
sented to the English speaking profession. An excellent work might have been 
expected from the position of its author, during a period of fifteen years in the Fran- 
cis-Joseph Hospital for Children in Prague, and the manner in which it has been 
received, speaks for Its value. 

The work is divided into the following nine divisions : the investigation of dis- 
ease 5 diseases of the nervous system 5 diseases of the organs of respiration j diseases 
of the organs of circulation and of the lymphatic system 5 diseases of the organs of 
digestion 5 diseases of the urinary and sexual organs 5 general diseases of nutrition j 
zymotic diseases and diseases of the skin. A very acceptable appendix contains the 
rules for the management of infants, issued by the staff of the Birmingham Hospital 
for Sick Children. 

On Diseases of the Hip-joint. By Lewis A. Sayre, M. D., Professor of Orthopedic 
Surgery and Clinical Surgery in Bellevue Hospital Medical College. New York : 

G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1874. 8vo, pp. 24. 

This Is the first number of" A Series of American Clinical Lectures," edited by 
E. C. Seguin, M. D. It Is Intended to select lectures upon topics of practical in- 
terest, and only by recognized medical Instructors of the United States. At present 

Reviews^ etc. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm, 
i Mar. 1875. 

one lecture will be published every month, at a price not exceeding fifty cents each -y 
but if sufficient encouragement be received it is proposed to make the issue semi- 
m.onthly. Some of the first teachers in New York have already promised their 
assistance, and there seems to be no reason why such an enterprise should not meet 
with the hearty support of the intelligent medical practitioners. The number before 
us is gotton up in a veiy creditable style. 

A Statement of the Theory of Education in the United States of America^ as Approved 
hy many Leading Educators. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1874. 
8vo, pp. 22. 

Since there is no national system of education under control of the general Gov- 
ernment, it became of importance to study the systems adopted by the different 
States, and to deduce therefrom a national theory of education. This task has been 
well accomplished by Hon. Duane Doty, Superintendent of City Schools, Detroit j 
in conjunction with Hon. W. T. Harris, holding the same position in St. Louis. 
There is scarcely a sentence with which fault world be found on critical analysis, 
although some portions might have been more minutely elaborated : as, for instance, 
the system of instruction^ which we consider entirely too brief. 

The National Bureau of Education : its History, JVork and Limitation. Prepared 
under the direction of the Commissioner of Education, by Alexander Shiras, 
D. D. Washington : Government Printing Office. 1875. 8vo, pp. 16. 

We have repeatedly had occasion to refer to publications of this bureau, and we 
now take occasion to recommend this one to the careful consideration of our intel- 
ligent readers. While much has been accomplished with us in the matter of educa- 
tion, more remains to be done \ and with the comparatively very limited influence, 
such a bureau can exert under existing circumstances, it is the more praiseworthy 
to notice its persistent efforts towards not merely the collection of statistics, but 
likewise the improvement in the education of the masses. 

A Retrospect of the Struggles and Triumph of O variotomy in Philadelphia, With some 
^. Remarks on Allied Subjects. By Washington L, Atlee, M. D. 

This is the Annual Address delivered by the retiring President before the Phila- 
delphia County Medical Society, February i, 1875, and is publisned by order of 
the Society. It gives a history of this operation, with which the author's name is 
prominently connected. 

Near Sight, Treated by Atropia, ^ith Tables. By Hasket Derby, M. D., Surgeon 
to the Massachusetts Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary at Boston, etc. New 
York. 1875. 

The reception of this essay is hereby acknowledged 5 also of the following pub- 
lication : 

The Illustrated Annual of Phrenology and Physiognomy. New York. 1875. 

Am. Jour. Pham. \ 
Mar., 1875. I 



{Read at the Qua7-te?-iy Meeting Decembe?- 2StJi, 1S74.) 

Charles Ellis was born at Mimcy, Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, First 
month 31st, 1800. His father, William Ellis, had emigrated from Wales, and 
formed one of the noble band of men who had given up the comforts of civiliza- 
tion, the ties of kinship and friendship in their own country, to endure privation, 
toil and hardship in the forests of ours, for the sake of preserving a conscience void 
of offence against God. He belonged to the Society of Friends, and his wife, Mercy 
Ellis, was one of the most widely-known and highly-esteemed preachers among 

William Ellis possessed himself of large tracts of land in Lycoming county when 
but sparsely settled, and, by well-directed industry and the exercise of the manly 
qualities which vi^ere characteristic of the Welsh Friends, had the satisfaction of 
seeing the wilderness gradually disappear to make way for the thrifty farm-house 
and village ; and the flourishing condition of this portion of the State is directly 
traceable to the influence of such worthy pioneers. 

Charles was the fifth son in the family, which consisted of eleven children, and 
his father's death occurring when he was but six years of age, left the responsibility 
of rearing this household with his mother, who proved well fitted for the labor of 
training them in the paths of rectitude and wisdom. 

His love for truth, his watchful care to avoid injuring any of his fellows, either 
by word or act, and the gentleness which so characterized and ennobled the man 
in his mature life, no doubt received its first impulse as he listened to the teachings 
and profited by the example of this faithful parent. Foreseeing the necessity of a 
better education for them than could be afforded in the common schools of this 
thinly-settled neighborhood, she employed a competent teacher to instruct them. 
Thus, from his sixth to his fifteenth year, he was carefully taught at home, and 
when he arrived at the latter age, he was prepared to enter a school at Manhattan- 
ville. New York, where he received an excellent education, which still further fitted 
him for the duties of the active life which was to follow. On leaving school in 
1817, he came to Philadelphia, and choosing the profession of pharmacy as afford- 
ing the best outlet for the exercise of the tastes with which he had been endowed, 
he had the good fortune to obtain a position as an apprentice in the shop of Eliza- 
beth Marshall, to learn the " art and mystery of the apothecary." This establish- 
ment was on Chestnut street between Second and Third streets, and was in the full tide 
of prosperity under the skillful management of the talented daughter of Charles Mar- 
shall (the first President of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy). The store had 
earned an enviable reputation througli the exertions of its founder, Christopher Mar- 
shall, who carried on the business, during the time of the Revolution, with credit 
and success, and on his son Charles attaining his majority, he was admitted into 
partnership with his father and elder brother, and subsequently, on their retirement, 
succeeded to the proprietorship. Charles Marshall was well qualified to conduct 
the apothecary business as It was carried on at this time, for it was necessary then 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Mar., 1875. 

to be both botanist and chemist, not only to make tinctures from drugs which had 
already been gathered in store, but to go out into the woods, collect the plants, dry 
and powder them, and then make the preparations 5 for there were no laboratories for 
supplying finished products to pharm icists, as there are now. He largely increased 
the reputation of the store, and, on his retirement, his daughter, before mentioned, 
succeeded him, 

It was into this shop, with its dignified maiden pharmaceutist at the head, that Charles 
Ellis started on his career, and in the course of his apprenticeship he had a number 
of companions, among whom were Frederick Brown, Sr., Samuel P. Griffitts (son 
of Dr. Griffitts), Isaac P. Morris, Casp ir Morris, Joseph Morris, etc., names that 
have since become well-known in their various professions. 

It was not long before Charles, by dint of industry, perseverance and the exercise 
of those qualities which make the pharmacist honored, respected and successful, was 
called upon, in connection with Frederick Brown, to assume the management of 
the establishment. In the year 1826, he associated himself with Isaac P. Morris, 
and purchased the business, thus becoming part owner of the store in which he had 
passed so many years. The firm of Ellis & Morris, although highly prosperous, 
gradually emerging from a retail to a wholesale business, was not destined to remain 
in business very long. About 1830, Issac P. Morris withdrew from the partner- 
ship, and subsequently founded the extensive and well-known Port Richmond Iron 
Works, leaving Charles Ellis the sole manager of the business, which still con- 
tinued to steadily grow. The increased amount of responsibility which the remain- 
ing partner was called upon to assume caused a rapid development in his character. 
A friend, who knew him intimately, thus speaks of him : 

" It is impossible to place too high an estimate on the influence exerted by him, 
not only on his own profession, but the community at large. Who, but the physi- 
cian himself, can appreciate the anxiety with which he investigites the nature of 
disease and perscribes the appropriate remedy ? With prudent caution the symbols 
of the required dose, and the directions for the appropriate combination, are placed 
upon paper ; but the effect depends on the quality of articles employed 5 the care 
with which the quantities are measured or weighed, and the skill with which they 
are compounded. The character of Charles Ellis, in every one of these points,, 
stood unquestioned, and the medical adviser went on his way to assume other re- 
sponsibilities, free from the distracting and depressing influence of dread, when the 
prescription was entrusted to his care for preparation j and his spirit of confiding 
trust was extended to those educated by him, so that to know that the materials 
used in compounding were purchased from Charles Ellis was ever accepted as a 
guarantee for their purity. This was no trifling honor, no humble achievement, and 
it was acquired not by boastful pretention, nor by advertising arts, but by the sim- 
ple, quiet and, above all, honest attention to the duties of his position. His entire 
life, in all its relations and outgrowth, was the vjmple development of" this one prin- 
ciple, and hence it became, as nearly as fiUen mture may do, a perfect life, so far 
as it was subject to finite observation and judged by human standard." 

In 1 821, the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was founded, and from that date 
did Charles Ellis not only take great interest, but actively labored for its advance- 
ment. During the first few years of its existence, when it was scarcely more than 
a name, he was always found at his post, ready *-o do his part. Though oae of the 
sixty-eight original members of the College, at his death he left but three of the 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Mar., 1875. j 



sixty-eight members still livings and it will be seen, by a consultation of the min- 
utes of the College, that he was an active member for over half a century, over forty 
years of which was spent in an official capacity. 

In 1828 he was elected Recording Secretary, and he served acceptably in this 
office for fourteen years j at the end of this time (1842) he was chosen First Vice- 
President, which position he held for nearly twelve years (until 1854), when he was 
tendered the highest office in the gift of the College — that of President — and he 
continued to discharge his duties in this connection for fifteen years. 

The files of the "American Journal of Pharmacy" reveal a number of contribu- 
tions from his pen, and he served for forty years as one of the members of the Pub_ 
lishing Committee, the greater part of the time holding the position of Treasurer. 

This office was one that was beset with difficulties. During this long period of 
forty years his services were rendered gratuitously, and the labor involved of keep- 
ing the accounts, distributing the "Journal," making collections, &c., &c , was of 
no light character. "An instance of long, disinterested service rarely met with in 
the annals of journalism." 

As President of the College it was his duty to confer the degree of Graduate in 
Pharmacy at the Annual Commencements, and the fulfillment of this duty was char- 
acterized by his usual dignity and modesty. In an address delivered on one of these 
occasions he uses the following language, which is just as appropriate in this day, 
when pharmacy has received a recognition as a separate profession, as it was then : 

. " The improved condition of pharmacy in the present day, the elevated position 
it has assumed in Europe and is beginning to hold in this country, is entirely owing 
to its being taught and cherished as a separate science ; whilst in those places where 
the extemporaneous combination of remedies has been retained by the physician, 
pharmacy has risen no higher than a mere art. Its proper cultivation and pursuit are 
entirely incompatible with the arduous duties of medical men, who, aware of the 
advantage that would arise to society from this diversion of labor, have in this city 
set a generous example by relinquishing it and all its emoluments into our hands. 
We have accepted the responsible trust 5 and an earnest devotion to the science — a 
determination to procure and vend everything of the best quality, to permit no con- 
sideration of expense or trouble ever to induce a momentary inattention to the purity 
and activity of our drugs, a uniform system of order and cleanliness, and constant per- 
sonal attention to and supervision of every duty devolving upon us, and an anxious 
desire to re pect and not to interfere with the rights and privileges of the physician — 
will be the surest evidences we can offer that the confidence has not been misplaced. 
Unreserved and explicit as that confidence is which is reposed in us by others, are 
we not called upon in the most emphatic Innguage to be prepared fully for the task 
we have undertaken ? If we are not, if we have not sought knowledge from every 
opportunity, and drained it from every source, we are playing a part of the deepest 
hazard, and tampering with our own reputations, if not with the health and lives of 
our fellow-beings. 

" We have much in our power. The discoveries of modern times in medical 
chemistry have generally been the result of the laborious investigations of European 
apothecaries. They enrol in iheir number men of profound learning, extensive ac- 
quirements in every branch of natural science, in a word, they are ornaments to 
their country and to the age in which they live. 

" May we not Imitate their example, and by endeavoring to extend the boundaries 

54+ Obituaries. { ''Va "it™' 

of human knowledge, elevate our business to the rank of a liberal profession, which 
it must hold, if not fully attained by the exertions of those who are now contending 
for pre-eminence, it will be by others who succeed us." 

These words, spoken forty years ago, when pharmacy, as a separate science, was 
almost in its infancy, reflect the mind of the author. We see here how his earnest 
spirit longed for a higher giade of qualification in those who oftentimes hold the 
balance which is to decide a case of life or death. 

He lived to see his aspirations partially realized. That he had been aptly chosen 
for the position which he occupied as President of the College, is well shown by 
his careful attention to its duties, as well as by the almost parental interest which he 
manifested in the welfare, not only of thos.e who were employed under his own 
roof, but in every young man upon whom he conferred the degree of Graduate of 
Pharmacy, who sought his aid. 

Whilst his interests in our College were of the most active and useful character, 
he still contributed a large portion of his time to pursuits which tended to alleviate 
the sufferings of the diseased and helpless, in elevating the oppressed, in educating 
the ignorant, and in many ways he proved his faith by following the One Master 
whom he delighted to serve. 

In early life he was often solicited, by his fellow-citizens and neighbors, to take 
part in the affairs of civic government; but a sensitive nature like his shrank from 
political associations, and found more congenial employment in works of benev- 
olence and charity. He was for many years a manager of the " Friends' Asylum " 
for Persons Deprived of their Reason ; the Society for the Support and Establishment 
of Charity Schools, founded long before our free schools were known 5 the Phila- 
delphia Society for Alleviating the Misery of Public Prisons ; the House of Refuge 
for Juvenile Delinquents 3 Wills' Hospital for Diseases of Eyes and Limbs ; the 
Orthopoedic Hospital for the Cure of Deformities and Nervous Diseases 5 the Phila- 
delphia Dispensary 5 the Tract Association and Bible Society of the Society of 
Friends were among the institutions that claimed his active sympathy and support. 

Charles Ellis was a consistent member of the Society of Friends; early in life 
he took a warm interest in the affairs of this religious body, and his voice was fre- 
quently raised in support of active evangelical works. 

And now, as we close this brief tribute to a departed friend, who seemed to some 
of us more like a kind father, we can but pause. The years are gliding swiftly by. 
A few more days will close this one, the most eventful one in our history for a long 
period. Death has been busy. Two who, this day one year ago, grasped hands 
with us and exchanged evidences of mutual kind feeling and regard, are missed at 
this, the closing meeting of the year. Almost in the twinkling of an eye they were 
both called home. 

The retrospect of Charles Ellis' life presents the view of an earnest, pure- 
minded Christian, with a heart overflowing with the greatest of Gospel virtues — 
charity — striving to live, with his utmost ability, as the great Head of the Church 
counseled ; mild and unassuming, but never compromising with evil 5 actuated by 
high principle and strict integrity of heart, he was still urbane and courteous to all 
with whom he came in contact, and this, not assumed with the view of seeking 
popularity, but flowing as naturally as sweet water from a pure fountain. 

" The good man's arms are folded now, 
The great man's race is run ; 
The warm, true heart and thought-worn brow 
Rest, for their work is done." 

J. P. R. 



APRIL, 1875. 




The relation of the pharmacist to the physician is of such a char- 
acter that the pharmacist is frequently called upon to act as the adviser 
to the physician in framing formulas and in determining the precise con- 
ditions in which medicines miy be prescribed to the best advantage of 
the sick. So long as such influence is exercised solely for the benefit 
and in the interest of the patient, the influence so exercised is proper 
and honorable, even if the pharmacist is thereby directly and materially 
the gainer ; but if the pharmacist abuses his privilege and prostitutes 
the professional influence he may command for the primary motive of 
gain, he is deserving of the severest opprobrium, and ranks beneath the 
most impotent quack. Such being our opinion of a class of special- 
ists who offer gold and furnish gilded dross," we have considered it our 
duty to combat the specialty innovation, in so far as it is based upon 
secrecy of formula, and whenever unduly placed before the medical 

Several years ago, a preparation called " Cincho-Quinine " was 
thrown upon the market by Jas. R. Nichols & Co. — now Billings, 
Clapp & Co. — of Boston, Mass. The manner in which the attention 
of medical practitioners was drawn to the nostrum is too familiar to the 
pharmacist to require detailed mention here. Suffice it to say, that by 
diligent and profuse advertisement, bylthe representation of the manu- 
facturers that it was an accurate alkaloidal representative of cinchona 
bark, by its apparent cheapness as compared to sulphate of quinia, and, 
undoubtedly also, by a certain medicinal value, the article has gained 
favor with many physicians, and is, in^some localities, frequently pre- 
scribed as a substitute for sulphate of quinia. Among pharmacists, 
however, and especially among those who were educated to a profes- 


146 Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine,\^'^'^^^(;^^l'^' 

sional standard, the nostrum was regarded with suspicion, and very 
shortly after its introduction it was subjected to chemical examination. 
We are cognizant only of two such examinations ; one, made in 1870 
by Mr. Wm. T. Wentzel ; the other, read by Mr. Albert E. Ebert 
before the American Pharmaceutical Association at its meeting in 1874,, 
from which it appears that neither of the experimenters succeeded in 
determining the presence of quinia. The reading of Mr. Ebert's 
paper before the American Pharmaceutical Association prompted the 
manufacturers of the nostrum to protest against its publication in the 
Proceedings of that body, unless such publication was complemented by 
certain explanations, and the certificates of several chemists (employed 
by the manufacturers), that the article contained quinia. The Amer- 
ican Pharmaceutical Association having thus become involved in a con- 
troversy, the merits of which remained undecided, we, being con- 
nected with the Association, and having become interested in the ques- 
tion, have endeavored by the experiments detailed in the following 
pages to place the substance called " Cincho-Quinine " before the pub- 
lic on its true merits. 

We used for our experiments four samples of cincho-quinine, which 
are severally designated in our paper as No. i. No. 2, No. 3 and 
No. 4. 

Sample No. i was purchased by E. SchefFer in March, 1874, and 
consisted of part of a bottle at the date of our examination. 

Sample No. 2 was purchased for our examinations. It had been 
obtained from the manufacturer by the wholesale drug house from 
which we bought it, some time in May, 1874. The sealed bottle was 
enveloped in a circular, covered with a blue wrapper, and was labeled. 
The circular will be described in an appendix, as Circular No. i. 

Sample No. 3 was purchased by C. Lewis Diehl on the i8th of Sep- 
tember, 1874, and consisted of part of a bottle at the date of our 

Sample No. 4 was also purchased for our examinations. It had been 
obtained from the manufacturer by the wholesale drug house from 
which we bought it, earlv in December, 1874. The sealed bottle was 
enveloped in a circular, covered with a blue wrapper, and was labeled. 
The circular will be described in the appendix as Circular No. 2. 


The physical appearance of cincho-quinine, as well as the statement 
of its manufacturers, that it is composed wholly of the bark alka- 

^'^ASS^s''^']Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine. 147 

loids," rendered it obvious to us that it was obtained by precipitation 
from saline combination by means of an alkaline base. If, as the man- 
ufacturers claim, the article in question is composed wholly of the cin- 
chona alkaloids, the task of determining the nature of the acid which 
had held the alkaloids in saline combination, and of the alkali with 
which it had been precipitated from solution, would have been a hopeless 
one. In other words, cincho-quinine, being ivholly composed of quinia, 
quinidia, cinchonia, cinchonidia, and certain not well determined alka- 
loidal principles of bark," it cannot contain sulphuric, nitric, hydro- 
chloric or other acid ; nor soda, potassa, or ammonia, either free or in 
saline combination. We preferred, however, to accept the evidence of 
our chemical experiments rather than the assertion of the manufactur- 
ers, and propose in the following to give the results of our 


for which we used the sample described as : Sample No, i. 

This sample possessed slight alkaline reaction ; a portion, brought in 
contact with moist red litmus, restoring the red color to blue. 

It readily dissolved in water, acidulated with hydrochloric acid, form- 
ing, practically, a clear solution. The solution, so obtained, produced 
with solution of chloride of barium a copious precipitate, which was 
insoluble in hot nitric acid. 

Qualitative result No, i .— Cincho-quinine contains sulphuric acid in re- 
latively large quantities. 

A second portion of cincho-quinine was digested with water for 24 
hours, and the solution filtered from the undissolved portion. The sol- 
ution was evaporated to dryness, and incinerated in a platinum capsule, 
during which process the considerable residue melted, became charred, 
and was, finally, entirely dissipated. 

^alitative result No. 2. — Cincho-quinine does not contain a non-volatile 
base or compound. 

A third portion was treated with boiling strong alcohol, the solution 
filtered, and the small residue thoroughly washed with hot alcohol. 
The residue=y/. The filtrate=5. 

J. — The residue was readily soluble in water, and was neutral to test 
paper. Its solution was not precipitated by ammonia, but gave an 
abundant precipitate with chloride of barium, which was not redissolved 
by hot nitric acid. When a portion of the solution was heated in a 
test tube with solution of potassa, the vapor evolved restored the blue 

148 Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine.{^'^-^^^l ^^l'"^- 

color to moist red litmus paper, and produced copious fumes when a 
glass rod, moistened with hydrochloric acid, was subjected to its influ- 
ence. Upon evaporating a portion of the solution, a crystalline residue 
was obtained, which, heated strongly in a platinum capsule, was com- 
pletely volatilized. 

Qualitative result No. 3. — Cincho-quinine contains sulphate of ammonium. 

B. — The hot alcoholic solution deposited on cooling an abundance of 
crystals, which were collected on a filter. The crystals==5 2. The 
filtrate— 5 i. 

B I. — A portion of the cold filtrate was diluted with water, acidula- 
ted with hydrochloric acid, and treated with chloride of barium, which 
formed an abundant precipitate of sulphate of barium. The remainder 
of the solution was evaporated to dryness with gentle heat. During the 
evaporation a white, apparently crystalline ring was formed on the sides 
of the capsule and near the original level of the solution. As the evap- 
oration proceeded a second resinous ring formed further down the sides 
of the capsule. Finally, when the evaporation was completed, a crys- 
talline deposit formed in the centre of the capsule. Portions of each 
of the ring deposits were tested with chlorine water and ammonia, 
but gave no indication of either quinia or quinidia. The entire residue 
was then dissolved in acidulated water, the solution precipitated with 
ammonia, then shaken with ether, and the ethereal solution evaporated. 
The small residue so obtained was dissolved in dilute acid, and gave, 
when treated with chlorine water and ammonia, a green color ; with 
chlorine water, ferrocyanide of potassium and ammonia, a red color. 

Qualitative result No. 4. — Cincho-quinine contains either quinia or qui- 
nidia.^ or both. 

B 2. — The crystals, deposited on the cooling of the hot alcoholic solu- 
tion (5), were digested with water, transferred to a filter, and washed 
with water several times. The solution=^7. The residual crystals=Z'. 

a. The solution was found to contain sulphuric acid in abundance. 
It afforded a copious precipitate on the addition of ammonia. No color 
reaction was produced by either chlorine water and ammonia, or chlorine 
water, ferrocyanide of potassium and ammonia. 

Qualitative result No. 5. — Cincho-quinine contains sulphate of cinchonia. 

h. The crystals, which remained undissolved by digestion with water 
{B 2), were readily dissolved by dilute hydrochloric acid. The absence 
of sulphuric acid was proved by the usual test. The absence of quinia 
or quinidia was also proved in the same manner as in experiment a. 

^'^'a^^aIS^s'^'^'} Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine. 149 

Qualitative result No. 6. — Cincho-quinine contains cinchonia in its alka- 
loidal condition. 

A fourth and weighed portion of cincho-quinine was dissolved in 
dilute sulphuric acid, precipitated with ammonia, digested with ether, 
and the ethereal solution evaporated and weighed ; our aim being to 
ascertain the proportion of, in ether, soluble alkaloids, which amounted 
to 4'75 per cent, of the cincho-quinine employed. We wish it to be 
understood, however, that this experiment was not conducted with the 
degree of care required for a quantitative experiment, the result as 
obtained being sufficiently accurate for a qualitative experiment, as was 

Qualitative result No. 7. — Cincho-quinine contains but a small relative 
proportion of in ether soluble alkaloids. 

The ethereal residue, as above obtained, was found to contain either 
quinia or quinidia, or both. We dissolved a portion in dilute alcohol, 
containing 5 per cent, sulphuric acid, added tincture of iodine, and re- 
dissolved the bulky brown precipitate produced, by the aid of gentle 
heat. After standing 24 hours, the deposit which had formed was ex- 
amined, and was found to consist mainly of brown iodo-sulphate of 
quinidia, interspersed with the characteristic green-black crystals of 
herapathit (iodo-sulphate of quinia). 

Qualitative result No. 8. — Cincho-quinine contains both quinia and 
quinidia., but the relative proportion of quinia to quinidia is very small. 

By these qualitative experiments we have proven : 

1. That cincho-quinine contains sulphuric acid. 

2. That this sulphuric acid is partly represented by sulphate of am- 

3. That the greater part of the sulphuric acid is represented by 
alkaloidal sulphate. 

4. That cincho-quinine contains but a small percentage of quinia, 
either as alkaloid or as sulphate. 

5. That the entire quantity of, in ether, soluble alkaloids contained 
in cincho-quinine does not exceed 5 per cent., and that the bulk of the, 
in ether, soluble alkaloid is composed of quinidia (present in the cincho- 
quinine, either as alkaloid or sulphate). 

6. That cincho-quinine is mainly composed of cinchonia, partly as 
alkaloid and partly as sulphate. 

7. That, therefore, cincho-quinine is not a fair nor accurate alka- 
loidal representative of cinchona bark. 

150 Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine.{^'^-j^^^x^^^^''^' 

With these results we might, under ordinary circumstances, have 
been satisfied as to the true nature of the nostrum. But we had set 
out to determine quantitatively the amount of quinia contained in it, 
and, therefore, only considered ourselves well prepared to make intelli- 
gently a quantitative analysis. 


We now propose, in the following, to give the results of our 


but, in order to state the results as concisely as possible, we deem it 
proper to make the following preliminary observations : 

1 . The precipitates were all obtained with as small a quantity of pre- 
cipitant as was necessary to complete precipitation, and these (precip- 
itates) were washed with as little of the washing liquid as was necessary 
to completely remove soluble contaminants. 

2. 77;*? drying of precipitates and residues was conducted in a water- 
bath, at a temperature of 180° to 200° F., as long as they lost weigh^^ 
— generally for three days, and sometimes for a week ; the filters con- 
taining precipitates being enclosed in tared and covered porcelain cruci- 

3. The filtering-paper used was the best Swedish, and the tare of the 
filters, as well as that of the vessels in which weighings were made, 
was ascertained after subjecting them to heating on the water-bath as 
long as they lost weight. 

4. The weighings were made on an analytical balance, which re- 
sponded to the one-tenth part of a milligram. 

5. The reagents were all tested for their purity before we used them, 
and the stronger ether was that manufactured by Dr. E. R. Squibb. 

6. The cincho -quinine used in this series of experiments, was that 
described as sample No. 2. 

Experiment A. 

A I . — 4.-1 18 grams of cincho-quinine was dried ; when dried it weighed 
4*o66 grams ; it had therefore lost 0*052 grams = 1-262 per cent. 

^lantitative result No. i. — Cincho-quinine.^ when dried completely at a 
te?nperature of l8o° to 200° lost 1*262 per cent. 

A 2. — 5*0 grams of cincho-quinine was dissolved in water acidulated 
with hydrochloric acid, the solution was precipitated with ammonia, the 
precipitate collected on a filter, washed, dried and weighed. It weighed 

"^'"Airll^s^s!''"''} Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine. 1 5 1 

4'559 grams, and had therefore lost 0-441 grams =— 8*82 per cent. [See 
results ^4.) 

Quantitative result No. 2. — Amount of substances f oreign to an alkaloidal 
condition of cincho-quinine 8*820 per cent. 

A 3. — The filtrates and washings from A 2 were mixed, evaporated 
to a small volume, acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and chloride ot 
barium added, in slight excess. The precipitate which had formed 
was collected on a filter, washed, dried and weighed. The so obtained 
sulphate of barium weighed 0'6()^ grams ; corresponding to 0*240 grams 
of sulphuric acid = 4*8 per cent., SO3. 

Quantitative result No. 3. — Cincho-quinine contains of sulphuric acid 
4*8oo per cent. 

A 4. — The filtrate and washings from A 3 were concentrated to a 
small bulk, sulphuric acid added in slight excess, to remove the excess 
of barium used as chloride, the sulphate of barium was filtered off, and 
to the clear filtrate ammonia was added in slight excess. No precipitate 
of alkaloids was formed after standing for more than a week. 

Result No. 4. — The washings from the precipitated alkaloids., A 2, did 
not hold alkaloids in solution. 

Remarks. — By these experiments, ^, we have shown, that the 
sample of cincho-quinine (No. 2), contained 8*820 per cent, of con- 
stituents which are foreign to its alkaloidal condition. Of this quan- 
tity, sulphuric acid constitutes a portion equal to 4*80 per cent, of the 
cincho-quinine, and water, driven off by the heat of the water-bath, 
1*262 per cent., leaving 2*758 per cent, to be accounted for. Our 
qualitative experiments have shown the presence of a small quantity of 
ammonia as sulphate, and of a considerable quantity of sulphate of the 
alkaloids ; and, further on, we propose to show the exact quantities of 
these sulphates, obtainable by a given quantity of water from each of 
the four samples of cincho-quinine examined. We have also found 
that the filtrates and washings from the precipitated alkaloids, did not 
contain any alkaloids in solution (-^4), and therefore, unhesitatingly 
account for the 2*758 per cent, of foreign matter, as ammonia and 
water of crystallization in the alkaloidal sulphates. 


Per cent. 

1. Amount of sulphuric acid in cincho-quinine, ..... 4-800 

2. " of moisture expelled by heating to i8o°-2oo° F., . . 1-262 
-z. " of ammonia, | ^ 
4. of water of crystallization in alkaloidal sulphate, j * • ^ 75 

Total constituents foreign to an alkaloidal condition of cincho-quinine, 8*820 


152 Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine\^'^'^^^^i^^l 


B I. — The precipitate A 2 was triturated to a fine powder, and 
4-513 grams of it introduced into a flask and agitated with stronger 
ether frequently during twenty-four hours. The contents of the flask 
were then transferred to a filter, the filtrate was collected in a tared 
beaker, and the residue on the filter washed with ether until about 
four fluidounces of filtrate and washings were obtained. These were 
allowed to evaporate, spontaneously, at first, and then on a water bath,, 
until the residue no longer lost weight. It weighed 0*254 grams,, 
which, calculated for the entire quantity of precipitates, A 2 (4*559 
grams), corresponds to 0*2565 grams of, in ether, soluble alkaloids,, 
from 5*o grams of cincho-quinine, or 5*130 per cent. 

Quantitative result No. 5. — Cincho-quinine^ sample No. 2, contains of in 
ether soluble alkaloids 5*130 per cent. 

Remarks. — The ethereal solution B r, during the spontaneous evap- 
oration, deposited crystals on the sides of the beaker until about two- 
thirds had evaporated \ after which there was no longer any crystalline 
formation, or deposit, until it was evaporated to complete dryness^ 
when the bottom of the beaker was covered with a yellowish-white 
resino-crystalline residue. 

We attempted to redissolve the entire residue with twenty-five parts 
of stronger ether, but found it very slowly, and with difiiculty, soluble 
in that solvent, and consequently, abandoned the experiment. Had 
this residue consisted of quinia only, it would have readily dissolved in 
from 12 to 15 parts of stronger ether. 

B 2. — The ethereal residue, B i, was dissolved in 100 drops of alco- 
hol of 60 per cent., containing 5 per cent, of sulphuric acid \ tincture 
of iodine was added in slight excess, and the liquid heated gently, to 
redissolve the very copious red-brown precipitate which had been, 
formed. The solution was then set aside for 40 hours, when a mix- 
ture of herapathit and of a red-brown crystalline precipitate had formed. 
This mixture was collected on a filter, washed with dilute alcohol, and 
dried. It weighed 0*067 grams. The filtrate and washings, on spon- 
taneous evaporation, deposited a very small additional quantity of hera- 
pathit. This was carefully collected, and, together with the previously 
obtained and weighed precipitate, dissolved in boiling alcohol, the solu- 
tion filtered, allowed to evaporate at a gentle heat to a small volume,, 
and allowed to stand at rest for 18 to 24 hours. Well defined crys- 
tals of herapathit, exhibiting the characteristic bronze-green color, had 

^"aS'Jjs^™ } ChemkaL Examination of Cincho-^inine. 1 5 j 

formed. These were collected on a filter, washed with a little dilute 
alcohol, dried and weighed. The so purified herapathit weighed 0'054O 
grams, corresponding to 0*0305 grams of pure quinia from 4*513 grams 
of the precipitated alkaloids, [J 2), which, calculated for the entire 
precipitate [J 2) obtained, is 0*0307 grams, or o-6i2 percent, of the 
5*0 grams of cincho-quinine used. 

Quantitative results No, 6. — Cincho-quinine^ sample No. 2, contains of 
pure quinia 0*6 1 2 per cent. 

B 3. — The filtrate and washings — B 2 — from which both the impure 
and pure herapathit had been obtained, were mixed, decolorized with 
alcoholic solution of sulphurous acid, and evaporated to dryness. The 
residue was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, precipitated by ammo- 
nia, the precipitate washed and dried. This precipitate was subjected 
to the following qualitative examination : 

A portion was dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, a little acetic acidl 
was added, and then tincture of iodine. The brick-red deposit formed 
was redissolved by the aid of gentle heat, and the mixture was then 
allowed to stand over night. Next morning a brick-red crystalline 
deposit had formed, which was entirely free from the green-black crvs- 
tals of herapathit. 

The remainder was dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, and the 
solution was treated with chlorine water and ammonia, which produced 
a green color, and with chlorine water, ferrocyanide of potassium, and 
ammonia, which produced a red color. But in neither instance was the 
color as intense as when corresponding quantities of sulphate of quinia 
or of sulphate of quinidia were subjected to the same tests. This dif- 
ference we ascribe to the presence of cinchonia, and, possibly, also to 
cinchonidia, the ether dissolving portions of both of these alkaloids, if 
present. We therefore unhesitatingly arrive at the following con- 
clusions : 

Result No. 7. — The.^ in ether ^ soluble portion of cincho-quinine is com- 

of a small proportion of quinia ; 
1.^ of a large proportion of quinidia ; 
'^'i of a small proportion of cinchonia ; 
4, (probably) of a small proportion of cinchonidia. 

Remarks. — We wish it to be positively understood that we intend 
to convey, by what we have said in the above relating to Experiments 
B^ that we have determined quantitatively only the, in ether, soluble 

154 Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine.l^^l^^'-J^^^'"^- 

alkaloids in cincho-quinine (Sample No. 2), and the quinia therein 


C I. — A portion of the residue remaining from the precipitate A 2 
after its exhaustion with stronger ether, as detailed in Experiment B i, 
was dissolved in water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, precipitated 
with ammonia, and the mixture was then shaken with stronger ether. 
The ethereal solution yielded on evaporation a small residue, which, 
when dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid, and treated with chlorine 
water and ammonia, gave no color-reaction whatever. 

Result No. 8. — The precipitate A 2, after exhaustion with stronger ether ^ 
.as detailed in B i, no longer contained either quinia or quinidia. 

C 2. — 0*640 grams of the same residue was dissolved in dilute sulphu- 
ric acid, the solution was carefully neutralized with potassa, and a care- 
fully neutralized solution of tartrate of potassium and sodium was 
added (in the proportion of 0*522 parts to I'ooo parts of alkaloid res- 
idue). The mixture was then evaporated to 40 times the weight of 
the alkaloid residue employed, and allowed to stand four days. No 
crystalline (or other) deposit had formed. 

Result No. 9. — The residue remaining after the exhaustion of the precip- 
j.tate A 2 ivith ether contains no cinchonid'ia.^ and is therefore composed of 
.cinchonia only. 

Reimarks. — The method adopted by us for the separation of cincho- 
nidia from cinchonia is that recommended by De Vrij {vide " Jahres- 
bericht der Pharmacie," 1873). The fact, that we have failed to obtain 
cinchonidia in the residue of the precipitate A 2 after its exhaustion 
with ether, does not decide its absence in cincho-quinine, as it may 
have been taken up by the ether, and would then be contained in the 
ethereal residue B \. In that event, however, it can only be present 
in very small proportion. 


These experiments were made with the four samples of cincho-qui- 
nine, described in the beginning of our paper, and were both qualitative 
and quantitative. The large quantity of sulphuric acid found in sample 
No. 2 made it evident to us, that this acid existed mainly in alkaloidal 
combination. If, therefore, any considerable portion of cinchonia was 
held in such combination, the sulphate of cinchonia, being soluble in 
about 50 parts of cold water, would readily be taken up by digesting 
cincho-quinine in cold water, and its presence as such proved. We 

Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine. 1 55 

also wished to determine the amounts of, in ether, soluble alkaloids 
contained in samples No. i. No. 3, and No. 4, and to determine the 
amount of quinia in one or more of these samples. 


D I. — 2*0 grams of each of the samples of cincho-quinine, No. i, 
No. 2, No. 3, and No. 4, were tested as follows : The sample was 
triturated to a fine powder, and agitated in a flask, occasionally, for 24 
hours with 60 grams of water ; the contents of the flask were then 
poured on a filter, and the residue on the filter washed with sufficient 
water to make the weight of the filtrate up to 60 grams. The filtrate 
was evaporated in a tared capsule and heated until it no longer lost 
weight, at a temperature of about i8o°F. The following table shows 
our results : 





Sample No. i. 

0*255 grams. 

12.75 per cent. 

Sample No. 2. 

0-235 grams. 

11-75 per cent. 

Sample No. 3. 

0*350 grams. 

17*70 per cent. 

Sample No. 4. 

0*44.0 grams. 

22*00 per cent. 

These residues consisted mainly of short, prismatic crystals, and were 
perfectly white. We subjected the residue from sample No. 4 to the 
following qualitative examination: 

D 2. — The residue (from sample No. 4) was digested with 30 grams 
of cold water for 24 hours, and the solution was then filtered from the 
undissolved portion. The solution=^. The undissolved portion^/*. 

a. The solution (a) was found to contain sulphuric acid, by the usual 
test. Upon the addition of ammonia, an abundant alkaloidal precip- 
itate was produced. The addition of chlorine water, followed by am- 
monia, gave no color reaction. 

Result of a. — The cold aqueous solution is composed of sulphate 
of cinchonia (and, perhaps, sulphate of cinchonidia). 

b. The undissolved portion /», was dissolved in a little water by the 
aid of hydrochloric acid. The solution gave abundant evidence of 
sulphuric acid and of alkaloid, by the tests heretofore used. It gave a 

156 Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine,\^'^-^°^;^^^^""'- 

faint green color with chlorine water and ammonia, and a faint red color, 
with chlorine water, ferrocyanide of potassium and ammonia. 

Result of b. — Traces of quinia, or quinidia, or both, are contained 
in the residue b. 


The various samples of cinch o-quinine examined by us^ yield a considerable 
percentage to cold water. The solutions yield upon evaporation white crystalline 
residues^ which., as proven by experiment D 2, upon the residue from sample 
No. 4, {which had yielded to water 22 per cent, of its components)., are com- 
posed mainly of sulphate of cinchonia^ and contains only traces of quinia^ or 
quinidia., or both., probably as sulphates. 


E I. — 2'0 grams each, of samples No. i. No. 3, and No. 4, were 
severally dissolved in acidulated water, the solutions precipitated by am- 
monia, the precipitates collected, washed, dried, and shaken, occasion- 
ally for 24 hours, with i\ fluidounce of strong ether; the filters, care- 
fully torn into shreds, being introduced into the flasks, along with the 
finely powdered precipitates. The contents of the flasks were finally 
thrown on a filter, and the residue in the filters washed with sufficient 
stronger ether to make each filtrate measure ij fluidounces. These 
filtrates were evaporated in tared beakers, first spontaneously, and after- 
wards, until completely dry, on a water bath. The following table, in 
which we include the result obtained with the sample No. 2, as detailed 
in our experiment B i, will show the results of our experiment E i : 





Sample No. i. 

2 grams. 

0-098 grams. 

4 90 per cent. 

Sample No. 2. 

5 grams. 

0*256 grams. 

5-13 per cent. 

Sample No. 3. 

2 grams. 

0'o8i grams. 

4-05 per cent. 

Sample No. 4. 

2 grams. 

o'loo grams. 

5'Oo per cent. 

In the ethereal residues of samples No. i and No. 4, we concluded 
to determine the quinia by a method, which is based on the relative 
solubility of the alkaloids, quinia and quinidia, in water, and which 
seemed to us to lead to the most satisfactory results. If we digest a 
mixture of quinia and quinidia on a water bath with water, and allow 

^\lT,'il]'t''^'} Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine, 157 

the mixture to cool, the solution formed will be saturated for both alka- 
loids, if both have been used in excess. If, however, one of the alka- 
loids is present in smaller quantity than the water is capable of holding 
in solution, such quantity, if unknown, may be ascertained by evapor- 
ating the aqueous solution to dryness, weighing the product obtained, 
and deducting from this product the amount of that alkaloid which was 
held in saturated solution. 

For example : We have a substance, which requires 100 parts of 
water for complete solution, and we have a substance, 5, which re- 
quires 10 parts of water for complete solution. We have a mixture of 
these two substances, and wish to ascertain the proportions of ad- 
mixture. We apply the solvent test as follows : We take, say 10 
parts of the mixture, digest it with 100 parts of water, filter the solu- 
tion, and evaporate it. We obtain 5 parts of product. Had the sub- 
stance consisted of ^ alone, we should have obtained but i part of pro- 
duct ; had it contained of B alone, or contained but one-tenth of its 
weight of the entire substance would have been dissolved, and we 
would have obtained 10 parts of product. But we have obtained 5 
parts, and consequently have obtained a saturated solution of the sub- 
stance y/, containing all of the substance B that had been contained in 
the 10 parts of mixture. The product was consequently composed of 
I part of the substance J and 4 parts of the substance B ; and the 
mixture tested was composed of 6 parts of J and 4 parts of B. 

We have been thus explicit in order that our method of determining 
the quinia in the ethereal residue of No. i and No. 4 may be clearly 
understood ; and it only remains now to give some consideration to the 
relative solubility of the two alkaloids in cold water : 

1. ^inta is soluble in 364 parts of cold water, Duflos^ v'lde^ " Gme- 
lin's Handbuch der Chemie," vol. 7, part 2, page 1697 ; in 480 parts, 
Ahl^ Ibid; in 400 parts, vide^ " U. S. Dispensatory," 13th Ed., p. 297 j 
in about 400 parts, vide^ " Pereira's Materia Medica," abridged Ed., 
1872 ; in 350 parts, vide, "Gottlieb's Chemie," Ed. 1869, vol. 2, p. 

2. ^inidia is soluble in 1500 parts of cold water. Van He'in'ingen^ 
De Vrij^ vide^ " Gmelin's Handbuch der Chemie," vol. 7, part 2, p. 
1720 ; in 2580 parts, Leers^ vide^ " U. S. Dispensatory " and " Pereira's 
Materia Medica;" in 2000 parts, O. Hesse^ vide^ " Jahresberichtvder 
Pharmacie," 1868, p. 294; in 1500 parts, vide^ "Gottlieb's Chemie," 
Ed., 1869, vol. 2, p. 449. 

158 . Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine.{^'^-2^^l^I^l^'^' 

O. Hesse^ who has proposed that quinidia be called cinchonia^ states, 
in " Jahresbericht der Pharmacie," 1873, p. 94, that quinidia of 
Leers is really cinchonidia. Dr. Wood, in the " United States Dispensa- 
tory," remarks that quinidia must always vary in its solubility, according 
to the amount of cinchonidia it contains. We have therefore paid na 
regard to the authority giving its solubility in 2580 parts of water, and 
have adopted as the standard for our experiments the authority of Van 
Heiningen and De /^r/}*, giving the solubility of quinidia in, 1500 parts 
of water, at ordinary temperature. For quinia we have adopted the 
authority of the " United States Dispensatory " and " Pereira's Materia 
Medica," according to which quinia is soluble in 400 parts of water, at 
ordinary temperature. 

E 2. — The ethereal residue from sample No. i was digested, in 
the beaker in which it had been evaporated, with 70 grams of water^ 
on the water-bath, for twelve hours, the weight being kept up to 70 
grams, as near as possible, by the occasional addition of water. The 
beaker was then removed from the water-bath, the original weight care- 
fully adjusted, and was allowed to cool and to stand over night. The 
cold saturated solution was filtered, evaporated to complete dryness, 
and the residue weighed. It weighed o*o6oo grams. 

1500 grams of water dissolving I'O gram of quinidia, 70 grams of 
water will dissolve 0*0466 grams of quinidia, which, deducted from 
o*o6oo grams, leaves 0*0134 grams, the amount of quinia contained in 
the ethereal residue, or 0*670 per cent, of the cincho-quinine. Sample 
No. I. 

E 3. — The ethereal residue from Sample No. 4 was treated with 40 
grams of water, precisely as that of Sample No. i had been treated 
with 70 grams, with the following result : 

The residue weighed 0*0370 grams ; 40 grams of water had dis- 
solved 0*0266 grams of quinidia, which, deducted from the gross res- 
idue, leave 0*0104 grams of quinia, or 0*52 per cent, of the cincho- 
quinine. Sample No. 4. 

E 4. — It remained now only to prove the presence of quinidia in the 
aqueous extractions of the ethereal residues. We accordingly dis- 
solved these residues in small quantities of acidulated water, and applied 
to them the following tests : 

I. Chlorine water, followed by ammonia, produced a decided green 
precipitate, which, according to Herapath (vide " Gmelin's Handbuch 

^\lrl\%I^s-''^'} Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine. , 159 

der Chemie," vol. 7, part 2, p. 1720), is distinctive of quinidia from 
quinia in concentrated solutions. 

2. Chlorine water, followed by ferrocyanide of potassium, and then 
ammonia, produced a dirty brownish-red precipitate, which, according; 
to Schwarzer {vide " Gmelin's Handbuch der Chemie," vol 7, part 2, p, 
iJ2o), is distinctive of quinidia from quinia in concentrated solutions. 

3. The addition of tincture of iodine to their solution in dilute alco- 
hol containing excess of sulphuric acid, produced an orange-brown 
precipitate, which, when redissolved by gentle heat, and allowed to 
deposit by gradual cooling, was found to consist mainly of a volumi- 
nous orange-brown precipitate, interspersed with a few black crystals 
of herapathit. 

Result E. — By our experiments we have proved that there is no very 
appreciable difference in the quantities of in ether ^ soluble alkaloids and of quinia 
contained in the various samples of cinch o-quinine examined. 


The results of the three series of experiments — qualitative and 
quantitative — may be summed up in the following: 

1. Cincho-quinine is composed mainly of cinchonia, a considerable 
portion of which is in combination with sulphuric acid, and is, there- 
fore, sulphate of cinchonia. 

2. It contains less than i (one) per cent, of the alkaloid quinia, 
which exists either in alkaloid or as sulphate. 

3. It contains less than 5 (five) per cent, of the alkaloid quinidia,. 
which exists either as alkaloid, or as sulphate. 

4. If it contains any cinchonidia at all, this can be present only in 
very small quantities ; since the residue, remaining after exhausting 
precipitated cincho-quinine with ether, did not contain it, and it could 
therefore have been contained only in the ethereal extraction, in which 
we did not search for it. 

5. It contains traces of sulphate of ammonium, and is therefore pre- 
cipitated from combination with sulphuric acid, by ammonia. 

6. It is not an alkaloidal representative of cinchona bark. 
Finally, we propose, in the following, to correct some statements 

made in the circular, described in the appendix to this paper, and to 
correct some impressions that the authors of these circulars evidently 
intend to convey : 

I. In their circular (described as No. i) the following statement is 
made : 

1 60 Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine. {^"^-^^^l Xt'""" 

"In one hundred ounces of good yellow bark, wc obtain about two and three- 
iourths ounces of qulnia and two ounces of cinchonia, with variable amounts of the 
other principles, but less than the two named." 

We answer to this, that cincho-quinine is not a representative ot 
^uch a bark ; that, to the contrary, it consists mainly of cinchonia and 
its sulphate, and that it contains less than i (one) per cent, of quinia. 

2. In their circular (described as No. i) the manufacturers state : 

"CiNCHO-QuiNiNE holds all the important constituents of bark in their alkaloidal 
-conditions. It contains no sulphate of cinc'honine or sulphate of quinine^ but cincho- 
nine, quinine, quinidine, etc., without acid combinations. It contains no substances 
but those found naturally existing in bark."" 

In their circular (described as No. 2) the phraseology has been 
changed, but the statement remains the same, as will be seen from the 
following quotation : 

" CiNCHO-QuiNiNE holds all the important constituents of bark in their alkaloidal 
conditions. It contains no sulphate of cinchonidine, quinidine or quinine, but the 
pure alkaloids cinchonidine, quinidine, cinchonine, quinine, etc., without acid com- 
binations. It contains no substances but those found naturally existing in bark." 

To these statements we answer : 

1. Cincho-quinine contains sulphuric acid and sulphate of ammonium, 
and, consequently, does contain substances not found naturally existing 
in cinchona-bark. 

2. Cincho-quinine does contain a portion of alkaloids in acid com- 
bination, chief among which is sulphate of cinchonia. 

Louis^-ville, Ky., March 15M, 1875. # 


Circular No. I was found inside the blue wrapper and enveloping 
our sample of cincho-quinine No. 2. It consists of two large pages, 
each containing three columns of printed matter. The centre column 
of the first page contains the cut of a sealed bottle of cincho-quinine. 
This page contains, besides extracts from letters, formulas and methods 
of using cincho-quinine, the following : 


holds all the important constituents of bark in their alkaloidal conditions. It con- 
tains no sulphate of cinchonine or sulphate of quinine, but cinchonine, quinine, quin- 
idine, etc., without acid combinations. It contains no substances but those found 
naturally existing in bark. 

" Its cost is but little more than half that of sulphate of quinine, and It Is pro- 
nounced equally efficient by a large number of distinguished physicians in all parts 
of the country. It has but a slight bitter taste." 

''''^'j^^r^!,'S.js!'^'] Chemical Examination of Cincho-^inine, i6i 

On the reverse page is printed, besides about a column and a half of 
letters, the following : 

"What is Cincho-Quinine ? — This question is often asked by physicians who 
have not been made acquainted with the nature of this important agent, and there- 
fore we republish the following article, which appeared in the Journal in June, 
1869, which presents in a clear and explicit manner its nature and uses : 

" The chemical manipulation of the Cinchona or Peruvian barks reveals the pres- 
ence in them of quite a number of most remarkable, complex bodies. No vegetable 
production, except the poppy, affords such a marvellous combination of valuable 
medicinal principles as the loxa and calisaya barks, and no substances have been 
studied with greater care or more intense interest by chemists. Nothing short of 
the subtle chemical forces controlled by the Infinite One could construct from the 
elements of the earth and air a bitter principle like quinia, or those other agents asso- 
ciated in bark, so closely allied to it physically and ciiemically. A handful of the 
finely comminuted fibres of the yellow bark, which resembles physically a dozen other 
varieties, is made to yield by the chemist, when treated with aqueous and alcoholic 
liquids and acids, a dark, bitter solution, unattractive in taste and appearance. If 
the process is skillfully conducted, or exhaustive in its results, there remains, besides 
the solution, a portion of woody fibre, inert and almost tasteless. It holds consider- 
able coloring and some waxy matter, together with a little tannin ; but the active 
chemical or medicinal principles have been removed, and are held in the dark liquid. 
The exhausted bark is not entirely worthless, for it may be dried and used as fuel. 
But what of the dark liquid ? From this the chemist obtains, besides other sub- 
stances, a portion of beautiful, white, silky crystals 5 not wholly of one distinct kind, 
but of several, all of which possess about equal chemical and therapeutical importance. 
No wonder it seems to the uninitiated in chemical manipulation a difficult work to 
perform. It is, however, quite easy to the thoroughly instructed. The first principle 
isolated may be the quinia. This is not held in the bark in its naked alkaloidal con- 
dition, but locked up, in the form of a salt, with another principle called kinic acid- 
In the bark it is kinate of quinine. We isolate the quinia, tear it from its embrace 
with kinic acid, throw that away, force it into a kind of matrimonial alliance with 
sulphuric acid, and in this condition of sulphate of quinia, use it as a medicine. 
This kinic acid marries into several other families resident in the bark, prominent 
among which are cinchonia, cinchonidia, quinidia, etc. Precisely how many of 
these alkaloidal principles the different kinds of barks contain, is unknown j but it is 
safe to assume that there are as many as four others which, although not distinctly 
pointed out, are tolerably well recognized. These kinates are all kindred in nature^ 
and all labor to the same end, when isolated and set to work as therapeutical agents 
in the human system. 

" In one hundred ounces of good yellow bark, we obtain about two and three- 
fourths ounces of quinia, and two ounces of cinchonia, with variable amounts of the 
other principles, but less than the two named. It is to be regretted that we cannot 
remove the different families of kinates from the bark in their natural state of saline 
combination. It seems reasonable to suppose their action upon the system would 
be more salutary than in other forms. It is easy to isolate the kinic acid, and hav- 
ing the alkaloids, the kinates of quinia, cinchonia, etc., can be re-formed 5 but in 

1 1 

1 62 Chemical Examination of Cincho-§uinine\'''^-^^'^l^^^^^^- 

these chemical changes so much disturbance to natural organic combinations is made, 
that, practically, we realize no marked advantages. It seems unnatural to force a 
natural alkaloidal base out of its association with an organic acid, and recombine it 
with a mineral acid. This we do in the preparation of the sulphate of quinia. How- 
ever, as it has served so good a purpose for so many years, it is not best to quarrel 
with the theory. 

" All the alkaloids of bark possess about equal febrifuge and tonic properties, 
when isolated and administered in that condition. This has been proved over and 
over again by all competent chemists and physicians, from Drs. Gomez, Duncan^ 
Pelletier, Cavtntou, down to the time of Liebig's researches, a quarter of a century 
ago, and from that time to the present by a hundred careful chemical and medical 

How the one alkaloid, quinia, came to supersede the others, and drive them intO' 
the background, is easily undrstood, when we remember that it was about the first 
that was distinctly eliminated, studied, and experimented with 5 and the eclat it ac- 
quired caused eveiything else to be neglected. The natural bark, holding all the 
alkaloids, the quinia, cinchonia, qulnidia, etc., has always been observed to produce 
more efficient and prompt results, both as a tonic and febrifuge, than the quinia, or 
either of the other principles in themselves; but holding also, as it does, tannin, 
gum, starch, fibrine, and coloring matter, all of which are medicinally interfering or 
inert, its use is rendered inconvenient and inadmissible in many cases. Besides, it is 
apt to produce disturbance of the gastric functions of an unpleasant character. 
Acting upon the idea that the natural alkaloidal principles of bark, in their simple, 
unchanged condition, separated from the gross, woody, and other matters, would 
better subserve all therapeutical ends than the barks themselves, or any one of the 
alkaloids separately employed, Cincho- Quinine has been prepared. 

" Cincho-Quinine contains no external agents, as sugar, licorice, starch, magnesia, 
etc. It is njjholly" composed of the bark alkaloids-^ ist, quinia; 2d, cinchonia ; 3d, 
quinidia ; 4th, cinchonidia \ 5th, other alkaloidal principles present in barks, which 
have not been distinctly isolated, and the precise nature of which are not well under- 
stood. In the beautiful white amorphous scales of Cincho-Quinine, the whole of 
the active febrifuge and tonic principles of the cinchonia barks are secured without 
the inert, bulky lignin, gum, etc. It is believed to have these advantages over sul- 
phate of quinine : 

" I St. It exerts the full therapeutic influence of sulphate of quinine, in the same 
doses, without oppressing the stomach or creating nausea. It does not produce cere- 
bral distress, as sulphate of quinine is apt to do, and in the large number of cases 
in which it has been tried, it has been found to produce much less constitutional 

" 2d. It has the great adnjantage of being nearly tasteless. The bitter is very slight 
and not unpleasant to the most sensitive, delicate woman or child. 

"3d. It is less costly than sulphate of quinine. Like the sulphate of quinine, the 
price will fluctuate with the rise and fall of barks, but it will always be less than the 
lowest market price of that salt. 

" 4th. It meets irdications not met by that salt." 

Circular No. 2 was found inside of the blue wrapper and enveloping 

Am jour.Pharm.| Examination of 9uinia Fills. 163 

April, 1875. 1 -J 

our sample of cincho-quinine No. 4. It resembled circular No. 1 in 
its general appearance, size, etc. ; but, on its second page, contained 
only extracts from letters, while the first page contained, besides ex- 
tracts from letters, the illustration of a bottle of cincho-quinine, etc., 
the following : 

"CINCHO-QUINJNE holds ail the Important constituents of bark in their alkaloidal 
conditions. It contains no sulphate of cinchonidine, quinidine or quinine, but the 
pure alkaloids cinchonidine, quinidine, clnchonine, quinine, etc , without acid com- 
binations. It contains no substances but those found naturally existing in bark. 

" CiNCHO-QyiNiNE is believed to have these advantages over sulphate of qumine . 

" ist. It exerts the full therapeutic influence of sulphate of quinine, in the same 
doses, without oppressing the stomach or creating nausea. // does not produce cere- 
bral distress, as sulphate of quinine is apt to do, and in the large number of cases 
in which it has been tried, it has been found to produce much less constitutional dis- 

" 2d. It has the great advantage of being nearly iasieiesu The bitter is very slight, , 
and not unpleasant to the most sensitive, delicate woman or child. 

" 3d, It is less costly than sulphate of quinine. Like the sulphate of quinine, the 
price will fluctuate with the rise and fall of barks, but it will always be less than the 
lowest market price of that salt. 

"We now supply sugar-coated cincho-quinine pills of three sizes, namely, i grain, 
2 grains and 3 grains, in such quantities as are wanted. They are placed in vials 
holding ICQ each. The price is about one-half that of quinine pills. Dose the 




[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, March i6th.) 
Having recently met with some spurious quiriia pills in the market of 
this city, I was induced, at the suggestion of some of my friends, to 
make an examination of several samples from different manufacturers 
and dealers. The results, as given below, strongly indicate that, in our 
present questionable practice of allowing the wholesale manufacturer 
to prepare those articles which should, properly, be made in the labora- 
tory of the individual pharmacist, we must exercise the most scrupu- 
lous care to guard against impositions which are sure to be attempted 
on the profession and the community at large. Seven samples were ob- 
tained and examined, six of them being from prominent manufacturers 
of this city. 

The process followed was to dissolve that number of pills which 
represented five grains of sulphate of quinia in about a fluidrachm of water, 
acidulated with a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid. From this the quinia 

164 Examination of ^inia Pills. {^""'^Z-J^T' 

was precipitated by water of ammonia, and the whole agitated success- 
ively with small quantities of ether, which were removed each time by a 
pipette to a weighed watch-glass. On evaporation, the quinia was left as 
a gummy mass, which was dried at a moderate temperature and weighed, 
so that the amount of crystallized sulphate could be calculated. 

Five of the samples examined yielded so near the full amount of quinia 
claimed for them that there can be no question as to the honesty of their 
manufacture. The sixth showed an evident deficiency, giving only about 
70 per cent, of the quantity represented. 

The seventh has rather a peculiar history, which probably some 

readers of this Journal are acquainted with, as it was referred to recently 
in one of the Pharmaceutical meetings. 

There has been an article of late extensively introduced and sold in 
this country under the name of " French quinine," a great deal of which 
is nothing more than muriate of cinchonia. A large lot of this 
so-called quinia was sold by a New York firm to a well-known manu- 
facturer in Cincinnati, who, having made up a very large lot of one- 
grain sugar-coated pills from it, discovered the fraud and returned the 
whole of it in that form. These pills were next bartered off to a firm 
in Easton, Pennsylvania, who disposed of them to one or more whole- 
sale drug houses of this city. 

One hundred pills, labeled Quinia Pills, i Gr.," were purchased 
from one of these last firms, with the information that they had been 
manufactured in Cincinnati and obtained by way of Easton, as above 

This placed the correctness of their origin beyond a doubt, and 
when they were examined and found to contain nothing but muriate of 
cinchonia, with a little quinidia, the chain of evidence was complete. 
When the solution was examined under the microscope with sulpho- 
cyanide of potassium, it gave the characteristic crystals of sulphocyanide 
of cinchonia. A few quinidia crystals were also observed, but no 
quinia. There can be little doubt that the several parties were fully 
aware of the composition of these pills, and the fact, that they con- 
tinue to sell them to the trade and the public, is humiliating to every 
conscientious pharmacist, as well as disgraceful to those knowingly 
dealing in them. 

The use of sugar-coated pills, although very extensive, has many 
evident disadvantages. A very prominent one is that of their insolu- 
bility. Several of the samples examined were very difficult to dissolve, 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 1875. J 

Official and OfficinaL 

even the last particles going into solution very slowly, and only with 
the prolonged application of heat. Two of the samples, however, 
deserve credit for the readiness with which they dissolved at a moderate 
temperature. The only remedy for the objections to these pills, as 
well as other pharmaceutical products obtained from manufacturers, is 
in the persistent vigilance of the pharmacist, so as to guard carefully 
against impositions of this character. 

When the products of the manufacturer come to be more frequently 
and critically examined, a great step will be gained for the advancement 
and elevation of our profession ; thus bringing it nearer that perfect 
standard, which is of such vital importance. 



Into a half gallon tubulated retort introduce fourteen avoirdupois 
ounces of powdered camphor, and pour upon it by fractions eight 
avoirdupois ounces of bromine — agitating after each addition, then add 
ten fluidounces of warm distilled water, and place the retort upon a 
sand-bath, allowing the neck of the retort to project into a flue or the 
open air, that the hydrobromic acid which forms may escape. Now 
apply heat until the liquid within the retort boils, and continue the boil- 
ing until the water is about driven off — to accomplish this will require 
nearly two hours — and then the contents of the retort will be of a deep 
amber color, almost transparent ; the ebullition will be attended with 
violent splashing and bumping. The heat must now be discontinued 
and the retort allowed to cool somewhat, when its contents are poured 
into a dish and agitated with sixteen fluidounces of warm alcohol, and 
allowed to remain about twelve hours in a cool place to crystallize. 
The mass of fine crystals are now to be separated from the liquid by 
filtration, and purified by dissolving them in sixteen ounces of hot 
alcohol, and recrystallizing, which operation must be repeated if they 
are still colored. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, March, 1875. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, March j6th.) 
" The Pharmacopoeia and all in it are oflicial (office^ Fr. from L. 
officium^ an office). There are many things which in pharmacy are 


Official and Officinal. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1875. 

officinal (Fr. from L. officina^ a shop) but not official. To restrict the 
word officinal to the contents of a pharmacist's shop, and to that portion 
of the contents which is pharmacopoeial, is radically wrong, and should 
be avoided. An official formula is one given under authority. An 
officinal formula is one made in obedience to the customary usage of the 
shop [officina). To state that any preparation under the sanction of the 
Pharmacopoeia is officinal, is a misapprehension of the word." — Brough 
— Note to " Attfield's Chemistry," 5th ed., p. 25. 

l^he question of adopting the words official and officinal as defined 
above was, at the last meeting, referred to me for examination, accord- 
ing to the Minutes of our worthy Registrar. 

With all due deference to the authority of Prof. Attfield, I regret that 
my investigation of this subject does not lead me to his conclusions. 
The chief arguments against the introduction of the innovation that 
occurred to me, are the following : 

ist. The difference in the meaning of the two words is conventional 
rather than radical, as they are both derived from the same root, namely, 
opus^ work, and facio^ to do or make. The distinction is, therefore, 
purely arbitrary, necessitating a definition in each case. The similarity 
of these words is, in fact, so great, that it is likely to lead to their con- 
stant confusion. 

2d. The term unofficinal has by usage become well established in th^s 
country, and its signification is thoroughly understood by all pharm- 
acists. If we retain officinal in the sense in which we have been accus- 
tomed to use it, unofficinal will continue to designate definitely and 
unequivocally those drugs and preparations that are not recognized by 
the Pharmacopceia. But if we adopt official^ then the word officinal 
will of necessity mean precisely that which we now call unofficinal. 
Our Committee on unofficinal formulas will advance in title to one on 
officinal formulas. Endless confusion must result for years to come 
from such a mingling and substitution of terms, so that it might prove 
to be the wisest course to abandon the use of both words entirely. 

3d. Both terms, or their equivalents, exist in German, French, 
Spanish, Swedish and other continental languages. To the best of my 
knowledge, officinal is, in every instance, applied in the American 
acceptation, without having so far given offence to the scholars of those 

4th. The word officinal as used by us at present agrees with our 
Pharmacopoeia, and does not conflict with our standard dictionaries, 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ] 
April, 1875. J 

Official and Officinal, 


which do not as yet give Prof. Attfield's definition of official. In view 
ot the very great inconveniences of changes in terminology, I question 
the propriety of altering the meaning of these words, unless it be for 
more cogent and convincing reasons than are urged in the present case. 

5th. With the most diligent inquiry, I fail to see any advantage 
whatsoever that is to be derived from the introduction of the new terms, 
which certainly do not convey such clear and definite ideas to the mind 
as officinal and unofficinal, the latter expressing positive negation. 

6th. I fail to understand the necessity of obediently following every 
change of nomenclature in chemistry and pharmacy made in England, 
as the number of English pharmacists in this country is insignificant in 
comparison to those of other European nationalities. We have signi- 
fied our readiness to adopt disodic hydric orthophosphate and the like, but 
why this latest infliction ? In the present case, Prof. Attfield does not 
appear to have even succeeded in establishing the innovation in his own 
country. Fliickiger and Hanbury in their ''Pharmacographia" seem stu- 
diously to avoid both words, constantly substituting for them some other 
expression ; such as, it is recognized by the Pharmacopoeia, &c. 

My conclusion, is therefore, that the definitions of the terms official 
and officinal, as given above, are hypercritical, uncalled for and unneces- 
sary ; that the introduction of official presents no advantage, but, on the 
contrary, that it cannot fail to prove a source of infinite trouble, vexa- 
tious annoyance and interminable confusion. 

Having submitted the above to Prof. Robert E. Rogers, of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, I have been authorized to express his entire 
accordance with my views on the subject. Dr. Rogers strongly depre- 
cates the introduction of official^ denouncing it as a mere affectation. 
Prof. Joseph Carson, for many years editor of this Journal, expressed 
himself even more forcibly than Dr. Rogers. He severely condemns 
the proposition, and protests against it. 

As Mr. Hans M. Wilder gave origin to the discussion of this mat- 
ter at the last meeting, I have also conferred with him concerning it. 
After due deliberation he advises me that he agrees entirely with me in 
the uselessness of the change, stating that he called attention to the 
point as a mere matter of interest. He believes the definitions as given 
in his paper to be theoretically correct, a fact that I am quite willing to 
admit, but he regards the use of the words in that sense as inexpedient 
in practice. 

Philadelphia, March \-7,th, 1875. 

1 68 Remarks on Orthography. {^"X^hi' x^s^""- 


[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, March iSth.) 

Baltimore, Md., March 13th, 1875. 

Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Dear Sir, — I have read, with pleasure, the " Notes on Pronuncia- 
tion and Orthography," by Dr. A. W. Miller, in the recent number of 
the "American Journal of Pharmacy," but am surprised that he omits 
to call attention to some most comrrion and glaring errors constantly 
fallen into by pharmacists as well as by the public, one of which he, no 
doubt thoughtlessly, commits himself, or your compositor commits for 
him, as it is hardly probable that one so well informed would be igno- 
rant upon so simple a subject ; I refer to the use of the plural s in 
Glauber's saltj, at the bottom of page 103. This and like errors are 
constantly being committed in writing Epsom saltj and Rochelle saltj- 
instead of salt, syrup of squilb for squill, spirits of wine, spirits of harts- 
horne, spirits of nitre, spirits of turpentine, &c., &c., instead of spirit ; 
cre^^sote or kreosote for creasote, aniseed for anise seeds, flour of sul- 
phur or flour sulphur for flowers of sulphur, &c., &c. 

These errors are sometimes the result of ignorance, but frequently 
are continued in use by those who know better, merely because it is 
customary to see them so written. Not long since I called the atten- 
tion of one of our printers to some of the above-named errors in a lot 
of labels he was preparing for a pharmacist of some standing in our 
city. He said I had mentioned the matter to him before, and he had 
satisfied himself since that the labels were incorrect, but his customers 
would have them so because they had always so seen them printed, and 
people expected to find them so. Arguments, we know, are thrown 
away upon such persons. Dr. Miller is perfectly correct in suggesting 
that the general public, with perfect propriety, looks up to the apoth 
ecary as an authority in such matters. It is therefore very important 
that he should be accurate in the use of his language, so as to properly 
inform those who are not in positions to be posted. 

I was much amused, not long since, at the sad perplexity of a young 
lady who purchased a package of Rochelle salt at my store. She did 
not notice the label until she reached home. She returned, and, with 
considerable agitation, asked if I had given her the right article. 
I answered yes, and asked if the package was not labelled correctly. 
She said she didn't know, the last she purchased was from my neighbor^ 
Mr. . His was labelled Rochelle saltj, while mine was simply 

Am. Jour. Pharm. '( 
April, 1875. f 

Remarks on Orthography. 


Rochelle salt, and she didn't know but mine might mean one salt, and 
his two or more kinds mixed together. I could satisfy her only by 
exposing the error of my neighbor. 

In conclusion, I would respectfully suggest, also, the propriety on 
the part of pharmacists of at once dropping out of use all such obso- 
lete labels as Mur. Tinct. of Iron, or Tinct. of Mur. Iron ; Sup. 
Carb. Soda, Super Carb. Soda, and Sub Carb. Soda ; all of which 
are still frequently used, with others equally incorrect and behind the 
times. With reference to these last mentioned, I have, for years, had 
my labels printed " Tincture of Chloride of Iron," and " Bicarbonate 
of Soda," and find no difficulty in making the exceptional cases under- 
stand that they are the more correct labels. E. E. 


The reading of the above paper at our pharmaceutical meeting 
afforded me a genuine pleasure, as it proved to me that even if the arti- 
cle referred to has been productive of no other good, it has at least 
succeeded in awakening a greater degree of interest on the subject of 
orthography. Regarding the phrase Glauber's salt, I am quite willing 
to admit that, for the sake of uniformity in nomenclature, this may be 
the preferable form, but in view of the abundance of authority sanc- 
tioning the expression Glauber's salts, I cannot concede this to be as 
yet either incorrect or obsolete. Thus, " Dunglison's Medical Dic- 
tionary," which is the highest authority in the language in its special 
field, gives both Gauber's salts and Epsom salts in this so-called plural 
form. "Wilson's Chemistry," which has been lately revised and adapted 
to the new nomenclature, s-peaks of Epsom salts. Hartshorne's Con- 
spectus of the Medical Sciences " enumerates Epsom salts and Glauber 
salts among the saline cathartics. Thomas Wright's " Univ. Pro- 
nouncing Diet.," Adler's " German-and-Engl. Diet." and many others^ 
give Epsom salts only with the final s. " Spiers and Surenne's French 
Dictionary" says, Epsom, bitter salts. " Walker's Pronouncing Dic- 
tionary " even enumerates and defines salts as the popular name of 
various chemical salts. David Booth's " Analytical Dictionary" calls 
ammon. carb., volatile salts. Dr. Horatio C. Wood, in his very care- 
fully prepared " Treatise on Therapeutics," which has just been pub- 
lished, and which embodies all the most recent investigations, uses both 
the phrases Epsom salts and Glauber salts. There is, in fact, quite a 

1 70 Selections from Banish Archives for Pharmacy. {"^""xS isys"'"' 

respectable number of writers who employ this third orthography : 
Glauber salts, which resembles the German form Glauber sal%. I 
am fullv aware that perhaps quite as many names may be quoted in 
favor of Glauber's salt, but I contend that that will not suffice to es- 
tablish the incorrectness of Glauber's salts. 

It has occurred to me that possibly the term salts was never intended 
as a plural at all, but that it was used to distinguish medicinal salts from 
culinary W/, as the terminal s in reality exists in the Greek o?>^c, from 
which lexicographers seem to agree in deriving salt. It is likewise used 
to this day in the Romaic word Sjmc. It seems quite probable that 
the word salts, as a singular, was taken immediately from the German, 
as ts is phonetically precisely equivalent to the German z of sal%. 

In conclusion it may be well to call attention to the fact, that living 
languages are constantly changing, and that all arbitrary grammatical 
rules must make provisions for exceptions. We are forced to abide by 
that which custom establishes, and may therefore tolerate salts in the 
same way as parallel expressions, such as means, riches, alms, news, 
waters of the sea, &c. It is recognized as a principle in all languages 
that they are moulded according to the usages of the best writers and 
speakers. The dictum of Horace is quite as true at the present day 
as it was in his : 

" usus, 

Quern penes arbitrium est et jus et norma loquendi." 

Adolph W. Miller. 



Preservation of Medicinal Preparations by Filtered Air. 

Prof. Almen (Upsala, Sweden) has instituted a series of experiments, 
which confirm the observations of Dusch and Schroeder {see "Amer. 
Jour. Pharm.," 1854, vol. xxiv, p. 376) and those of Folberth (ibid..^ 
1862, vol. xxxiv, p. 336), respecting the possibility of keeping infu- 
sions, decoctions and similar (under ordinary circumstances easily 
spoiled) preparations for years. 

This is done by combining the method of Appert with the use of a 
cotton plug. The preparation to be preserved is heated to the boiling 

* " Archiv for Pharmaci og technisk Chemi med deres Grundvidenskaber. Redi- 
geret af S. M. Trier, Assessor pharmaciae." Kjobenhavn: 1875. 

^^^aIai^sjs.''"'' } Selections from Danish A r chives for Pharmacy . 171 

point and stoppered with cotton-wool. If not all the contents of a 
bottle have to be used at once, then the cotton plug has to be replaced 
by a cork, through which passes, first, a short tube (the nethermost end 
of which is drawn out to a point), filled loosely with cotton-wool ; and, 
then, a syphon, the long end of which is furnished with a gum-elastic 
tube and spring-compressor. This arrangement is, of course, to be 
applied before heating. As the liquid is drawn off, the air filters through 
the cotton. 

The bottles have to be rinsed with boiling water, since cold water 
contains germs, on the presence of which fermentation and putrefac- 
tion depend. 

Compressed Powders. 

Prof. Rosenthal (Berlin, Prussia) recommends to compress bulky 
powders which have to be taken in large doses ; for instance, Kousso, 
and other worm medicines. 

He does this by means of a common press (vertical), the lower cross- 
piece of which is provided with a hole, which can be covered by a 
plate. A tube is put on top of said plate, and the several doses of 
the powder are introduced, separated by small metal cylinders. Strong 
pressure is now applied, the above-mentioned plate is removed, and 
the compressed powder tablets fall through the hole in the cross-piece. 
It will be seen that, since no water or other constituent is used, said 
tablets must dissolve readily in the stomach. The largest convenient 
size to swallow will be found to be 1—2 grams.* — [Berliner Klin, 
Woch enschrft^ 1874.) 

Nitrous Oxide (Laughing Gas). 

A circular of the Royal Danish Board of Health (June, 1873) P^*^" 
vides, that : ist. Nitrous oxide gas must be dispensed from pharmacies 
only, on requisition (prescription) of an authorized physician or dentist. 
2d. The reservoir must be sealed and labelled : " Nitrous oxide gas." 

It does not expect every apothecary to prepare said gas, but requires 
the manufacturers to see, that : ist. The nitrate of ammonia does not 
contain chlorine, sulphuric acid nor nitrate of potassa. 2d. That the 
nitrous oxide gas passes through water, a solution of protosulphate of 
iron and a solution of potassa or soda. 3d. The gas must not be dis- 
pensed, unless it has been in contact with water for at least 24 hours. 

* One or two Philadelphia firms make compressed pills a specialty. 

1 7 2 The Botanical Source of Jaborandi. { """^xS' 7^."^' 



Curator of the Miiseum of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

Having lately had the opportunity of examining a quantity of jabo- 
randi from Pernambuco, * through the kindness of Messrs. Hearon, 
Squire and Francis, I was fortunate enough to find several ripe fruits of 
the plant. These fruits are distinctly Rutaceous in their character, and 
enable me to confirm Professor Baillon's conjecture that they belong to 
that natural order, and probably to a species of Pilocarpus^ which, if not 
identical, certainly comes very near to the P. pennatif alius ^ Lemaire. 

The specimens of the plant which 1 examined appear to belong to a 
shrub about five-feet high. The root is cylindrical, hardly tapering at all, 
nearly three-quarters of an inch in diameter for the first twelve inches, 
and very sparingly branched. The bark of the root is of a pale yellow- 
ish-brown color, about one line in thickness, and has a very short frac- 
ture. The outermost layers are very thin and papery, and are -frequently 
exfoliated. A small portion of this layer placed under a microscope 
forms an extremely pretty object, and is seen to consist entirely of 
strongly reticulated dodecahedral cells. The odor of the root is like 
that of a mixture of bruised peapods and orange peel. The taste is at 
first like that of green peas, but this soon disappears, and gives place to 
a tingling sensation, which is much more powerful than that produced 
by the leaves or bark of the stem, and endures for a considerable time. 
By gaslight the transversely-cut surface of the bark is seen to sparkle 
with minute crystals. 

*In a note on the physiological action of jaborandi, published in the "Pharma- 
ceutical Journal and Transactions," January i6, 1875, Mr. Wm. Martindale, F. C. S., 
gives some information supplemental to the account published in "American Journal 
of Pharmacy," 1873, p. 345. The strained infusion has but little effect; but taken 
with the powder, its action becomes apparent within a few (five) minutes, manifest- 
ing itself by increased circulation, uneasiness in the head, restlessness and the secre- 
tion of saliva. A dose of about 50 grains caused, in about half an hour, impaired 
vision at a distance and slight dilation of the pupil 5 the pulse rose to 104, the per- 
spiration became quite excessive, and the collected saliva, which was alkaline in reac- 
tion, measured 16 ounces 5 articulation became difficult and indistinct. Two and 
one-half hours after taking the dose, vomiting occurred and was promoted by me- 
chanical means, after which the effects began to subside ; more spirit and water was 
given, the clothes were changed, and the patient wrapped in a warm blanket, after which 
he slept quietly over four hours. He was able to attend to his business, but felt 
squeamish all next day. It was evident from this account, that four grams (one 
drachm) of jaborandi, or at least of some samples of it, constitute an excessive dose. 
— Ed Am. Jour. Phar. 

^"''AiXis^s^''"'} The Botanical Source of Jaborandi. 1 73 

The stem is half an inch in diameter near the root, narrowing to a 
quarter of an inch in the upper branches. The bark is thin, of a grey- 
ish-brown color, longitudinally striated, and sprinkled over in some 
specimens with a number of white dots which are not lenticels, but the 
remains of old oil receptacles. The bark of the stem is thin and fra- 
gile, and readily scales off when the stem is broken or bent ; it has a 
short fracture, and is yellowish-white internally ; its inner surface spar- 
kles with minute crystals ; it has not, to any appreciable extent, the pe- 
culiar leguminous taste of the root. The wood of the stem is yellow- 
ish-white and remarkably fibrous. The stem is alternately branched at 
a very acute angle (about 20°), the branches being erect and furnished 
with alternate leaves. The leaves, one of which is represented in fig. 
I, are imparipinnate, about nine inches long, with from three to five 
pairs of opposite leaflets, which are articulated to the rachis and have 
very short slighty swollen petiolules, those of the upper leaflets are about 
one line long, those of the lowest leaflets about three lines long, and 
the terminal one has a petiolule from half to one inch long. The rachis 
of the leaf is swollen at the base. The pairs of leaflets are usually 
about \ \ inch apart, the lowest pair being about four inches from the 
base of the rachis. 

The leaflets are very variable in size, even on the same leaf. Their 
general outline is oblong-lanceolate. They are entire (fig. 2), with an 
emarginate or even retuse apex, and an unequal base. Their texture is 
coriaceous, and when moistened reminds one in size and thickness of the 
leaf of the cherry laurel. The veins are prominent on both sides of 
the leaf, and branch from the midrib at an obtuse angle (about 60°) in 
a pinnate manner, remaining distinct until within one quarter of an inch 
of the margin of the leaf, where they become lost in the network of 
veinlets. The midrib is scarcely prominent on the upper, but forms a 
distinct keel on the under surface of the leaflet. When held up to the 
light the leaflets are seen to be densely pellucidly punctate. These 
pellucid dots, which are receptacles of secretion, are not arranged, as 
in another kind of jaborandi, in lines along the veinlets, but are irregu- 
larly scattered all over the leaf, and appear equally numerous in every 
part ; they are mostly rather large, but vary a little in size. The whole 
plant is glabrous. 

I may remark here that there appears to be two varieties, if not spe- 
cies, of this Pilocarpus^ the one being perfectly smooth in every part, as 
above described, and the other having the stems, petioles, and under 

1 74 The Botanical Source of Jaborandi. {^"AJXis'^ys"" ' 

surface of the ieaves covered with a dense velvety pubescence composed 
of simple hairs. The hairs are not so numerous on the leaves and 
lower part of the stems, but appear to be singularly persistent, as they 
mav be found on the bark for a considerable distance down the stem 
when it is examined wich a lens. In shape and size the leaves resem- 
ble those above described, but are rather thinner in texture, and have a 
somewhat different and less pungent taste. The lowest pair of leaflets 
in the specimens I have examined are. only two to three inches from the 
base of the rachis. I have not succeeded in finding entirely glabrous 
leaves on the stems which have hairy leaves, nor hairy leaves on the 
stems which have smooth leaves, and therefore consider that the plant 
with hairy leaves is probably a distinct variety. 

The inflorescence is a raceme, six or eight inches long, judging from 
the peduncle figured on p. 175. The base of the peduncle there rep- 
resented is entire, but the top is evidently broken off, so that it may 
have been one or two inches longer. The pedicels, so far as can be 
learned from the scars on the peduncle, are numerous and about three^ 
eighths of an inch apart. Whether they are horizontal or not when 
flowering it is impossible to say. The only two specimens I have seen 
are in fruit and have the pedicel deflexed and about half an inch long,, 
The fruit, fig. 3, closely resembles in external appearance that of a 
specimen of a Cuban plant in the British Museum, * referred by Asa 
Gray to Pilocarpus heterophyllus (PL Wrightianae, p. 170 ; Wright, 1 129.) 
When perfect it consists of five carpels, of which not more than 
two or three are usuallv developed to maturity. When ripe the carpek 
dehisce into two valves, as in fig. 5, and then remind one strongly of 
miniature cockle shells, fig. 4, with the valves open exposing the ani- 

This appearance is owing to the fact that, as in two or three other 
closely allied genera, the endocarp separates at a very early stage, and 
thus forms an inner case for the seed, as represented in figs. 5 and 7. 
The outer portion of the carpel, consisting of the united epicarp and 
mesocarp, is in most of the specimens of a pale brown or buff color, 
coriaceous, convex on both sides, of a somewhat circular form, but 
with the inner edge (/'. f., that nearest to the stigma) nearly straight, 
marked both inside (fig. 6) and outside (fig. 4) with curved ridges, which 

* The genus Galipea^ to which P. heterophyllus has been referred, is distinguished 
IVom Pilocarpus by the convolute cotyledons, tubular flowers, and anthers not vers- 

I. An entire leaf. 2 Leaflet: under size, showing the venation. 3. An entire fruit and peduncle — ii,,t 
size. 4. Ditto with two carpels only developed, showing the deflexed pedicel. "5. Carpel, showing the 
dehiscence. 6. A carpellary value with the endocarp removed, showing the reticulated inner surface, t. 
Endocarp, showing the dilated placenta and short funiculus. 8. Placenta separated. 9. Seed; a, I'liuiu, 
10. Endocarp without placenta, n. Cotyledon. 

176 The Botanical Source of Jaborandi. {^"'Airii'is^yt™' 

anastomose towards the outer edge and are almost absent from the inner 
edge. The convex surfaces only are dotted with oil receptacles. The 
endocarp (fig. 10) is smooth and pale yellow, with a wide sinus in the 
inner edge, which is occupied by a membranous expansion (fig. 7) of 
the shape shown in fig. 8. To the upper portion of this expansion, 
which appears to be a dilatation of the placenta, the seed (fig. 9) is 
suspended by a narrow, lancet-shaped, extremely short funiculus ; this 
is shown in fig. 5. The seed, of wh.ich there is only one in each car- 
pel, is black and shining, somewhat reniform, convex on both sides, 
enlarging towards its base, and forming a sharp ridge at the back towards 
the apex. 

The hilum is lancet-shaped, the vessels appearing to pass through its 
lower end (fig. 9 d). The testa is thick and coriaceous, the endo- 
pleura membranous. The seed is inverted, somewhat reniform in out- 
line, with a superior radicle, plano-convex cotyledons, and is exalbumi- 
nous, the radicle being very minute (fig. 11). 

The genus Pilocarpus^ to which our plant has been referred by Pro- 
fessor Baillon, was limited, as originally defined by Vahl* to plants with 
simple leaves, and seeds having biauriculate cotyledons. As further 
extended by Bentham and Hooker in their " Genera Plantarum," p. 
299, the plants of the genus Pilocarpus are said to have " simple, ternate 
or pinnate leaves," while no mention is made of the cotyledons being 
biauriculate. The seeds, however, are stated to be ovate, with a mem- 
branaceous testa, and exalbuminous. 

The Jaborandi plant differs from the description of the genus, as 
defined in the " Genera Plantarum," only in the following particulars : 
the seeds are somewhat reniform, not ovate, and the testa is coriaceous, 
not membranaceous. The cotyledons are not auriculate, but as that 
character is not given as an important one, it alone is not sufficient to 
exclude the plant from the genus. 

Since there are several genera closely allied to Pilocarpus in the tribe 
Xanthoxylea) to which Jaborandi evidently belongs, it will not be pos- 
sible, until the flowers of the Jaborandi plant have been examined, to 
decide with certainty whether it belongs to the genus Pilocarpus or not, 
for the above-mentioned differences can scarcely be considered suffi- 
cient to separate it. ..... . 

As there are several plants used in South America under the name 
of Jaborandi, which seem to possess somewhat similar properties in 

Vahl Eclog.," i, p. 29. 

"^"^Aprnl-.^js""' } The Botanical Source of Jaborandi. ■ i^"] 

varying degrees, I think it will be well in future experiments to distin- 
guish the Jaborandi here described and figured as Pernambuco Jabo- 
randi. Another species, which is in use both in France and this country, 
is a kind of Piper. It is readily distinguished from the Pernambuco 
Jaborandi by the thin texture of the leaf, which is acuminate, and has 
pellucid dots so minute as not to be visible to the naked eye when the 
leaf is held up to the light. 

In the sixty-fifth fasciculus of Martius' great work, the " Flora 
Brasiliensis," containing the Rutacece^ by Engler — only recently pub- 
lished and received in England in February — three new species of 
Pilocarpus with pinnate leaves are mentioned, viz. : P. Selloanus^ Eiigl-> 
P, grandiflorus^ Engl., and P. macrocarpus.^ Engl. Of these, the descrip- 
tion of P. Selloanus answers to the smooth variety of the Jaborandi of 
Pernambuco much more nearly than that of P. pennatifolius^ Lem. 

From the following analysis of the pinnate-leaved species copied 

from the above work, it will be noticed that the author separates the 

species with smooth leaves from those with hairy leaves ; hence, if 

this arrangement be accepted, the hairy variety of the Pernambuco 

Jaborandi must belong to a distinct species : * 

B. — Leaves imparipinnate, 2-6 jugate. 

a. Leaves smooth on both sides. 

P. - Selloanus, Engl. 5 leaves 2-3 jugate. 

Pedicels slender, six times longer than the buds ; ovary smooth. 
P. grandiflorus, Engl. 5 leaves 6 jugate 

Pedicels thick, scarcely longer than the buds 5 ovary densely 
h. Leaves shortly pilose beneath, especially on the nerves. 
P. pennatifolius, 'Lem. ; leaves 1-3 jugate. 

Leaflets linear j oblong midrib 5 and lateral veins prominent 

P. Goudotianus, Tulasne 5 leaves i jugate and unifoliate. 

Leaves large, obovate or lanceolate-oblong, midrib only rather 
prominent beneath. 
P. macrocarpus, Engl. 5 not sufficiently known. 

The following is a translation of the diagnosis of P. Selloanus : 

" Stem covered with thin purple bark, leafy towards the apex. Leagues imparipin- 
nate. Petiole of leaf semiterete, flattened a little above, quite glabrous. Leajlets 
trijugate, oblong, distinct, nearly equal, obtuse, margin reflexed, membranaceous or 
subcoriaceous, greyish-green, quite glabrous on both sides, pellucid punctate 5 mid- 
rib sulcate above, very prominent beneath 5 lateral nerves rather prominent beneath ^ 
petiole of leaflets short. Raceme terminal, nearly three times longer than the leaves, 
terete, purple, quite glabrous, with slender pedicels horizontally patent and slightly 
hairy, six times longer than the buds and furnished at the middle and base with two 
minute ciliolate bracts. Calyx very short, with broad rounded lobes, which are 

* The hairy variety of Jaborandi is allied to P. pennatifolius in the texture of its 
leaves, but from the persistence of the hairs, even upon the grey bark, is regarded 
by the author as being probably a distinct plant. 

1 7 8 Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. { ^"^'l^l] ^^^l"^' 

ciliolate. Petals coriaceous, lanceolate, acute, furnished with prominent midrib, in- 
flexed at the upper margin and at the apiculus. Stamens shorter than the petals. 
Onjary depressed, globose, very smooth, half included in the disk, and crowned with 
a short, rather thick style." 

The figure represents the leaves being slightly emarginate. In the 
greyish-green leaves, slender peduncle and pedicels, and smooth fruit, 
P. Selloanus agrees with the Jaborandi plant ; but the pedicels of P. 
Selloanus are longer and hairy \ this, however, future specimens of 
Jaborandi may perhaps prove to be of no importance. 

P. pennatifolius^ L^m.,is described as having hright green leaves, hairy 
on the veins beneath, and a thick peduncle with short thick pedicels. 
So far, therefore, as the most recent researches on this genus have 
made known the species, Jaborandi must be said to approximate more 
nearly to P. Selloanus than to P. pennatifolius^ Lem. — Pharm, your, and 
Trans, ^ 1875, Jan. 23 and Feb, 13. 


The sixth meeting of the session was held March i6th, 1875, Dr. Pile being in 
the chair, welcomed the many strangers present. 

The following donations were made to the cabinet: 

By Mr. Betanelly, a handsome specimen of the flowers of Pyrethrum roseum, imported 
this season 5 by Dr. Miller, glucose, made from wheat, very white, with sweet taste, 
without any nauseous bitterness whatever,- it had been used by R. V. Mattison as an 
excipient in pill masses, and by A. P. Brown in the preparation of syrup of the lacto- 
phosphates. He presented also cosmolin ointment, which closely resembles cosmolin, 
and is prepared from one part of paraffin and sixteen parts lubricating oil — the oil Is 
repeatedly filtered through animal charcoal and by aid of a water-bath formed into 
an ointment with the paraffin, Joseph L. Lemberger remarked that it was a near 
aproach to cosmolin, and if it will answer, we need nothing better. Dr. Miller also 
presented pure oil of origanum, the price of which is far in excess of the quotations 
for the commercial article, and oil of red thyme, which is sold for origanum, the so- 
called oil of white thyme being produced by redistillation of the red. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited the following specimens of American volatile oils made by 
George G. Percival of Waterville, Maine, Abies Canadensis, Abies nigra, Tanacetum, 
Hedeoma and Solidgo. Mr. Percival has a patent for their preparation by means of 
hot water, they being more soluble in hot than in cold water, but he states that ab- 
solutely pure oils cannot be manufactured for the prices at which the usual commercial 
qualities are offered. Dr. Pile and Prof. Maisch bore testimony to this fact from 
personal experience in the production of a few volatile oils 5 under the most favorable 
circumstances the cost was from three to sixteen times the market quotations. 

C. L. Eberle thought that other products, such as some chemicals, were subject to 
the same drawback, more especially if the cost of the pharmacist's labor be added, 

Am. Jour. Pharni, 
April, 1875. 

\ Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 


yet the practice is to be lauded. However, Dr. Pile had found that there was a ma- 
terial saving in preparing many chemicals, but that there are some that can be bought 
from the large manufacturer at a less cost. Prof. Maisch thought that Mr. Eberle 
had based his opinion partly upon the fact that new products, of which, when intro- 
duced, little is known in regard to the best processes for their preparation, after dis- 
coveries in this direction, generally become much cheaper. Dr. Miller instanced a 
druggist of this city who prepares his nitrate of silver at a saving to himself. He 
also exhibited an adulterated oil of Canada Erigeron^ in which a very strong terebin- 
thinate odor was apparent. 

C. L. Eberle presented a plant from the Gape of Good Hope, most probably a 
Gnaphalium or allied species. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a sample of nearly white salicylic acid, which had been 
prepared by E. Schering, of Berlin. It is now being experimented with in 
Germany and other places as an antiseptic, and is being prescribed internally and ex- 
ternally. It seems to have all the desirable qualities of carbolic acid without its 
objectionable ones. It is prepared by combining pure carbolic acid with caustic soda, 
and treating this compound with dry carbonic acid under the influence of a gradually 
increased heat, when one-half of the carbolic acid distills over, while the other half, 
into the molecule of which carbonic acid enters, remains behind as salicylate of 
sodium, from the hot aqueous solution of which, on supersaturation with muriatic acid, 
salicylic acid is obtained in the form of a pale brownish powder, requiring some 
purification to obtain it white or nearly so. It has been employed for preventing or 
arresting fermentation, one part of the acid to from 5,000 to 20,000 parts of the liquid 
being sufficient; it has been used for the dressing of wounds and recommended inter- 
nally in various diseases, regarded as contagious. It has no odor and its solution is 
destitute of caustic properties and tasteless. Its antiseptic properties may be depended 
on as long as the acid is in its free state, and until it is neutralized by the ammonia 
gradually generated in vegetable infusions 5 this may explain why oil of gaultheria, 
which is methylsalicylic acid, does not prevent fermentation to the same extent as 
other agents. 

Mr. Heinitsh : Oil of gaultheria Is much used in the country for the preservation of 
cider, and it seems to answer a good purpose. Mr. Eberle stated that oil of mus- 
ard is one of the best agents for this purpose. Mr. Lemberger attributed this prop- 
erty somewhat to the sulphur contained in it : but Prof. Maisch thought that this 
could hardly be the case, since it was present as allyl-sulphocyanide. 

Dr. Miller exhibited so-called magnolia seed, which Prof. Maisch recognized as 
the seeds of Nigella Damascena, Lin., a ranunculaceous plant of Southern Europe j 
when rubbed they have a very agreeable fruit odor. 

Mr. Gaillard presented a cotton-root bark from Sea Island cotton gathered in 
1870 — a physician had experimented with it and tested its properties as an emmena- 
gogue. It was used in the form of an infusion made of two troy ounces to one pint 
of water and in seven cases out of eight it had the desired effect. 

Prof. Maisch observed that the bast-fibres were not as strong as usual, and was 
uncertain if it was a peculiarity of this variety, or due to age. He had been shown, 
recently, by a firm in this city, a genuine cotton-root bark, which, when chewed, 
colored the saliva green, and also made a tincture of greenish-red color. 

J. A. Schiedt called attention to a factitious hemlock pitch, which is, probably, a 

i8o Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations,\^^-2^^^',^^l^^' 

mixture of Burgundy pitch and resin. He presented a copy of the Edinburgh 
New Dispensatory," Philadelphia, 1791. 

Mr, Wellcome called attention to the use of phosphate of sodium to increase the 
.solubility of salicylic acid in water, and stated that Dr. Squibb is preparing this acid, 
of a light buif color, on a large scale. 

Prof. Maisch read a letter, addressed to him as Editor of the Journal, urging a cor- 
rect rendering of words in common use. (See page 168.) This led to a discussion in 
regard to many names, which, although not accurately correct, were well known to 
the public. Prof. Maisch uiged that the termination of the names of neutral prin- 
ciples should be uniformly rendered by in instead of ine^ as is frequently done. 

Wm. Mclntyre called attention to the mixture of oxide of zinc, tannic acid and 
glycerin. The resulting compound, from its consistency, will not answer the in- 
tention of the prescriber. 

Mr. Eberle had met with a difficulty in dispensing chloride of zinc with glycerins 
and water. 

Dr. Miller reverted to the sugar-coated pills, spoken of at a former meeting, pre- 
pared from muriate of cinchonia, and sold as sulphate of quinia pills. These, with 
pills from several makers, had been examined by a student of the College, and he 
desired that the paper be read. Mr. Henry Trimble was introduced and read the 
paper, giving his results. Prof. Maisch said that Prof. Bedford, at the meeting of 
the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association, had mentioned Talmadge & Co., of 
New York, dealers in essential oils, as the parties selling this fraudulent quinia. 

Dr. Miller read a paper entitled " Official and Officinal.'' Prof. Maisch was glad 
to hear this paper read, which was in accordance with his views. (See page 165.) 

Mr. Heinitsh exhibited two varieties of very effective capsicum fruits grown by 
himself at Lancaster, Pa. 

Dr. Miller showed an opium well filled with shot. 

The thanks were given to the donors of specimens, and the papers read referred 
to the Publication Committee. 

William McIntyre, Registrar. 


Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The fifty-fourth course of lectures 
closed February 26th, and the examinations commenced March ist, ending Thurs- 
day, March 4th. The following questions were submitted to the candidates, five 
hours being allowed to furnish the written answers : 


1. What compounds of Iodine are officinal among the preparations of the U. S. P. ? 
State and explain of each the method by which it is prepared, the physical and chem- 
ical properties, and any impurity or adulteration it may contain, with the mode of 

2. What is the source of Tartaric Acid? State the method by which it is obtained 
Give the officinal names of its compounds which are among the preparations of U. 

Am. Jour. Pharra. 
April, 1875. 

Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 181 

S. p., the substances used in their manufacture, together with the method common 
to all, adding any precaution necessary in special preparations. 

3. What is the officinal name o^ Chloride of Lime? State its mode of prepara- 
tion, and the chemical changes which take place during its production. What offic- 
inal preparation (U. S P.) is made from it, and how? 

4. What is the general formula for an Alum? State what univalent and what tri- 
valent elements or compounds may enter into its composition, and the crystalline 
form common to all Alums. 

5. What are the antidotes for Tartar Emetic, Corrosive Sublimate, Arsenic and 
Lunar Caustic? State the characters essential to an antidote, and the mode of action 
in each of the above cases. 

6. What is the source and mode of preparation of Sodii Phosphas ? Give its com- 
position, and the nature of the change produced in it by a high temperature. 

7. What compound of Carbon exists in chalk, and what gas is obtained from chalk 
by the action of acids ? Give its composition, and its properties in relation to animal 
and vegetable life. 

8. What is the officinal name for Aqua Regia ? Give its mode of formation, and 
name the most efficient agent it contains, and any properties acquired which did not 
exist in the compounds from which it is formed. 

9. By what tests may the principal Mineral Acids be distinguished from each 
other ? 

10. By what tests may the principal Alkalies be distinguished from each other? 


1. Enumerate the different forms of Vegetable Tissue, and describe them briefly. 

2. What is Calumba? Give the name, natural order, and habitat of the plant or 
plants yielding it 5 describe the drug and its structural characteristics ; name its con- 
stituents of pharmaceutical and medicinal importance, and give its medical properties 
and dose. 

3. Describe the development of Colchici Radix ; give the name, natural order, and 
habitat of the plant ; state when the drug should be collected, its important constit- 
uents, medical properties and dose. 

4. Which roots of the natural order of Composite are officinal ; how may they be 
distinguished from each other 5 and what constituent is common to all ? 

5. What is Prunus Virginiana ? Give the botanical name, natural order, and 
habitat of the plant, its constituents, the reaction occurring when in contact with 
water, its medicinal properties, dose, and proper time of collection. 

6. Name the officinal leaves of the natural order of Ericacece. How do they differ 
from each other in appearance ; what are their medical properties ; and what princi- 
ples are found in them ? 

7. Describe Crocus according to origin, structure, composition, and properties ; 
name the adulterations and substitutions ; and state how they may be recognized. 

8. Anisum. — Give the name, natural order, and part of the plant used, its struc- 
tural characteristics, and how it may be distinguished from allied drugs. In what 
other drugs is a similar volatile oil found ? 

9. Describe the formation of Ergot, its appearance, structure, and preservation. 
How long may its medical piopeities be relied on, and what are its active con- 
stituents ? 

1 8 2 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Jssociations.{^^\l°S'\^^'^^'''^' 

10. Name the officinal Gums, and the plants from which they are derived 5 state 
how they are produced in the plants, how obtained, and how they differ from each 
other chemically and in solubility. 


1. Name the Units of Length, Weight and Capacity of the French Metrical Sys- 
tem, and state how each one was obtained. 

2. What is meant by the term Specific Gratuity F Name the most accurate in- 
strument for taking the specific gravity of liquids, and state how you would take 
specific gravity of substances soluble in water. 

3. Define the process of E'vaporation, and give the conditions which favor it. 
Describe separately a sand, steam and water bath, and, in the following operations, 
state which means of applying heat would be most properly used : Preparation of 
Oleum ^thereum, Ferri et QuinicC Citras, Manufacture of Glycerin from Fats. 

4. How is Aether Fortior prepared ? What is its specific gravity, and what are 
the best tests of its purity? 

5. What is a Fluid Extract, and what advantages are possessed by this class of 
preparations ? Give the general formula in the " U, S. Pharmacopoeia," and why is 
the addition of an acid made to some of the Fluid Extracts. 

6. Define Opium as it appears in the list of the " U. S. Pharmacopoeia." Why is 
Powdered Opium directed in making the officinal preparations, and what is the 
usual loss in powdering the drug ? 

7. Give the outline of the " U. S. Pharmacopoeia" process for preparing ^inia- 
Sulphas. Give its chemical composition, and one of the best tests for recognizing it. 

8. How do you prepare, by the " U. S. Pharmacopoeia," 

Pilul<£ Rhei Gomposita ? 
Vinum Ergota ? 
Tinctura Veratri Viridis? 
Emplastrum Picis Burgundica; F 
Unguentum Veratriaf F 

9. What is a Glucoside F Give a method for preparing Acidiun Tannicum, and 
how may it be distinguished from Acidum Gallicum ? 

10. What are the ingredients in the officinal formula for 

Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum F 

Confectio Opii F 

Pilula Cathartics Composit^e F 

Ceratum F 

Charta Sinapis F 


1. Give the locality, natural order and name of the tree vyhich furnishes Lignum 
Vita; also, a description and officinal name of the wood. Does the wood yield 
another article used in medicine? Give Its officinal name; describe it 5 the adulter- 
ations that may be practiced, and how to detect them. 

2. Give the botanical name, natural order and locality of the tree from which 
'Turpentine Is derived. Describe the process by which it is obtained. What two 
officinal products are obtained from it, and how are they prepared? 

3. State why Nitric Acid Is used In the preparation of Solution of Chloride of Iron y 

^^'llr^x^fz^l'"^'} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 


Water of Ammonia in Solution of Citrate of Iron ,• Iodide of Potassium in Iodine 
Ointment:, and, also, the preparation of Iron contained in Compound Mixture of Iron, 
when freshly prepared. 

4. What is the officinal name of Lime, and how prepared for pharmaceutical pur- 
poses ? What is its Metallic base ? Is Caustic Lime more soluble in hot or cold 
water? Give the formula for making Liquor Calcis, and into what officinal prepara- 
tions does it enter ? 

5. Give the outlines of the process for making Subcarbonate and Subnitrate of 
Bismuth ,• the principal impurity met with, and explain the method adopted for re- 
moving it. 

6. Describe Tartar Emetic as found in the shops j also, give the officinal process 
for preparing it, and the dose. State what preparations it enters into the composi- 
tion of. 

7. State the outlines of the method used in preparing Strychnia ; the other alka- 
loid met with, and how removed 5 also, the characteristic chemical test for Strychnia, 
and the most important means that should be promptly uesd in case of poisoning 
from it. 

8. Numerate the several officinal liquid preparations containing Opium j their 
strength per ounce, and dose ; also, the process for making Tinctura Opii Deodor- 
ata, and reasons for the same. 

9. Give the ingredients of Compound Resin Cerate, Chloroform Mixture, Compound 
Pills of Antimony, Compound Pills of Galbanum, Pills of Copaiba, Compound Pill of 
Soap, Compound Ponvder of Rhubarb, Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia, Garlic Syrup, and 
Ointment of Cantharides, 

10. State which of the following Prescriptions are proper and which improper 
and, in the latter case, the reasons. How would you dispense them ? 

aa f§ ss 

R. — Tinct. Belladonnje, . . f^i 
Spir. Ammon. arom., 
^Tinct. Valerian., 
M. S. — Half a teaspoonful in water 
every three hours. 

R. — Olei Ricini, .... ^^vi 
Tinct. Opii, . . . f^i 
Ag. Menth. pip., . . . fgiii 
Pulv. Acaciae, ... 
Sacch. albi, . aa q. s. ft. emuls. 
S. — A tablespoonful every two hours. 


R. — Hydrarg. chlor. corros., . gr. viii 
Ft. Pilul. No. xxxii. 
S. — One pill three times a day. 

R. — Tinct. Veratr. viridis, . . f5i 
Aquce, .... f^vi 
Syrup, simpl., . . . f^ii 
M. S. — Give two teaspoonfuls every 

three hours during the continuance of 



R. — Pulv. Ipecac, et Opii, . , gr. i 
Morph. Sulph., . . gr. x 
M. ft. pulv. No. vi. 
S. — One every three hours until re- 

R. — Aconitiit, . . . . gr. ii 
Sacch. albi, . . . pii 
M. ft. pulv. No. x 
S. — One powder three times a day. 

1 84 

Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations.\^^'2^^l'J^^^^' 

The following specimens were on the table for examination, fifteen minutes being 
given for each set, to recognize them : 

Acid, muriaticum, 
Acid, oxalicum, 
Potassii bicarbonas. 
Potass, bitart. cryst., 
Calx chlorinata, 
Plumbi oxidum, 
Zinci sulphas, 
Alcohol amylicum. 

Materia Rledica. 
Guaiaci lignum, 
Colchici semen, 

Pulv. aloes et canellae, 
Confectio aurantii cort. , 
Mistura amygdalae, 
Liqu. ferri chloridi, 
Linimentum saponis, 
Acid, sulphur, arom., 
Tinctura benzoini, 
Syr', sarsaparillae cp. 
Extr. buchu fluid., 
Uuguent. hydrargyri. 

Examining Committee. 
Potassii nitras, 
Cinnamom. zeylan., 

Infusumpruni virg., 
Tinctura quassise, 
Tinctura conii, 
Tinctura myrrhse, 
Syrup, scillae comp., 
Extr. Valerianae fluid., 
Cerat. resinae comp. 

The following report was presented to the Board of Trustees and the candidates 
recommended therein were elected Graduates in Pharmacy : 

The Professors and Examining Committee respectfully report that the following 
named gentlemen, having complied with the rules of the College and passed a suc- 
cessful examination, are hereby recommended for the degree of Graduate in Phar- 
macy. The names are set down in the order of merit. 




1 Howard Grant Jones, Pennsylvania, 

2 George Munson Shamalia, New Jersey. 

• 3 John Blair Smith King, Pennsylvania. 

4 Lewis Christopher Hopp, Ohio. 

5 Frank Leopold Sussdorff, N. Carolina. 

6 Odillon Barrot Richardson, Vermont. 

7 Thomas Cullen Tomlinson, Delaware. 

8 William Harveit Ramsey, Wisconsin. 

9 William Conner, Pennsylvania. 

10 Robert Henry Walch, " 

11 Rudolph Frederick George Voelcker, Texas. 

12 Joseph Cook Evans, Pennsylvania. 

13 Leonidas Hamlin Street, New Jersey. 

14 Walter Eugene Bibby, Ohio. 

15 Charles Meyer Miller, " 

16 James Franklin Hayes, Pennsylvania. 

17 Harry Percy Lechler, Virginia. 

18 James Maclinn Kimbrough, Tennessee. 

19 Louis Gaylord Clarke, Ohio. 

20 Frank Conrath, Wisconsin. 

21 Charles Ferdinand Hartwig, " 

22 William Gustave Schirmer, Pennsylvania. 

23 Thomas Alexander Cheatham, Georgia. 

24 Henry Prickett Thorn, New Jersey. 

25 Frank Pierce Brown, Pennsylvania. 

26 Clarence Anderson, " 
£7 Howard Dunfee Reifsnider, Ohio. 

28 Warren Henry Foley, Pennsylvania. 

29 Harry Clayton Manlove, Delaware. 

30 James Lemon Patterson, Pennsylvania. 

31 William Reuben Powell, Canada. 

32 Manilus Henry Stuart, Pennsylvania. 

33 Edward Joseph Davidson, " 


Analysis of a Cumberland Coal. 
The Preparation of Medicinal Waters. 
The Progress of Medicine. 
Sanguinaria Canadensis. 
Prinos Verticillatus. 

Moulding Suppositories without Melting. 

Hop Culture in Wisconsin. 
An Adjustable Plaster Machine. 
Xanthoxylum Fraxineum. 
Rais del Indico. 
Gentiana Lutea. 
Phytolacca Decandra. 
Asclepias Tuberosa. 
Pharmaceutical Education. 
The Constituents of Plants. 
Fluid Extracts, 
Liriodendron Tulipifera. 
Prinos VerticillaUis. 
Eucalyptus Globulus. 
Capsicum Annuum. 
Examination of Glycerins. 
Aralia Spinosa. 
Apothecaries' Mistakes. 

Phytolacca Decandra. 
Syrup of Garlic. 
Aspidium Marginale. 
Iris Versicolor. 
Glycerate of Iodide of Iron. 

( On Corrosive Sublimate formed when Calomel is 
( Prescribed with Carbonated Alkalies, Sugar, &c. 


'a^^aiS^s^^^'] Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 


34 Richard Knox, 

35 Joseph Yeager Tajdor, 

36 Wilham Burk McRoberts, 

37 Samuel Pierce Cline, 

38 Samuel Robinson Stirling, 

39 Marshall Girton Kinney, jr., 

40 William Seager Mitchell, 

41 Louis Philip Reimann, 

42 James Augustus Maston, 

43 Henry Morton Brennan, 

44 Judge Judson Creen, 

45 William Brown Means, 

46 Wilson Luther Kutz, 

47 Henry Stryker Boisnot, 

48 Edward Plummer, 

49 Albert Paul Keller, 

50 George Washington Barrere, 

51 Charles Henry Tatem, 

52 Francis Peter Sher, 

53 William Henry Braddock, 

54 Joseph William Seeger, 

55 Samuel McGill Beidler, 

56 William Bernard Bicker, 

57 Perry Martin Gleim, 

58 John Henry Blake, 

59 Charles Pierre Janvier, 

60 Richard Somers Justice, 

61 William Meyer, 

62 Lewis Henry Wilson, 

63 Silas Walton Johnson, 

64 John Franklin Wilgus, 

65 Wilbur Fisk Crawford, 

66 William James Stoner, 

67 Wilson Vanard Stansbury, 

68 David Wilson Levj', 

69 Ephraim Frank Stoner, 

70 Samuel Baker Davis, 

71 Thaddeus Everhart, 

72 Reuben L. Jacoby, 

73 Albert Robert Hugo Fiedler, 

74 Jacob Messing, jr., 

75 James Davison, 

76 Otto Kraus, 

77 Ira Daniel Webster Kramer, 


New Jersey. 

New York. 



New Jersey. 
New York. 


New Jersey. 

New Jersey. 
New Jersey. 
New Jersey. 

New Jersey. 


Piper Nigrum. 

Asclepias Incarnata. 

Status of Pharmacy in Kentucky. 

Glycerin and its Pharmaceutical Uses. 

The Manufacture of Extemporaneous Elixirs. 

Pharmaceutical Incongruities. 

The Seed of Colchicum Autumnale 

Extractum Glycyrrhizae. 

Fluid Extracts. 

Linimentum Saponis, U. S. P. 


fThe Advantage of Knowledge of Chemistry to 

( Pharmacists. 
Medicated Waters. 
The only Insects used in Pharmacy. 
Aquae Medicatse. 
The Abuses of Latin. 
Tincture of Calamus. 
Potassii Bromidum. 

Medicinal Substances, their Strength and Quality. 

Double Cone Suppositories. 

Patent Medicines. 

Chemical Food. 

Fructus Benzoini Odoriferi. 

Physostigma Venenosum. 

The Ideal Pharmacist. 

Chionanthus Virginiea. 

Hepatica Americana. 

Cerasus Serotina. 

Medicine in the Olden Times. 


Digitalis Purpurea. 

The Preparation of 'I'incture of Arnica. 

Datura Stramonium. 

Illicium Anisatum. 

Radix Sumbuli. 

Atropa Belladonna. 

Medicated Waters. 

Button Snake Root. 

Mitchella Repens. 

Effervescing Solution of Tartrate of Sodium. 
Chemical Philosophy. 
Camphor and Cream of Camphor 
Derivation of fixed Oils. 


78 Jacob Ard Muthersbough, Pennsylvania. Mercury. 

79 James Henry Buckingham, " Dracontium. 

80 Charles Swift Riche Hildeburn, " Hyoscyamus Niger. 

ROBERT BRIDGES, Professor of Chemistry. 

JOHN M. MAISCH, Professor of Materia Medica and Botany. 

JOSEPH P. REMINGTON, Professor of Pharmacy. 



E. \a III in iiig Com m it tee . 

1 86 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associattons.\^^'^''-l°)'lJ^l''_'^' 

The Commencement took place, at the Academy of Music, on the evening of 
March 1 6th, the Germania Orchestra, George Bastert, leader, being in attendance. 
The degree of Graduate in Pharmacy (Ph. G.) was conferred upon the above- 
named gentlemen by Dillwyn Parrlsh, the President of the College, after which the 
Valedictory Address was delivered by Prof. J. M. Maisch. The speaker referred to 
the growth of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, the increased educational 
facilities for pharmacists in the United States, and the progress of pharmacy in gen- 
eral. The part pharmacists had taken in developing science was illustrated by the 
scientific labors of Scheele, the necessity of a professional education and of the reg- 
ulation of the practice of pharmacy by legal enactments was dwelled upon, and with 
a few words of advice to the graduates the address closed. 

The graduating class presented to the College an excellent oil painting of Prof. 
J. P. Remington, Mr, Walch making the presentation speech, and Prof. Bridges, as 
Chairman of the Board of Trustees, receiving the picture. 

The exercises closed with the distribution of the presents sent upon the stage by 
the friends of those participating in the exercises, and consisting of books, utensils 
and the usual allotment of floral offerings. 

Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The 
Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Alumni Association was held in the College Hal 1 
145 North Tenth street, March iith, 1875, at 3^ o'clock P. M. 

The usual business of the Association was transacted. After the President had 
read his Annual Report, the following officers were elected : President, A. W. Mil- 
ler, M. D. 5 Vice-Presidents, George W. Kennedy and Charles A. Weideman \ 
Recording Secretary, Allen Shryock, Broad and Parrish streets ; Corresponding 
Secretary, H. G. Keasby ; Treasurer, Edward C. Jones, Fifteenth and Market sts. j 
Executive Board, James A. Parker, Richard V. Mattison, Elliot D. Paxson, How- 
ard B. French, William E. Krewson and William Mclntyre \ Trustee of Sinking 
Fund, Thomas S. Wiegand 5 Orator, Albert E. Ebert. 

The new Constitution was considered and adopted. The reception of the Grad- 
uating Class took place on Monday evening, March 15th, at 8 o'clock, ladies form- 
ing a large portion of the audience. The President, Mr. William Mclntyre, occu- 
pied the chair, and Dr. Lawrence Turnbull, Class 1842, delivered the Annual Ad- 
dress, which was replete vv^ith scientific interest. The Gold Medal, to the student 
who had passed the best examination, was awarded to Howard Grant Jones, of 
Philadelphia. The Certificate, for the highest average in Chemistry, was presented 
to Robert H. Walch, of Pennsylvania. Mr. Lewis C. Hopp received the Certificate 
for the best examination in Pharmacy, and Mr. George M. Shamalia, New Jersey, 
was awarded the Certificate for proficiency in Materia Medica. 

Prof. P. W. Bedford, of the New York College of Pharmacy, being present, was 
called on, and make a few pleasant remarks 5 he was followed by Prof. Maisch, Dr. 
McQuillen, of the Philadelphia Dental College, Prof. J. P. Remington, Daniel S. 
Jones and R. V. Mattison. An opportunity was offered for social conversation, and 
at a late hour all retired, well pleased with the interesting exercises of the evening. 

Edwin M. Boring, Secretary. 

The New York College of Pharmacy held its Forty-fifth Commencement ai 
Association Hall on the evening of March 25th, when the following gentlemen re- 

^ Vpriri/t'"' 1 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 1 8 7 

ceived the diploma of Graduate in Pharmacy : Alfred W. Cook, Federico Cook, 
James N. Davern, David R. Davis, Fredeiick Dllthey, Oscar E. Dudley, Albert C. 
Erhard, Henry S. Gill, Monroe C. Griessman, Carl Grossmann, Benjamin F. Hays, 
Federico F. Herman, Carl Herzog, Frank F. Knapp, J. A. August Kuehn, Carl 
Lorenz, Adolph Mack, C. Justus Meyer, Cyrus W. Minor, Albert W. Morck, Al- 
bert W. Neufield, Stephen B. Nichols, Matt. W. Parsons, John P. Regan, Richard 
Reuter, E. Earl Safford, John B. Sagarra, Charles E. Stammler, James T. Stevens, 
George W. Stoner, Joseph F. Tatson, Jr., Graham McF, Tindall, Frederick W. 
Turner, Luther Van Buskirk, Eduard Walther, George L. Wilms, John F. Wurth- 

At the Annual Meeting of this College, held March i8th, 1875, the following 
Officers and Committees were elected: President, Paul Balluff; Vice-Presidents, 
William Neergaard, M. D., Ewen Mclntyre, Bernard H. Reinold 5 Treasurer^ 
Theobald Frohwein j Secretary, M. L. M. Peixotto 5 Trustees, Gustavus Balser, 
Henry A. Cassebeer, Jr., George C. Close, William Hegeman, Edward L. Milhaii^ 
William M. Olliffe, Gustavus Ramsperger, Charles Rice, Daniel C. Robbins, John 
W. Shedden, William Wright, Jr. 5 Committee on the Revision of the Pharm- 
acopoeia, P.W. Bedford, Paul Ballulf, Charles Rice 5 Committee on Non-Officinal 
Formulae, Charles Rice, P. W. Bedford, William Hegeman, Ewen Mclntyre, F. A„ 
Reichardt 5 Delegates to American Pharmaceutical Association, Paul Balluff, Fred- 
erick Hoffmann, David Hays, William Neergaard, M. D., Ewen Mclntyre. 

The Alumni Association of the New York College of Pharmacy held 
its annual meeting in the lecture-room of the College, on the afternoon ot March 
17th, when a new constitution and by-laws were adopted, new members introduced, 
and the officers for the ensuing year elected. The same evening a handsome en- 
tertainment was tendered to the graduating class. 

The Maryland College of Pharmacy held its twenty-third annual commence- 
ment at the Academy of Music, Baltimore, on the evening of March 23d, when the 
degree of Graduate in Pharmacy was conferred upon the following fourteen gentle- 
men : W. Christ. Sandrock, John Ayd, Walter Turpin Swentzel, Chas. Beck, As- 
bury McK Snyder, Wm. F.McCauley, John G. Huck,Jr., Henry Shroeder, Dennis 
Davy, Albert L. Stephens, Vincent R. Jackson, Jr., Alpheus H. Roy, John M, Wiesel 
and George M. Bersick. 

The following is a list of the theses presented by these gentlemen, arranged in 
the order in which their names have been given: Sulpho-carbolates 5 Copper and 
its compounds 5 Podophyllum peltatum 5 Chromium 5 Potassium and its com- 
pounds 5 Triosteum perfoliatum 5 Digitalis purpurea 5 Iodide of potassium ; Thea 
chinensis 5 Mercurous and mercuric chloride ; Strychnos nux vomica ; Tinctures \ 
Eucalyptus globulus, and Trillium pendulum. 

Prizes consisting of valuable books were awarded to the first three graduates, and 
of apparatus (the Alumni prizes) to the fourth and fifth graduates of the above list. 
The prize to the junior class, consisting of a copy of Pharmacographia,"" was 
awarded to Henry Deitrich. 

The degree of Ph. G. was conferred by the President, John F. Hancock, and the 
valedictory address was delivered by Prof. Claude Baxley, M. D. 

Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — The commencement of the fourth course 
of lectures took place at College Hall, on the evening of March 8th, the follow- 
ing gentlemen receiving the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy : Theo. Bange, C. M. 
Greve, M. D., John Jungkind, John Keller, L. K. Marty, Albert Mente, Theo. 
P. Pellens, of Ohio 5 Henry H. Penkhaus, of Kentucky 5 Louis Rapp, W. J. Rat- 
liff, John PL Rielag, Hugo Sattler, John F. Sanns, Allen Shaffer, Wm. B. Strang, 
John J. Winkelman and Ferd. Zuenkeler, of Ohio. 

The exercises commenced with remarks by Prof. J. F. Judge, who, dwelling upon 
the relations of pharmacists and physicians, showed the necessity of pharmaceutical 

1 8 8 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, {^"^-l^^] J^^l"^' 

education, and referred to the increased attendance at this college, stating, that the 
first regular session in 1871 had thirty-two matriculants 5 in 1872, there'were fifty: 
m 1873-4, seventy-two 5 and for 1874-5, seventy-six. 

Hon. Samuel F. Hunt next entertained the audience in a very able address on " The 
Science of Pharmacy 5 its relation to Medicine and Society at large." 

After some further remarks by Prof Judge on behalf of the faculty, Mr. N. J. 
Ratliff, of the graduating class, delivered the valedictory. Mr. Theo. Bange was 
presented with a gold medal, for standing highest at the examination j and the 
graduating class presented to the College a half-length oil portrait of the late Prof. 
W. B. Chapman, who, up to the time of his death, filled the chair of Professor of 

Late in the evening the Alumni, Faculty, Trustees of the College, and some in- 
vited guests, assembled at Keppler's, spending some pleasant hours at the annual 

Louisville College of Pharmacy. — The fifth annual meeting was held in the 
College hall, corner Second and Jefferson streets, March 8th, for the purpose of 
electing directors and officers, and celebrating graduation exercises. 

The following Board of Directors was elected to serve the ensuing year: C. Lewis 
Diehl, Vincent Davis, Wm. G. Schmidt, S. Fisher Dawes, Bernh. Bueckle, J. M. 
Krim, Emil Scheffer, Fred. C. Miller, John Colgan, Ferd. J. Pfingst, Wiley Rogers, 
J. A. McAfee. 

At a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Louisville College of Pharmacy, 
held immediately after the adjournment of the annual meeting of the College, the 
following officers were elected to serve the ensuing year : President, C. Lewis Diehl 5 
Vice-Presidents, Emil Scheffer, Vincent Davis,- Recording Secretary, Fred. C. Mil- 
ler; Corresponding Secretary, William G. Schmidt 5 Treasurer, S . Fisher Dawes 5 
Curator, James A. McAfee. 

The following young gentlemen, having been recommended by the faculty and 
committee, had the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy conferred upon them : Bernh. 
Bueckle, Albert J. Schoettlin, Emil Scheffer, Jr., and Oscar Beckman. 

The graduating class was addressed by Prof. L. D . Kastenbine, who delivered an 
■entertaining and instructive lecture " On the Origin, Rise and Progress of Chem- 

The Alumni Association of the Louisville College of Pharmacy was 
organized December 17th, 1874, and the following officers were elected for the ensu- 
ing year 5 President, Jno. F. Rudell j Vice-Presidents, Henry Preissler, E. D. Cald- 
well 5 Recording Secretary, Henry N. Voigt 5 Corresponding Secretary, Chas. P. 
Frick; Treasurer, Wm. Tafel 5 Board of Directors, Chas O. Frick, Jno. C. Loomis, 
Ed. E. Anderson, Phil. G. Beutel, and Chas. De Kress. 

American Pharmaceutical Association. — The Committee on the Ebert 
Prize have made the following report : 

*'7o the President of the Ajnerican Pharmaceutical Association : 

" The Committee on the Ebert Prize respectfully report that they have carefully 
examined the original essays presented at the Twenty-second Annual Meeting of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, a number of which contain more or less 
valuable contributions to pharmaceutical knowledge, and that they selected for their 
especial consideration the papers offered by Ottmar Eberbach, of Ann Arbor, Mich. ; 
J. Creuse, of New York, and Charles L. Mitchell, of Philadelphia, believing that 
these approach more nearly to the conditions laid down by the founder of the prize 
than the others. 

" Mr. Eberbach's paper 'On Cokhicia' is the result of his investigations under- 
taken with the view of finding a working process for preparing colchicia for medic- 
inal purposes. The process adopted is based upon that of Geiger and Hesse, but 
considerably modified, and with the adoption of Dragendorff's suggestion of using 
chloroform for the extraction of colchicia from the alkaline solution. Since this 
alkaloid is repeatedly subjected to the influence of free alkali and acid, even at a 

^"^'11^1]^^^^^'^ Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. 

somewhat elevated temperature, it remains uncertain whether the amorphous yellow 
scales were pure colchicia or contained some colchicein. It is to be regretted that 
the author omitted to prove the acicular crystals finally obtained from a concentrated 
solution in chloroform to be pure colchicia and not colchicein^ which latter, however, 
according to Hiibler and Oberlin, is obtained in an amorphous condition from the 
chloroformic solution. 

"Mr. J. Creuse's essay 'On Iron by Hydrogen' is deserving of commendation 
for two reasons : first, for establishing the true character of what is usually found in 
commerce under this name, and, second, for determining the comparative value of 
the different processes that have been recommended for estimating the amount of 
metallic iron contained in this preparation. Its quantitative estimation by the 
amount of hydrogen evolved in the presence of dilute muriatic acid appears to be 
feasible J but further experiments are necessary to determine the infiuence which the 
presence of the various oxides mentioned by the author may exert upon the amount 
of gas obtainable. 

" The paper entitled ' The Active Principles of the Officinal Veratrums,' by Mr. 
Chas. L. Mitchell, is divided into three parts, entitled 'Botanical,' ' ChemicaP and 
' Physiological.' In the first part we miss a sufficiently critical account of the botan- 
ical origin of Sabadilla seeds 5 although attributed by the United States Pharmaco- 
poeia to Veratrum Sabadilla, Retzius, the seed, according to all modern authorities, 
is obtained principally, if not exclusively, from Asagraa officinalis, Lindley. While 
the close similarity in appearance and structure of the rhizomes of Veratrum njiride 
and album is particularly dwelled upon in this part of the paper of Mr. Mitchell, the 
second part does not produce any evidence that it was really and solely the rhizome 
of the former which was used for the experiments, except what is deducible from its 
physiological results, in Part III, and from the slight differences in the behavior of 
the two alkaloids obtained — besides jervia — all reactions being essentially identical, 
except the fusing point, which for veratroidia is given at 265*^ F,, and for veratralbia 
at 340° F., and the behavior to bichloride of platinum, with which veratralbia is 
stated to yield no precipitate, while veratroidia produces a flocculent precipitate ; 
but the strength of both solutions has not been given. 

"The botanical similarity of these American and European Veratrums had long 
since suggested the idea of the identity oftheir constituents, and this belief was strength- 
ened by the positive proof of the absence of veratria from both, and by the physio- 
logical results of Schroff, which indicate a qualitative similarity, if not identity, of 
composition. The recent discovery of jervia in Veratrum <viride by Dragendorff, 
which result has been corroborated by Mr. Mitchell, furnishes further proof for 
this assumption. 

" The main results of Mr. Mitchell's investigations, as they appear to the Com- 
mittee, on comparison with the results oi' other investigators, may be summed up as 
follows : 

" I. The alkaloid, heretofore named viridia, is jervia, and is found in both Vera- 
trum album and V. njiride. 

" 2 The alkaloids named veratroidia and veratralbia are probably different, though 
positive proof of this fact has as yet not been adduced. 

" 3. These alkaloids cannot, probably, be profitably extracted for medicinal use ; 

"4. The pure resins of both rhizomes are nearly, if not entirely, inactive. 

" After full deliberation upon all the above points, and considering the labor in- 
volved in the experiments of the subject matters of the three papers, the Committee 
award the Ebert Prize of the American Pharmaceutical Association, for the year 
1874, to Mr. Charles L. Mitchell for his essay 'On the Active Principles of the 
Officinal Veratrums I" 

" In conclusion, the Committee desire to state that their labors would have been 
very con>:iderably lightened, if the essays in question had been accompanied by full 
lines of specimens. 

Chas. Bullock, 
W. H. Pile, I Cotnmittee. 
^^Philadelphia, March c)th, 1875." John M. Maisch, ] 

190 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations.{^'^-ll'^^{^'^^^^^- 

Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — At the monthly meeting held January 
6th, M. Planchon succeeded M. Regnauld in the Presidency. Mr. Duquesnel 
gave an account of the labors of the society during the past few years 5 Mr. Mehu 
reported on the International Pharmaceutical Congress held last year in St. Petersburg, 
and M. Fr. Wurtz presented a report on the theses, in consequence of which the 
prize was awarded to M. Gondard, and those of MM. Verne and Aubert were 
noticed with commendation. Among the papers presented at this meeting may be 
mentioned a note from M. Patrouillard, of Gisors, reporting the substitution of 
senega root by the root of an Asclepias. 

The meeting of February 3d was presided over by M. Planchon. M. Poggiale 
reported on a communication presented by M. Cauvet at the previous meeting in 
relation to the supposed rediscovery by Laval of the sylphium of ancient writers; 
M. Stan. Martin considered it as still unknown, and the President expressed the 
view that the question was still undecided. 

A note by M. Schlagdenhauffen was read on the " Estimation of Arsenious Acid 
in the Presence of Oxide of Antimony by means of Hypochlorites." 

M. Limousin exhibited and described an apparatus for dividing powders : it 
consists of a metallic tube, one end of which is closed by a movable plate, which can 
be raised and lowered to any position by means of a screw, so as to form a measure 
of a definite size ; this measuring tube is furnished with a suitable handle. Similar 
contrivances have been used in the United States for many years, but have been 
abandoned by most pharmacists on account of the variability of the different doses 
thus obtained in consequence of the impossibility to regulate the pressure with 

M. Mehu spoke on the enactments regulating the practice of pharmacy, and on 
the education of pharmacists in Russia. M. Bourgoin on the action of chlorine and 
bromine upon acetylen tetrabromide C2H2Br4. M. Coulier on the spontaneous 
combustion of metallic arsenic (so-called cobalt) stored away in a case, the combus- 
tion being ascribed to the action of moisture. M. Duquesnel on eserina (cocaina) 
and its salts, the bromhydrate of which is crystalline and not deliquescent. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the pharmaceutical nieet- 
ing held March 8th, Mr. T. H. Hills presiding, numerous donations were made to 
the library, museum and herbarium. Professor Bentley called attention to a most 
valuable collection of cinchonas, presented by Mr. Howard, and illustrating his pa- 
per on the "Cinchona Plantations of Java," published in 1873, [^see " American Jour- 
nal of Pharmacy," 1873, P- 418) ; the bark of Cinchona calisaya var. ledgeriana is 
particularly valuable, having yielded the extraordinary amount of 10 per cent, of 
alkaloid. Prof. Bentley also directed attention to a specimen of carnauba root, 
which is obtained from a palm known as Copernicia or Corypha cerifera^ and which is 
stated to be valuable as an alterative, to have exactly the same properties as sarsapa- 
rilla, and to be obtainable at about one-half the price of the latter. Referring to 
spurious chiretta 'ysee this Journal, p. 71), an extract from a letter by Dr. Dymock, 
Professor of Materia Medica at Bombay, was read, as follows : 

" You are likely to get more of it, as it is very abundant in the m,arket this year. 
It has been for a long time well known here as Meetha chirata or s'weet chiretta. It 
comes in the same bales as the bitter kind, and is sorted out for sale here." 

Mr. Charles Umney read a paper on " Lead Plaster," in which he referred to a paper 
on the same subject read by Mr. A. W. Gerrard, before the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference in August last, and to the discussion which then took place. Many 
pharmacists look upon this plaster of the " British Pharmacopoeia" as being too soft 
and sticky, and accordingly prepare it by a modified formula, increasing the litharge. 
The former Pharmacopoeias of London, Dublin and Edinburgh, and the present 
Pharmacopoeias of the United States and of Continental Europe, direct an amount 
of litharge, varying from 50 to 56 parts to loo parts by weight of olive oil, or of 
lard (Austria), or of a mixture of equal weights of oil and lard (France, Germany), 
while the "British Pharmacopoeia" orders 4 lbs. of litharge to one imperial gallon of 
olive oil (about 44 parts to 100 parts by weight). The author advocates the adop- 

Am Jour. Pharm 
April, 1875. 

Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 19 

tion of a lead plaster made with one part of litharge to two parts of olive oil as 
answering more the general requirements. 

In the discussion which followed the reading of this paper, views were expressed 
by different speakers which were directly opposite each other. While some main- 
tained that all the water and glycerin should be removed, others appeared to be in 
favor of leaving the glycerin in the plaster. While some advocated the complete 
saponification of the fat, others favored a slight excess of the latter, which would keep 
the plaster pliable for years ; but the liability of such a plaster to become rancid was 
mentioned, whereby it is rendered unfit for use in the preparation of neutral cerate. 
It was stated, upon the authority of Mr. Squire, as expressed in his " Companion to the 
British Pharmacopoeia," that the plaster answered only when made with the best 
Italian olive oil, and that it was not satisfactory if Gallipoli or Spanish oil was used 5 
the experience of others did not seem to coincide with this. The importance ot 
using a good quality of litharge was referred to as being, essential for obtaining a 
good plaster with even the best olive oil. The subject was deemed of importance 
so as to invite to further experiments, and to the collection of other observations. 

A paper on " The Estimation of Fat in Milk " was read by Mr. E. L. Cleaver. 
The processes most generally used were briefly described and commented upon, lead- 
ing the author to the following conclusions : 

1. Cold ether will not dissolve out the entire amount of fat from dry milk resi- 

2. Boiling ether will not dissolve out the entire amount of fat from milk residues 
in a pasty condition. 

3. The residues should be in a state of fine powder, and must be gently boiled 
three or four times with successive portions of ether, in order to thoroughly extract 
the fatj the ether being always passed through a small filter before evaporating. 

4. During evaporation care should be taken not to allow the ether to enter into 

The author's process maybe briefly stated as follows : 10 grams (or C. C.) of 
milk are evaporated in a small dish to complete dryness, constantly stirring so as to 
obtain a fine powder. This is transferred to a long, narrow tube, the dish being 
rinsed with ether, and sufficient ether is added into the tube, the upper portion of 
which is wrapped with apiece of damp cloth, and the lower end dipped into a water- 
bath, a gentle ebullition being maintained by regulating the pressure by the thumb 
of the operator being placed upon the orifice ; the ether solution is poured through 
a filter, the operation repeated three or four times, tlie filter washed with some ether, 
and the filtrate evaporated by a current of air from a bellows or foot-blower, com- 
pleting it over a water-bath, when the fat may be weighed. 

Mr. Urwick called attention to the difference of quality between specimens of 
milk taken from different depths in the can, after the milk had been standing for an 
hour or two. 

Professor Redwood described the method generally followed in England, and 
which is a modification of Wanklyn's process. A carefully tared and well glazed 
hemispherical German dish is marked with its correct weight 5 in it the milk is evapo- 
rated to complete dryness, stirring well with a glass rod rounded at both ends, so as 
to reduce the residue into a perfectly fine granular condition, when the dish, with 
the residue, is weighed. The residue is exhausted with four successive portions of 
ether, the dish being placed upon the water-bath, but care being taken to avoid boil- 
ing the ether 5 the contents are well stirred, and any larger particles of the solid res- 
idue are broken down with the glass rod. The residue subsides with great facility and 
very quickly, and the clear ether solution is poured into a beaker in order to observe 
that no solid particles have been decanted. The dish is then dried by heat and 
weighed, the loss sustained by the treatment with ether indicating the weight of the 
fat, and by deducting the tare of the dish from the last weighing, the amount of non- 
fatty solid residue is obtained. The ether solution is poured into a bottle and 
when sufficient has accumulated, the ether is recovered by distillation. The advan- 
tages of this process are, that a number of assays may be undertaken at the same 
time, the residue is not removed from the dish during the operation, filtration is 



( Am, Jour. Pharm. 
\ April, 1875. 

avoided and the ether may be recovered. The specific gravity of the milk Is taken 
before the process is commenced, and if there is any doubt as to the milk being gen- 
uine the ash is determined by transferring the non- fatty solid residue Into a platinum 
dish, calcining and weighing 5 the ash is then treated with distilled water and the 
amount of chlorine dissolved therein determined. 


The Stamp Tax on Medicines. — On page 137 of our March number we have 
printed the twenty-second section of the so-called "Little Tariff Bill," which relates 
to the stamping of medicines, and explained our views regarding the intention of the 
law, which we are pleased to observe are essentially the same as those of the Phila- 
delphia Drug Exchange, published on page 7 of their Circular No. 26. On a care- 
ful perusal of that section, it is quite evident that the law never contemplated that 
the formulas which have been published In any standard Dispensatory or Pharmaco- 
poeia In common use, or in any pharmaceutical journal published by any incorpo- 
rated college of pharmacy, should be reproduced upon the label. All that is neces- 
sary, according to the law, is that the formula thus published shall be distinctly 
referred to, as regards the precise place where it is to be found. The Internal Rev- 
enue Commissioner, however, has seen fit to interpret it in an entirely different man- 
ner, which we believe is neither warranted by the wording or by the intention of the 
law, as will be seen by the following, which we find in the Circular above refer- 
red to : 

"The Commissioner of Internal Revenue has. decided, with reference to the tax upon medicines under 
the law of February 8, 1875, that two classes heretofore held to be liable to stamp tax are conditionally 
exempted : 

" ist. Officinal medicines, or medicines made and compounded according to formulas published in author- 
ized standard medical authorities, but which have been heretofore put up in a style or manner similar to 
that of patent or proprietary medicines in general. 

■'2d. Medicines unofficinal, or made and compounded according to unpublished formulas. In the first 
of these cases the condition on which the exemption is made to depend is that the forimtla shall be pub- 
lished oil the label, and the Dispensatory, Pharmacopoeia, or pharmaceutical journal, or other standard 
medical authority where such formula is published, shall be distinctly referred to on the label. In the 
second case, no proprietorship shall be claimed, and to remove all semblance of any claim to proprietor- 
ship, or claim to have any private formula, or occult secret or art of making and preparing the same, the 
maker or compounder must publish on his label the exact formula which he uses, so that the medicinal 
article may be free and open to the trade, if they see fit to make or compound the same article. The for- 
mulas, in all cases, must be published in form and manner, and indicated by such weights and measures 
as are generally adopted in the standard medical authorities." 

The Commissioner is correct In regard to the two classes of medicines which are 
exempt from the stamp tax; but he has erred in the few words which we have ital- 
icized. The law states, very distinctly, that when a formula has been published in 
certain works, it shall be accurately referred to. It is not necessary, according to 
the law, to print upon the label the entire formula by which " Seidlltz Powders " are 
made 5 a reference to the place, however, where the formula may be found Is neces- 
sary, and the label should therefore read : " Seidlltz Powders. ' U. S. Pharmaco- 
poeia,' 1873, P- ^59- Directions:" &c. 

It is very probable that the Internal Revenue Commissioner will modify his ruling 
as soon as his attention is drawn to the subject, and we are glad to state that the 
Philadelphia Drug Exchange will address this officer in relation to his peculiar mod- 
ification of the law. It would, however, be well If other pharmaceutical bodies 
would take the same steps, so as to convince the Commissioner that pharmacists are 
quite willing to comply with this law in letter and in spirit. 

In this connection we deem it proper to state that we have received several com- 
munications requesting us to publish certain formulas. While we invite contribu- 
tions of this kind, as well as others of Interest to the profession, it is but proper that 
we should reserve to us the right to judge of their admissibility into this "Journal." 
We cannot undertake to publish formulas merely for the purpose of relieving those 
dealing in medicines from stamping them 5 every apothecary and druggist can accom 
pllsh the same object by having the correct formula printed upon the label. 



MAT, 1875. 



From the Author's Inaugural Essa}^ 

In preparing the alkaloids, the powdered root was exhausted with 
alcohol by precolation, and the resulting tincture evaporated by means 
of a water-bath to the consistency of a thin extract ; this was digested 
with sufficient hydrochloric acid for three days, and then poured into 
water with constant stirring until it was thoroughly diffused, then per- 
mitted to stand for twenty-four hours, to allow the resin to settle to the 
bottom. It was then filtered and the filtrate evaporated to half its 
bulk, ammonia water was added, and the purplish-brown precipitate 
collected on a filter and washed well with water, dried and repeatedly 
agitated with ether until completely exhausted. The sanguinarina sul- 
phate was obtained by adding a mixture of sulphuric acid and ether to 
the ethereal solution ; this crystalline crimson precipitate was then pur- 
ified by recrystallizing from a hot alcoholic solution. 

lodohydrargyrate of potassium produced, in its solution, a bright 
red, and ammonia a white precipitate. 

The supposed puccina was obtained according to Mr. Wayne's pro- 
cess. The ethereal solution, from which the sanguinarina sulphate had 
been separated, was of a light straw color ; the ether was slowly distilled 
off nearly to dryness, and a residue of a reddish-brown color remained 
in the retort, dissolving in alcohol with a red color. Hydrochloric acid 
was added in very slight excess and the solution set aside to evaporate 
spontaneously ; the first crop of crystals was of a granular form, similar 
to sanguinarina sulphate, and of a light reddish-brown color ; the second 
crop was of a darker color. lodohydrargyrate of potassium produced a 
precipitate of a yellowish-red color, and ammonia one of a purplish-brown, 
this last furnishing a purple solution with chloroform. 

Supposing that it still contained sanguinarina, it was dissolved in water 

Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

(Am. Jour. Pharm, 
\ May, 1875. 

acidulated with HCl, ammonia added, the precipitate washed with water, 
dried and agitated with ether. On passing hydrochloric acid gas through 
this solution, hydrochlorate of sanguinarina was precipitated, of a crim- 
son color. The portion that was not taken up by the ether was found 
to consist of resin and coloring matter, which substance it is that gave 
a purplish color to the ammonia precipitate and to its solution in chlo- 
roform. Puccina is nothing more than sanguinarina, with some resin 
and coloring matter persistently adhering to it. 

The resinous substance obtained by the precipitation of the concen- 
trated tincture in water was treated with alcohol, the solution acidulated 
with hydrochloric acid and poured into a large quantity of water with 
constant stirring ; after twenty-four hours the liquid portion was filtered 
and evaporated to half its bulk and set aside to crystallize, when a sub- 
stance similar to the supposed puccina, but of a lighter color, was de- 
posited. It was dissolved in acidulated water, precipitated by ammonia 
of a purplish-brown color, collected on a filter, washed with water, 
then dried and agitated with ether, which did not take it up entirely. 
Hydrochloric acid gas was passed through it, and the sanguinarina was 
thrown out of solution \ the portion that was not taken up by the ether 
consisted of resin and coloring matter. 

Supposing that the resin that was precipitated from the above acidu- 
lated alcoholic solution by pouring it into water was not entirely free 
from sanguinarina, it was treated with acidulated water, precipitated by 
ammonia and treated with ether, and HCl gas passed into it ; the same 
result was obtained as with the supposed puccina. The residue, in- 
soluble in acidulated water, was dissolved in alcohol, ammonia added in 
slight excess, and then three times its bulk of ether was added to it ; the 
alkaloid taken up by the ether proved to be sanguinarina, while the 
resin remained behind of a brownish appearance, tasteless and inodorous. 

The residue left, after exhausting the first ammonia precipitate with 
ether, was treated with dilute acetic acid, and the solution evaporated 
by means of a sand-bath to the consistence of a soft extract. This was 
then repeatedly boiled in water acidulated with HCl, and the solution 
treated, as described above, with ammonia, ether and hydrochloric acid 
gas, when the sanguinarina salt was obtained. The portion insoluble 
in the acidulated water was of a yellowish-brown color. A mixture 
made of it with some sanguinarina and resin was boiled in acidulated 
water, and on the addition of iodohydrargyrate of potassium a precip- 
itate of a yellowish-red color was produced ; while ammonia yielded a 
purplish-brown precipitate, which dissolved with a purplish color in 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1875. J 

Chionanthus Virginica, 


chloroform — these reactions being exactly the same as those produced 
with the supposed puccin, 

Sanguinarinic acid was obtained according to Newbold's process 
("Amer. Journ. Pharm.," 1866, p. 496). To the clear solution from 
which the sanguinarina had been precipitated by ammonia, acetate of 
lead was added, and a precipitate of a greyish-white color obtained, 
which was collected on a filter, well washed, suspended in water, and 
decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen gas. The filtrate was evap- 
orated to the consistence of a syrup, but no crystals were formed on 
standing. It was of a dark reddish-brown color, turned blue litmus 
paper red, and had a sour, rather pleasant taste. Dissolved in water 
and lime-water added to it, no precipitate was produced, until heated 
to boiling. This precipitate, after washing, was suspended in water 
and acidulated with acetic acid. Oxalic acid, carefully added, pre- 
cipitated the calcium, and, after treatment with alcohol, citric acid re- 
mained in solution, which, with chloride of calcium, produced a precip- 
itate soluble in ammonium chloride, and was reproduced on heating. 

Alcohol was added to the clear solution from which the citrate of 
calcium had been precipitated, and a dense flocculent precipitate was 
produced, which was dissolved in water, a little acetic acid added, and 
the calcium precipitated by oxalic acid and alcohol. The filtrate be- 
haved like a solution of malic acid. Acetate of lead produced a white 
precipitate, which, on being heated with water, fused, but dissolved in 
warm acetic acid. Lime-water produced a precipitate only after the 
addition of alcohol. 

A sample of so-called sanguinarinic acid, prepared by Mr. Newbold, 
was obtained from the College cabinet ; it had a slight acrid taste, and 
iodohydrargyrate of potassium produced in its solution a precipitate, 
showing the presence of some sanguinarina, while that obtained by me 
was not affected. To lime-water Newbold's acid behaved precisely 
as described above. 

These investigations prove the non-existence of puccina, and that 
the supposed sanguinarinic acid is a mixture of citric and malic acids. 



Extracted from an Inaugural Essay. 

The root-bark of the fringe-tree is medicinally employed by eclectic 
physicians. In operating upon it, the author was led to infer the pres- 

196 Poke-Root— Poisonous Effects, ^c. {^'^■il'^^-J^.l'''''- 

sence of saponin, which was obtained pure or nearly so in the follow- 
ing manner : 

One pound (7,000 grs.) of the powdered bark was carefully packed 
in a percolator, and exhausted with strong alcohol, the percolate was a 
clear reddish-brown liquid, having a bitter taste and odor of the bark, 
and yielding, on evaporation, 1,750 grains or 25 per cent, of extract, 
which has an extremely bitter taste, is perfectly soluble in alcohol and 
water, partially soluble in ether, and insoluble in chloroform. 

From this extract, saponin was prepared, according to Rochleder's 
process, by dissolving 240 grains of it in water, and adding to the solu- 
tion' baryta water till no further precipitation occurred. The precip- 
itate was collected on a filter, washed thoroughly with baryta water, 
and redissolved in water. Through the filtered solution, carbonic acid 
gas^was passed till the baryta was entirely precipitated, and the clear 
filtrate was then evaporated, spread on glass and dried at low tempera- 
ture. The result of the experiment was a straw-colored powder, per- 
fectly soluble in water, the solution producing froth when shaken. 

This saponin was not changed in color by sulphuric acid ; nitric acid 
colored it reddish-brown, caustic potassa red and ferric chloride greenish. 
It deseives further investigation ; likewise the bitter principle contained 
in the bark. 



On the evening of January 28th, a package of poke-root, gathered 
early in November last, properly sliced and dried, and weighing seventy- 
eight troy ounces was opened, and seventy-two ounces set aside to be 
prepared for percolation in the morning, six ounces coarsely ground and 
put in^store drawer. A clerk and myself, who handled the drug, ex- 
perienced some slight dryness of the throat during the night. In our 
next morning salutations we recognized, that each had, as we supposed, 
a cold, our voices being quite husky. At about half-past eight o'clock 
the porter proceeded to prepare the root for percolation, and in about 
two hours it was, by means of an Enterprise drug mill and a tin cased 
sieve, prepared, moistened and packed in a percolator. By this time 
we experienced something like an endemic coryza, which we attributed 
to the, dust of the poke root. The floor was sprinkled and all dust 
carefully removed with damp towels. Three clerks, porter and myself 
seemed aff'ected to a greater or less extent, and coughed violently. There 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1875. y 

What is Angelic a- Root ? 


was a decided indisposition at one P. M., on the part of all concerned, 
to eat dinner, and there was continued coughing, with soreness of chest, 
and eyes were much inflamed. At seven P. M. four of the parties 
were unable to eat supper, and one of them went to bed very sick, with 
eyes much swollen, pain throughout the body, and chill, followed by high 
fever. At ten P. JVL, free vomiting was induced, somewhat to the re- 
lief of the patient, but entire recovery did not ensue for forty-eight 

No. 2 was very ill at nine P. M., with both vomiting and purging, 
eyes much irritated, and patient very restless during night and until noon 
of following day. During convalescence of forty-eight hours, purging 
continued to a considerable extent, after which the patient recovered. 

A child of the writer, six years of age, who happened in the 
store for not over five minutes, at the time the drug was being prepared, 
was seized with a cough in the latter part of the day, which lasted into 
the night, and much resembled croup. This we attributed, as in the 
other cases, to the effects of the drug. A marked feature in all the 
cases was a very decided soreness of all the motor muscles of the body. 

Feeling fully convinced that, if I had had in process of preparation, 
double the quantity of the drug, serious, if not fatal consequences would 
have resulted, and having sadly experienced the want of precautionary 
advice in the United States Dispensatory," I deem it my duty to offer 
this statement for your consideration, whether it is not well enough to 
have recorded in our journals such precautions as are essential to the 
safe handling of such drugs, as are so slow to exert poisonous effects, 
and hence the more dangerous. 



[Read at the Phar?Jiaceiitical Meeting, April 7.0th.) 
When a pharmacist orders " angelica-root," what does he expect to 
receive As the answers to this query showed the existence of a 
wide difference of opinion among botanical druggists and others, an in- 
quiry into the subject may possibly be productive of greater uniformity. 
The attention of the writer was first directed to the matter in a rather 
mortifying manner by a compounder of liquors, who had inadvertentlv 
obtained, along with a number of other ingredients, a pound of ground 
American angelica-root, in place of the European, which he had been 
in the habit of using. According to the statement of this party, a 

1 9 8 What is Angelica-Root ? {^"iv/aT:x?75"" 

whole barrel of his bitters had been totally spoiled by it, so that it was 
rejected by all of his customers, on account of its peculiar and, to 
them, disagreeable flavor. The root in question had been obtained in 
the ground state from a New York drug mill, and, on being applied 
to, the proprietors insisted that there was no error whatever on their 
part, but that the correct article had been sent. 

The Pharmacopoeia Germanica " gives Archangelica officinalis^ Hoff- 
mann, as the plant furnishing the officinal Radix Jngelica. In the old 
editions of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia," our indigenous species An- 
gelica atropurpurea (or Archangelica atropurpurea^ Hoffm.) was recog- 
nized in the secondary list. The edition of i860 dismissed the species, 
and substituted the European Angelica Archangelica^ now named Arch- 
angelica officinalis by Hoffmann. The present edition has rejected both 
plants, so that we cannot appeal to its authority on this point. 

The search for an authentic specimen of American angelica-root 
revealed the somewhat surprising fact, that at least three or four dif- 
ferent roots are sold under that name. One of our Southern friends, 
who kindly favored us with the pressed leaves, as well as the root of 
what he considered the true Archangelica atropurpurea^ informed us at 
the same time that he has reason to believe the root of Dgusticum ac- 
tceifolium to be sometimes substituted. The leaves and umbellets of 
his own specimen, however, vary materially from those of Archangelica 
atropurpurea^ while they agree with the botanical description of the 
Ligusticum actcsifoliu7n. The flavor and odor of his roots, also, very 
closely approach those of the European lovage, Ligusticum levisticum. 
One of the popular synonyms for this American lovage is Angelico, 
certainly a very near approach to angelica ; and this may, in part, ac- 
count for the error. According to Gray, the Archangelica atropurpurea 
is not even met with south of Pennsylvania. 

Another variety of the commercial angelica-root, obtained from a 
very respectable source, bears a close resemblance to the American spike- 
nard, Aralia race?nosa. It is most probably the root of the Aralia 
spinosa^ which is known in many sections as the angelica-tree. 

The popular name of masterwort is an additional cause of confusion. 
The " U. S. Dispensatory " applies this word to three different plants : 
Angelica atropurpurea^ Heracleum lanatum and Imperatoria ostruthium. 
As only the latter of these is of European origin, there can be little 
doubt that it is the proper root to dispense, when called for by Ger- 
mans under the name of Meister wurzeL Regarding the two former, 

Am. Joar. Pharm ) 
May, 1875. J 

What is Angelica-Root ? 


one of our botanical establishments admitted occasionally sending out 
either one indiscriminately, though the name masterwort is more gener- 
ally understood to apply only to the Heracleum or cow-parsnip. 

The frequent substitution of these roots for each other is no doubt 
to be partially attributed to the fact, that they all agree in being highly 
aromatic, and in possessing a warm, pungent taste. All of them are 
members of two very closely related families, the Umhellifercs and the 
Aral'iacece. There is, however, so striking a difference in the physicial 
properties of these commercial angelicas and the true cultivated Arch- 
angelica officinalis^ that the recognition of the latter presents no difficul- 
ties. Its odor and taste are quite peculiar, and altogether different 
from those of any of the substitutes ; its color is also rather darker 
and more brownish. The most marked characteristic is the great 
abundance of very numerous, descending, wrinkled fibres, many of 
them several inches in length. In this respect it differs entirely from 
the American specimens, all of which are simple roots, not furnished 
with radicles. 

To revert to the original question : Which is the proper root to dis- 
pense, in the absence of specific directions ? Most of the trade cata- 
logues of our botanical druggists and fluid-extract manufacturers de- 
scribe angelica as being obtained from Angelica atropurpurea. It has 
been shown, that, owing to the lack of botanical knowledge on the 
part of the collectors, and, perhaps, also to other causes, those who 
purchase this are quite as likely to receive some substitute as the true 
root ; while the cultivated species can be readily obtained free from 
adulterations. When Engelwur-zel and angelique^ or racine de Saint 
Esprit are asked for, the European or garden angelica is evidently 
wanted. When used as a flavoring ingredient for liquors or cordials, 
it is equally certain that the peculiar flavor of the Archangelica officinalis 
is desired, as most of the recipes for bitters and gins, in which it is 
used, have originated in Europe. As has been already stated, Archan- 
gelica officinalis is the only species recognized in the German Pharma- 
copoeia," and the same root was officinal with us during the previous 
decade. Angelica is in reality used to a much greater extent by our 
foreign than by our native-born population. The consumers are almost 
invariably unaware that there is more than one variety, and they con- 
sequently ask simply for angelica, as the English name is given by their 
respective dictionaries. In consideration of these facts, it is, in the 
opinion of the writer, by far the safest to give the imported species, 


Wine of Tar. 

/Am. Jour. Pharm, 
t May, 1875. 

whenever there is any doubt. In order to avoid occasional annoying 
errors, pharmacists may find it advantageous, in ordering, to indicate 
definitely which variety they desire, and to label their packages accord- 
ingly. If the full botanical names are found to be too unwieldly for 
daily use, the two drugs may be neatly and conveniently distinguished 
by the adjectives, European and American. 
Philadelphia, April i()th, 1875. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, April 10th.) 

The formula usually employed by pharmacists in making wine of tar 
is that recommended by the late Prof. Procter (" U. S. Dispensatoty," 
edition 1870, page 680), which, as is well known to all, is a very troub- 
lesome and rather complicated process, while it affords a very unreliable 
product, being feeble in tar strength and very unsightly in appearance. 

The copious mucilaginous deposit which takes place in the prepara- 
tion on standing, when made by that process, appears to carry with it 
almost all the virtues of the tar which it may have contained when 
freshly made, and lea\^es the supernatant liquid of little more than the 
strength of ordinary tar-water. This process of depletion ,. seems to 
continue almost indefinitely. 

Now, as the wine of tar still sustains its popularity with the medical 
profession, which renders it necessary for almost every pharmacist to 
keep it in stock, it is important that there should be a good and easy- 
working formula for its preparation, devoid of the faults just alluded to 
as adhering to the one commonly employed, so that every pharmacist 
may make it, of reliable quality, for himself. Besides, owing to the 
trouble attending its manufacture by the old formula, there are, as far 
as I can learn, but very few retail pharmacists who make it for them- 
selves ; they rely almost exclusively upon the wholesale manufacturers 
for their supply, and of course are liable to get a very indifferent article. 
For these reasons, I have been led, by experiment, to adopt an entirely 
new process for making this preparation,- a process which obviates the 
objections attached to the old method, being much less troublesome, 
while it affords a more efficient and satisfactory preparation in every 
respect. The formula is as follows : 

^"'d"y%!^T-'"-} ^y^ne of 'Var. 201 

B. — Tar, pure, ...... 5xvi, troy. 

Glycerin, ...... 

Sherry Wine, ...... 

Honey, . . . . . .ad f5viii. 

Acetic Acid, ...... fgi. 

Boiling Water, . . . . . O vi. 

Mix the glycerin, sherry wine, honey, acetic acid and boiling water 
together, in a stone jug or other suitable vessel of the capacity of a 
gallon. To the mixture add the tar, and shake the whole vigorously 
for several minutes. The vessel is then to be tightly stopped and 
placed upon a stove or in a water-bath, resting upon folds of paper, 
and the mixture digested, for an hour or two, at a temperature of from 
150° to 160°. During the digestion, the mixture should be frequently 
well shaken. When the digestion is completed, the mixture is to be 
set aside to macerate, in a warm place, for a few days, it being well 
shaken occasionally during the process. Lastly, strain through muslin^ 
and filter the strained liquid through paper. 

I here present two samples of the wine of tar ; that marked No. i 
being made in exact accordance with the above formula, and the other, 
marked No. 2, made by the same formula, omitting the acetic acid. 
They have both been made for some time : No. i since the middle of 
last October, No. 2 since the ist of last January. 

These samples have been recently filtered, and are, as will be ob- 
served, beautifully bright and transparent. Both were of a lighter 
color when freshly made, but have gradually become darker by age. 
This change seems to have been much greater in the sample contain- 
ing acetic acid, which, in fact, when first made, was darker and seemed 
to be much stronger in the sensible properties of tar than the other. 

The addition of the acetic acid to the formula I consider a decided 
advantage, as it not only increases the solvent power of the menstruum, 
but also imparts to the preparation the well-known and valuable refrig- 
erant properties of vinegar. The proportion of the acetic acid, I think, 
might even, with advantage, be increased. The slight acescency given 
to the wine by the acetic acid improves its taste. 

I can see no possible advantage that can be derived from the fermen- 
tation process employed in the old formula, as it cannot confer any 
special therapeutic value upon the preparation, while it renders its 
manufacture very tedious and troublesome. 

Wine of tar, at best, can only be valued, therapeutically, for its tarry 

202 Liquor Potassii Citratis. — Suppositories. {^"'•]v}ay''i875^™' 

properties. Any other incidental virtues which it may be imagined to 
contain must be simply negative. 

Like all similar preparations of tar, the wine of tar, as above pre- 
pared, deposits on standing more or less inert oxidized resinous matter, 
and requires to be filtered occasionally, which restores it to the appear- 
ance presented by the samples. 

Philadelphia, Pa.^ April, 1875. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, April loth.) 
The great trouble with this preparation, so much used in medicine, is 
to keep it fresh and clear. Having tried various formulas, old and 
new, and finding that the solution will always turn turbid and flocculent 
in a short time, I offer the following, which is not liable to this objec- 
tion : 

I. R. Citric acid, . . . 5i 2. R. Bicarbonate of potassium, . ^xi 
Distilled water . f^viii Distilled water, . . f^viii 

Dissolve and filter. Dissolve and filter. 

Two solutions are thus obtained ready for use ; and when liq. 
potass, citr. is ordered, all that is necessary is to mix equal parts of the 
two, allow it to effervesce, and the preparation, fresh and clear as crys- 
tal, is ready for use. 

The above quantities are double those of the "U. S. Pharmacopceia." 



I have read with interest the articles of Messrs. Kennedy and Kem- 
ble on suppositories, in the "Amer. Journ. Pharm." for the months of 
February and March, respectively, and would crave a small space in 
your valuable Journal to say a word on the same subject ; audi alteram 
partem. Each of the articles referred to strongly objects to the mould- 
ing of suppositories by a machine ; and one rather pointedly intimates 
that the great end in view of the pharmacist who prepares them, is sim- 
ply to turn off a great quantity of elegant preparations, and at a large 
profit to the manufacturer, without any regard to the poor sufferer who 
is to use them. 

^'^May'/In'^""'' } Cincho-^inine. 203 

Now, while this statement may be true, the writer is not inclined to 
hold so low an estimate of his fellow-craftsmen ; may he suggest that 
perhaps one reason for the dislike evinced by those gentlemen to the 
use of a machine, is simply because they have tried none but the old- 
fashioned one (which truly is open to the objections stated). 

For some years past I have used a mould of my own invention, 
which is not liable to the same objections as the one above referred to. 
My suppositories are moulded by the cold process (which I deem pre- 
ferable to that of melting), thus securing a more equal distribution of 
the medicinal ingredients ; and, being shaped by the machine, are 
always equal in weight and of uniform shape. Mr. Mattison, in his 
article (March, 1875), has fully explained the modus operandi^ in refer- 
ence to the manufacture of the suppositories, save that I differ with 
him in preferring to use the cacao butter without melting. 

Should any pharmacist or physician desire more particular informa- 
tion in regard to or description of my mould for vaginal, intra uterine 
and rectum suppositories, I should be happy to furnish it. 


Boston, April 15th, 1875. 

Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Dear Sir, — Our attention having been called to a communication by Messrs. E, 
SchefFer and C. L. Diehl, in the April number of the " American Journal of Phar- 
macy," purporting to be a chemical examination of cincho-quinine, we desire to 
remark briefly as follows : 

The agent was introduced to the profession in 1869, since which no change what- 
ever has been made in its composition. During this period it has been examined by 
four pharmacists : ist, by Mr. W. T. Wenzell, of San Francisco, in 1870 5 2d, by 
A. E. Ebert, of Chicago, in 1874; and lastly, by Messrs. E. Scheffer and C. L. 
Diehl, of Louisville. 

The result of Mr. Wenzell's analysis was the discovery of two substances or prin- 
ciples which the agent did not contain, and he failed to discover quinia, quinidia or 
cinchonidia. Mr. Ebert was able to discover only cinchonia, failing utterly to find 
quinia, quinidia or cinchonidia. Messrs. Schefter and Diehl find quinia, quinidia 
and cinchonia 5 and they remark (page 159) that, " if it contains cinchonidia, it can 
be present only in small quantities, and they did not search for it." 

The widely different conclusions reached in the qualitative examinations made 
by these gentlemen must lead the reader to conclude with us, that, when an agent 
is made up of such complex and delicate organic principles as are found in barks, 
and the tests and reactions involve deceptive color-tints or forms of crystals with 
such varying solubility, and when these tests are so frequently fallacious and unre- 
liable, the pharmacist and the chemist should be careful in expressing positive 
opinion respecting the results of their investigations when they differ from the state- 


( Am. Jour. Pharm, 
1 May, 1875. 

ments of the manufacturer, ^■Vho certainly has the most reliable knowledge upon the 

As manufacturers of the article, we unhesitatingly say, that never has a phial of 
the agent left our laboratory constituted in correspondence with the •quantitative 
results reached by the Louisville gentlemen, and, in saying this, we distinctly dis- 
claim any purpose of charging them with intentional false statements. 

In our circulars we have stated cincho-quinine to be the bark alkaloids quinia, 
cinchonia, quinldia, cinchonidia, and other alkaloidal principles present in Peruvian 
barks, and it contains no substances but those naturally existing in bark. By this, 
we wish to be understood as stating that cincho-quinine is a new method of present- 
ing the bark alkaloids, and is unlike any other product which may be substituted by- 
physicians for sulphate of quinine. 

In conlusion, we are convinced that no more certain proof of the remedial value 
of cincho-quinine could be given than its growing popularity with the medical pro- 
fession, and the attention given to it by the pharmacists of the country ; and while 
their published analyses, both qualitative and quantitative, differ widely from each 
other, and all are incorrect^ it is yet a source of satisfaction to us that the more ex- 
haustive their labors, the more nearly do they approach to our statements regarding 
its nature and value. Billings, Clapp & Co. 


The drift of this communication appears to be to throw doubt upon 
the correctness of the results obtained by Professors SchefFerand Diehl^ 
for no other reason than that the tests and reactions (of such complex and 
delicate organic principles) involve deceptive color-tints or forms of crystals 
ivith such varying solubility. Referring to the analysis, as published in 
the April number,* it will be observed that the color reactions of the cin- 
chona alkaloids have not been used for their quantitative deterinination. 
The objection as to the varying solubility is, therefore, the only one, a 
priori.^ admissible in this case. Scheffer and Diehl treated the recently 
obtained precipitates from 2 grams each of three samples of cincho- 
quinine with i\ fluidounce of stronger ether, spec. grav. '728, con- 
sequently weighing 497 grains = 32 grams. The amount of alkaloids 
taken up by the ether is regarded as representing the alkaloids quinia, 
quinidia and cinchonidia, all of which are soluble in from 20 to 80 
parts by weighc of ether. In no case was the residue larger than 'lOO 
grams, while the above amount of ether is capable to dissolve "400 
grams of the least soluble of the three alkaloids (cinchonidia). It was 
therefore employed in more than sufficient quantity to dissolve all of 
the three alkaloids present in the 2 grams of cincho-quinine. 

The reader will please correct, on page 157, line 16 from top, the words : " had 
it contained of B alone" to had it consisted of B alone ; on page 158, line i, the 
word " cinchonia " should be conchinin. 

^\ty%si'".""- } Cincho-^inine. 20 5 

The solubility of the alkaloid cinchonia in ether is given by modern 
authorities as i in about 400 ; some older authorities give 600, and one, 
Bussy and Guibourt, even 830 parts of ether. Calculating upon the 
latter figure (without admitting its correctness), the 32 grams of ether 
employed in each case would have dissolved '038 grams of cinchonia, 
which should be deducted from the, in ether, soluble alkaloids ; the re- 
maining weight would represent the correct total amount of quinia, 
quinidia and cinchonidia. 0*038 is equal to i"9 per cent, of 2 grams ; 
the correct percentage of the three alkaloids named, would, according 
to this calculation, be, for sample No. i, = 3*00 ; for No. 3, = 2*15, 
and for No. 4, = 3* 10 per cent. In, examining sample No. 2, four 
fluidounces of ether were used, which are capable to dissolve -089 
grams of cinchonia, and, if calculated for the total amount of precip- 
itate and the 5 grams of cincho-quinine, the actual percentage of the 
three alkaloids named above would be reduced to 3'25. These cor- 
rected figures agree with the amount of alkaloids soluble in ether de- 
termined by Mr. Wenzell in 1870, which is 2'5 per cent. Wenzell 
does not give the amount of ether employed by him, and we are, there- 
fore, left to infer from the above that he may have used^ much smaller 
quantity. Although he failed to recognize the three alkaloids, his re- 
sults may be taken to corroborate those of Schefi^er and Diehl. Mr, 
Ebert has not published the process by which he examined cincho- 
quinine ; his results cannot therefore be compared with the quantitative 
analyses referred to above. 

While we readily grant that the solubility of the cinchona alkaloids 
in ether is influenced by various circumstances, the investigations of 
Pasteur, Van Heijningen, De Vrij, O. Hesse, J. E. Howard and 
others, prove that SchefFer and Diehl have used a much larger quantity 
of this solvent than was actually necessary in this case, and, as applied, 
these tests cannot therefere be regarded as fallacious zn^ unreliable^ or the 
quantitative determinations to be incorrect^ except in so far as they have 
credited the samples of cincho-quinine with a larger percentage of the three 
alkaloids than is actually contained therein ; and this is the only light in 
which we can view the assertion of the manufacturers, that they have 
never sent out this article constituted as determined by SchefFer and 
Diehl. If, however, the words "fallacious and unreliable" are intended 
to convey the idea that a larger proportion of the salts of the three 
alkaloids is used in the manufacture of cincho-quinine, we can recon- 
cile this fact very well with the analytical results of the commercial 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May, 1875. 

article, and more particularly with the evident variation of its compo- 
sition. The considerable amount of sulphuric acid, 4*8 per cent., de- 
termined in one sample, makes it evident that the article is made by 
mixing the sulphates of the cinchona alkaloids in a certain proportion, 
decomposing them with ammonia and either expressing or washing the 
precipitate with water to remove the mother liquor. The most valu- 
able cinchona alkaloids being somewhat soluble in water, and much 
more freely in ammonia, it is very evident that, with slight variations in 
the strength of the ammonia or in the temperature of the water, the 
amount of these alkaloids left in the precipitate must vary. And since 
the washing is evidently cautiously performed (cincho-quinine still con- 
tains a little ammonium sulphate), it seems even probable that different 
portions of the same lot may vary in composition, the outer layers where 
the water evaporates necessarily containing a somewhat larger amount 
of quinia and quinidia. 

Regarding the remedial value of cincho-quinine, we do not know 
that that has been questioned ; but the possibility of its being equal to 
quinia in therapeutical eff'ects has been denied, and, from its compo- 
sition, it is evident that its apparent cheapness, as compared with the 
price of quinia only, becomes the reverse as compared with the price 
of cinchonia. The medical commission appointed by the Madras Gov- 
ernment, in 1866, to test the relative value of the cinchona alkaloids, 
treated 2,472 cases of paroxysmal malarious fevers, and reported the 
number of failures for every 1000 cases treated with quinidia to be 6 ; 
with quinia, 7 ; with cinchonidia, 10, and with cinchonia, 23. On the 
other hand, however, they reported the remedial value in doses of the 
same weight to be as follows : 3 doses of quinia to be equal in effect 
to 5 doses of quinidia, to 7 doses of cinchonidia and to 7 doses of cin- 
chonia. We have not been able to find the record of any experiments 
made with the mixed alkaloids, and while it is possible, it may be re- 
garded as improbable, that the combination of cinchonia with the more 
valuable alkaloids should increase its efficacy to a greater extent than 
must be ascribed to the latter. 

From these considerations, we are forced to the conclusion that cin- 
cho-quinine is an arbitrary mixture of the four cinchona alkaloids, and 
that its therapeutical value is fully represented by mixing an equivalent 
weight of sulphate of cinchonia with about 2 per cent, each of the 
sulphates of quinia, quinidia and cinchonidia. If, now, through this 
controversy, the attention of the medical profession shall have been 

^'^£y%s75^'"''} Gleanings from European Journals. 207 

directed more prominently than heretofore to the value of the cheaper 
cinchona alkaloids, we shall acknowledge with pleasure that a real 
benefit has been conferred thereby upon those who need those alkaloids 
either as tonics or antiperiodics. 



Gentisin [gentisic acid) was discovered by Henry and Caventou in 
gentian root. Hlasiwetz and Habermann have examined this compound^ 
which was prepared by H. Tromsdorff according to Baumert's process. 
Its formula was found by Baumert to be C^^H^gOg, and this result is 
corroborated by the authors, who obtained crystallized compounds hav- 
ing the formula C^^H^K 05+1120 and Ci^H9Na054-2H20, by heating 
gentisin with strong alcohol to boiling and dropping in the caustic alkali 
until completely dissolved, when the salts will crystallize on cooling or 
on the addition of ether. 

By fusing gentisin with five times its weight of caustic potassa, 
until the aqueous solution of the mass is not rendered, turbid on the 
addition of an acid, a decomposition has been effected as follows : 

2C^im + O, + 4H,0 = 2C,H A + 2C,H,0, + Cfl,0, 

Gentisin. Phloroglucin. Gentisinic acid. Acetic acid. 

The mass is dissolved in water, rapidly supersaturated with sulphuric 
acid and agitated with ether. From the etherial solution, the ether is 
recovered by distillation, the acetic acid is removed by distillation with 
water, and the residue in the retort neutralized with carbonate of barium ; 
ether now dissolves out the phloroglucin. The remaining solution is 
decomposed by sulphuric acid, and the gentisinic acid dissolved by ether. 
This acid fuses at 197° C, has a faintly acid and astringent taste and is 
soluble in cold and hot water, in alcohol and ether, but insoluble in ben- 
zol. Its aqueous solution acquires, with ferric chloride, a beautiful deep 
blue color, turning to dirty red with a little soda ; the aqueous solution 
rendered alkaline turns on exposure to the air to a fire-red, afterwards 
brown color. It is isomeric, but not identical with protocatechuic, 
dioxybenzoic, oxysalicyllc and hypogallic acids. On dry distillation it 
yields carbonic and pyrogentisinic acids, the latter having the formula 
CgHg02 being isomeric with hydrokinon, pyrocatechin and resorcin ; 
it has a sweetish taste, fuses at 169° C, and reduces silver nitrate, on 

■2o8 Gleanings from European Journals. {^^{^I'S.jt'^"'' 

boiling, with the formation of kinon. — Annal, d. Chemie^ Vol. 175, pp. 

On the Nature and Constitution of Tannic Acid. — Hugo Schiff reviews 
the older analyses of the salts of this acid, and shows that they agree 
with the modern views of its composition, according to which it is an 
etherial anhydrid of gallic acid, expressed by the empirical formula 
Cj^Hj^Og, first proposed by Mulder twenty-six years ago. — Ibid. ^pp. 

Pure Chloroform^ entirely free from alcohol, has, according to Rump 
and Biltz, a specific gravity of 1.052, and boils at 62° C. — Archiv d. 
Pharmacie^ Dec, 1874, Vol. 205, p. 504. 

Adulteration of Saffron. — Jul. Muller reports having met with saff'ron 
adulterated with 25 per cent, of carbonate of calcium, and lately with 9 
per cent, of sulphate of barium. — Ibid..^ p. 517. 

Test fr Codeia. — R. Calmberg observed that powdered codeia, treated 
with concentrated sulphuric acid, acquires a rose-red color, changing in a 
few days to violet, or more rapidly on the addition of a piece of ferric 
chloride ; if solution of ferric chloride is used, an olive-green color is 
obtained, changing to violet after a few hours ; in both cases a bluish 
precipitate is formed after some time, while the supernatant liquid re- 
mains violet. — Ibid..^ Jan., 1875, Vol. 206, p. 25. 

The Resins of Agaric. — E. Masing exhausted agaric by boiling with 
distilled water, afterwards by boiling with 95 per cent, alcohol; on cool- 
ing, the latter separated globular yellowish-white crystalline masses, which 
is partly soluble in chloroform. The portion insoluble in chloroform 
is a white crystalline powder, inodorous and tasteless, and fusing at 1 25° C; 
its formula appears to be C^^H^^Og. The portion soluble in chloroform 
was obtained as a yellowish, faintly bitter and somewhat crystalline 
mass, of the composition CgH^^O^ and fusing at about 90° C. 

The cold alcohol solution left, on evaporation, a brownish-red resin, 
of an intensely and persistently bitter taste, readily soluble in chloro- 
form, acetic acid, benzol and amylic alcohol. The alcoholic solution, 
repeatedly precipitated by water, gave a filtrate, which left, on evapora- 
tion, a brown-red residue, having a bitter taste like the precipitate. 

Agaric contains no glucoside ; umbelliferon is found amongst the 
products of the dry distillation of its. resin, and piric and succinic acids 
were noticed amongst the oxidation products obtained by boiling the 
resin with nitric acid. — Ibid.^ Feb., pp. 111-125. , 

^^'^May%s^5.'"''} Gleanitigs from European Journals. 209 

The yield of extracts was the subject for competition for the Meurer 
prize for apprentices in Germany. The report of W. Dankwortt, 
states that the following average yields (according to the processes of 
the German Pharmacopoeia) may be regarded as finally settled : Extr. 
aurantii cort., 30; extr. belladonnae, 3*5; extr. centaurei, 24; extr. 
chamomillae, 25; extr. chinae fuscae frig, par., 12 ; extr. Colombo, 10-5 ; 
•extr. conii, 3; extr. digitalis, 4; extr. graminis, 26 ; extr. hyoscyami, 3; 
extr. lign. campech., 11*5; extr. liquiritiae, 30; extr. millefolii, 25 ; extr. 
myrrhae, 50 ; extr. pulsatillae 4*5 ; extr. quassiae, 5 ; extr. sabinae, 23 ; 
€xtr. secal. cornut., 16; extr. senegae, 24; extr. stramonii, 3; and extr. 
Valerianae, 24 per cent. For twelve other extracts the reported yields 
varied from twice to over seven times the quantities obtained by others. 
— Ibid.^ pp. 128-132. 

Purified Extract of Licorice. — In a notice on the preparation of this 
article, E. Ungewitter states that, by digesting stick-licorice in 90 per 
cent, alcohol, a resinous constituent of a disagreeable acrid taste is re- 
moved and the resulting extract (obtained with cold water) has an agree- 
able, purely sweet taste. — Ibid.., p. 134. 

Exsiccated Syrups. — In addition to his experiments with dried almond 
syrup {see "Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1874, p. 362), Dr. Enders has found 
that the syrups of marshmallow and red poppy petals may be treated in 
a similar manner, by evaporating the recently-prepared syrups in a 
steam-bath to dryness, powdering the residue and keeping it in well- 
stoppered bottles. Dissolved in four-fifths its weight of water, such a 
powder yields an unobjectionable syrup. — Ibid.., p. 136. 

Identity of Lycina and Betaina. — Prof. Aug. Husemann, in comparing 
the properties of lycina (''Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1864, p. 225) with those 
of betaina [Ibid.., 1869, p. 559), arrives at the conclusion that both alka- 
loids are identical, he having satisfied himself that the former, on being 
heated with hydrate of potassium, yields trimethylamina like the latter. 
Their composition is C5H^^N02, isomeric or polymeric with butalanina 
of Gorup-Besanez, and with lactamethan and lactethylamid of Wurtz. 
O. Liebreich * has already proven the identity of betaina with a base 
obtained by him by acting with monochloracetic acid upon trimethyla- 
mina, and with oxyneurina, resulting from oxidizing neurina C^H^gNO, 
which was obtained from the protagon of brain-substance by boiling with 
baryta water. The author believes, with Scheibler and Liebreich, that 

-X- « Berlchte d. deutsch. chem. Gesellsch.," 1870, p. 161. 


•2IO Gleanings from European Journals. 

betaina and lycina do not pre-exist in the plants, but are formed from 
a body similar to the animal protagon, by the prolonged action of mur- 
iatic acid during evaporation. — Ihid.^ March, pp. 216-218. 

Dangerous Properties of Anilin Colors Containing Arsenic. — A. Huse- 
mann reports the case of several children who had been poisoned by 
eating cakes colored with fuchsina. One death occurring, only very 
minute traces of arsenic could be detected. The fuchsina contained 
2| per cent, arsenic acid, and the amount of coloring matter in the 
cakes was so small that not more then one-tenth or one-fifth milligram 
of poison could have been eaten. The author regards, therefore, arsenic 
in combination with the anilin derivatives as infinitely more dangerous 
than in its free state or in combination with other bases ; and that this 
may be caused by the intimate contact of these colors with animal mem- 
brane. — pp. 219-222. 

Scammony resin^ prepared from the root, contains, according to Aug. 
Hess, some tannin, which may be readily removed by animal charcoal; 
prepared from scammony it is free from tannin ; but there is scarcely 
any difference in the medicinal activity of the two kinds. — Ibid. ^ pp. 223— 

Test for Morphia. — A. Husemann directs attention to the delicacy of 
the test proposed by him some years ago,* by which one-hundredth 
milligram may be detected. The morphia, or its salt, is left in contact 
with concentrated sulphuric acid for 12 or 15 hours, or heated with it 
to 100° C. for half an hour, or to 150° C. for a few moments. On 
the addition of a little nitric acid, or of a nitrate or chlorate, chlorine water,, 
chlorinated soda or of ferric chloride, a beautiful bluish-or reddish-violet 
color is produced, which soon passes into deep blood-red and gradually 
becomes paler. The presence of small quantities of coloring matter 
does not prevent the reaction, if the chlorinated reagents are selected 
in applying the test. — Ibid..^ pp. 231-232. 

Arsenic in Paperhangings. — This subject, which has repeatedly engaged 
the attention of investigators, was again examined by Dr. N. F. Ham- 
berg, of Stockholm, who, from a series of carefully performed experi- 
ments, arrives at the conclusion that, even if the colors are firmly fixed,, 
the arsenic is gradually liberated as arseniuretted hydrogen, the atmos- 
phere of the room being vitiated by these exhalations. — Ibid..^ pp. 233- 


Hydrated Aconitia. — Hager ascribes the greater activity of some aco- 
* " Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie," Vol. 128, p. 305. 

^'"Ma°y,'^i8'75^'^"""} Gkanings from EuTopeau Joumals. in 

nitia to its having been dried at an elevated temperature. If dried at 
the temperature of a water-bath, it contains no water and is then not com- 
pletely soluble in 50 parts of boiling 'water. Dried at a lower temper- 
ature it may contain 20 per cent, of water without being moist 5 and 
this is the article officinal in the German (and U. S.) Pharmacopoeia. 
Phar. Cent. Halle^ 1874, No. 51. 

To Preserve the Bright Metallic Surface of Sodium, — R. Bottger re- 
commends to immerse the sodium in alcohol until its surface has ac- 
quired a bright metallic lustre ; it is then rapidly transferred to another 
dish containing pure petroleum benzin, and from this into a solution of 
chemically pure naphthalin in petroleum benzin, in which it will keep 
unaltered. — Ihid,^ 1875, No. 7. 

To Extinguish the Flame of Burning Petroleum. — C. Ommeganck found 
chloroform to be well adapted, one-twentieth and even one-sixtieth of 
the volume of the burning petroleum being sufficient for the purpose, 
and the effect being almost instantaneous. If petroleum is mixed with 
one-fifth its volume of chloroform, it is not inflammable by ordinary 
means. The author believes that petroleum fires may thus be readily 
extinguished in the beginning, and suggests that ships, &c., loaded with 
this article, should also carry a certain quantity of chloroform for the 
purpose indicated. — Jour, de Phar. d'Jnvers^ March, 1874. 

Bile and Sulphuric Acid as a Test for Glucosides. — H. Brunner's sugges- 
tion [see "Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1875, p. 15.) to use Pettenkofer's bile 
reaction as a test for digitalin, has induced E. Almquist to institute a 
series of experiments, in which he found that lactic, oxalic and tartaric 
acids, inosit and all the alkaloids that were at his disposal, gave negative 
results ; but the reaction was obtained not only with sugar and gluco- 
sides, but also with dextrin, starch, inulin, paper, linen fibres, fragments 
of wood, &c.; also, with a single drop of beer. Brunner's reaction is, 
therefore, unreliable, unless applied to the pure glucoside, and in that 
case unnecessary. — Archiv d. Phar.^ Dec, 1874, p. 515. , 

Artificial vanillin {see "Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1874, p. 331) is now 
prepared on a large scale by Dr. Haarmann from the cambium sap of 
pines. It is not made pure, but sold in the form of an extract, or, rather, 
of an alcoholic tincture, which contains 2 per cent., the average amount 
found in vanilla. The odor of pure undiluted vanillin is not entirely 
identical with that of vanilla ; but in its diluted state, and particularly 
when used as a flavor, its odor is not distinguishable from vanilla. The 

'212 Gleanings from European Journals, {^""•^i^isys^™' 

price of the alcoholic solution will be about two-thirds that of vanilla. 
— Phar. Zeitung^ 1875, No. 17. 

Solubility of Salicylic Jcid in Glycerin, — One part of salicylic acid dis- 
solves completely in fifty parts of cautiously-heated glycerin, the solu- 
tion remaining clear after cooling, and may be diluted without separating 
the acid. A solution made with one part of salicylic acid, 20 to 30 
parts of glycerin and 300 to 500 parts of hot water, has been used for 
some time in the surgical ward of the Bremen hospital. — Ihid.^ No. 18. 

Jlkanin is best prepared by exhausting alkanet root with petroleum 
benzin, which leaves a brown coloring principle behind that is soluble 
in ether. It may be obtained entirely inodorous by placing the evap- 
orating dish finally for a short time in a steam-bath. — Ibid, 

Propylamina and Tri?nethy lamina. — Schering states that the socalled 
propy lamina as obtained from herring-pickle contains only 10 per cent, 
trimethylamina and some ammonia dissolved in water.* Instead of 
distilling herring-pickle, the commercial so-called propylamina is now 
frequently made by mixing the alkalies in the above proportions. On 
the application of a moderate heat, the commercial article must give off" 
inflammable vapors, but not after the previous neutralization with hy- 
drochloric acid. If thus neutralized and evaporated to dryness, absolute 
alcohol will dissolve from the residue only the trimethylamina salt. 
Pure propylamina has an ammoniacal odor and boils at 50° C. The 
odor of trimethylamina is similar, but its boiling point is -j-8° C. — Ibid..^ 
No. 22. 

The boiling-point of glycerin was, in i860, found by MendelejefF to be 
290° C. (corrected) at a pressure of 759*7 m. m. A. Oppenheim and 
M. Salzmann have examined some colorless crystallized glycerin pre- 
pared by Sarg & Co., of Vienna. On distilling 20 grams, nearly the 
whole of it passed over at 282° to 282*5° C. observed = 289*67° and 
290*17° C. corrected. Only a few grams of a thick syrup was left 
behind, which evolved the odor of acrolein on further heating. The 
colorless and inodorous distillate was again distilled, leaving a minute 
quantity of syrup in the retort ; the observed boiling-point was 288° C, 
or, corrected, 290*4° C, the barometric pressure being 756*55 m. m. 
The distilled glycerin did not solidify at a temperature of between — 12° 
and — 20° C. — Berichte d. deutsch. chem. Gesellsch.^ vii, p. 1622. 

Pterocarpin from Red Saunders. — On mixing 500 parts of powdered 

See also "American Journal of Pharmacy," 1873, P- ^S^. 

"^""Ma^'iSs^"^' } Gleanings from European Journals. 2 1 3 

Saunders, 150 parts of slacked lime and some water, drying the mixture 
and exhausting the residue with ether, Cazeneuve obtained, after the 
distillation of the ether, crystals, which are purified by dissolving them 
in boiling 85 per cent, alcohol. Pterocarpin has the composition 
C2oHjgOg, is insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in cold alcohol, more 
in ether and freely in chloroform. Sulphuric acid colors it red, and 
cold nitric acid dissolves it with an emerald-green color ; it appears to 
be a glucoside. — Bull, de la Soc. Chim. de Parls^ Feb., 1875, p. 97. 

Wafer Capsules for Powders. — S. Limousin describes the manner of 
filling the wafer capsules proposed by him ("Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1873, 
p. 190) together with the necessary apparatus. The concavely-pressed 
wafer discs are placed into suitable receptacles arranged upon a board, 
and the powder, divided into the proper doses, is put into the wafer, 
while the interior surface of the margin of another empty disc is moist- 
ened by means of a simple contrivance. The empty wafer, which is in- 
tended as a cover for the first one containing the powder, is placed upon 
it, the margins are slightly pressed together with the fingers and then 
firmly united by means of a small lever press. — Rep. de Pharmacie^ 
1874, pp. 743-746. 

Action of Hydrogen upon Nitrate of Silver. — N. Beketoff concludes, 
from his experiments, that pure hydrogen, passed through a neutral or 
slightly acid solution of silver nitrate, reduces some silver with the 
formation of a corresponding quantity of water ; but he believes that 
the reaction is arrested when the liquid has attained a certain degree of 
acidity. — Ibid..^ 1875, p. 37. 

Valerianate of caffeina has been recommended by Dr. Paret, and was 
found very effectual by Dr. Gubler, in the persistent vomiting of hyste- 
ria. It is given in the form of pills, in doses of o*i gram, (ij- grains) 
to be repeated six or eight times in twenty-four hours. — Ibid..^ pp. 79-81. 

Neutral sulphovinate of quinia is prepared by Prof. P. Jaillard, by in- 
troducing 8'7i grams of ofiicinal sulphate of quinia into a boiling solu- 
tion of 4*27 grams sulphovinate of barium in 100 grams distilled water, 
care being taken that both salts are completely decomposed. The clear 
filtrate is evaporated by means of a water-bath to a syrupy liquid, which, 
on cooling, forms a crystalline mass ; this is dried either by pressure or 
under a bell-glass over burnt lime, and reduced to powder. Thus pre- 
pared it is soluble in twice its weight of water, and this solution is adap- 
ted for hypodermic injection. If the salt is prepared from sulphovinate 
of sodium and sulphate of quinia in the presence of alcohol, it is less 
soluble, requiring four parts of water. — Ibid..^ p. 102. 


Note on Jaborandi. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. May, 1875. 



The accounts of the properties of jaborandi^ which was sent to 
Europe by Dr. Coutinho, of Brazil, and experimented with by Dr. 
Rabuteau, reminded the author of a plant bearing the similar name of 
Taguarundi^ and used among the Paraguayans in domestic practice. 
The botanical notes, taken from a living specimen, indicate that the 
Taguarundi^ of Paraguay, belongs to the natural order of Piperacece. It 
should be known, however, that, in the Guarany tongue, the names 
of plants are generic, indicating a similarity of some remarkable prop- 
erty or character ; that of Taguarundi being applied to various plants of 
an acrid and pungent taste, and among them, to several of the Rutacecs. 
But the true Taguarundi^ medicinally employed by the Indians, is a nearly- 
smooth, suifruticose plant ; leaves petiolate, about 9 inches long, sub- 
coriaceous or rather membranaceous, ovate to oblong-ovate, somewhat 
tapering at the apex, rounded and unequal at the base ; the spikes are 
opposite the leaves, erect, medium sized, hermaphrodite, the short ped- 
uncles finely pubescent ; the filaments are long, thick, withering ; an- 
thers 2, one-celled, converging at the apex ; style very short persistent; 
stigmas 3, rarely two. The author regards this to be Piper jaborandi ^ 

The leaves, tops and root of the plant act as a sialagogue and diapho- 
retic, and are, for this reason, employed against the bites of venomous 
reptiles, the juice being applied to the wound, and the infusion freely 
taken internally. 

By distillation with water of the leaves and spikes containing flowers 
and unripe fruit, and treating the distillate with chloride of calcium, a 
volatile oil was obtained, having an acrid and biting taste, and yielding, 
with hydrochloric acid gas, a crystalline compound. 

The decoction in the retort was evaporated, the extract treated with 
strong alcohol, the tincture evaporated, the residue dissolved in acidulated 
water, agitated with benzin, this solvent evaporated, and the residue 
treated with absolute alcohol. By spontaneous evaporation, prismatic 

Abstract from a translation furnished by Louis A. Matos. 

t The plant described by Velloso has four stamens and four stigmas 5 that de- 
scribed by Parodi has two stamens and three stigmas. % — E, M. Holmes, Lond. 
Pharm. Jour.^ April 3, />. 781. 

J The species of Piper vihich. has found its wslj to Europe, under the name of j'alwrandi {see ^ngo. 
177 of our last number), seems to differ from the above. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
May, 1875. / 

Note on a Spurious Senna, 


crystals are left behind, consisting of an alkaloid, which is readily solu 
ble in amylic alcohol and benzin, but slightly in dilute acids and in 
ether, and is precipitated by phosphotungstate and phosphomolybdate 
of sodium. Its affinity for acids is weak. From an ultimate analysis, 
and the composition of its hydrochlorate, the formula C^qH^2N2^3 
(O ~ 16) was calculated ; the author has named it iahorandina. — Revista 
Farmaceut'ica^ Buenos Aires^ ^^ISi "J^^' 



Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

During the past month, a drug has been offered for sale in London, 
under the name of " fine senna," which evidently differs considerably 
in botanical characters from the true article, although in size and color 
somewhat resembling the Tinnevelly variety. Of this " fine senna " 
I was informed, when I received a sample, that two bales only were 
in London, although no less than the enormous quantity of 200 tons 
was consigned to the agent here, and would probably arrive before long 
in this country. Hence it appeared probable that this senna might 
enter into commerce, and that its history and medicinal properties would 
therefore be worthy of investigation. With this view I examined the 
few leaves and pod that were first received, and found that they were 
evidently the produce of a leguminous plant, possibly belonging to the 
genus Cassia ; but if so, certainly to a different section to that to 
which the officinal senna belongs. The genus Cassia being an 
extremely large one, I at once forwarded my specimen to Pro- 
fessor Oliver, who identified it as probably belonging to Cassia bre- 
vipes^ D. C, a native of Costa Rica and Panama. A further sup- 
ply of the leaves fortunately contained some flowers and young 
twigs, which were sufficient to enable me to confirm beyond a doubt 
Professor Oliver's opinion. The sub-genus Chamoecrista to which this 
plant belongs, contains herbs and shrubby plants with pinnate leaves 
and conspicuous stipules, the flowers being either solitary in the axils 
of the leaves, or sometimes subfasciculate on a very short, common 
peduncle. There are seventy-eight species in this sub-genus ; but the 
small group of about nine, to which Cassia brevipes belongs, consists 
of plants which are so closely allied as to form an almost continuous 

Read at an Evening Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 
on Wednesday, February 3, 1875. 

21 6 Note on a Spurious Senna, {"^""iiaT 18^7^5^'"'* 

series, the leaves being very similar throughout the group. Our plant 
is, however, distinguished from its congeners by its short, very hairy 
pod, with the hairs golden yellow and not appressed. 

I, Shows an entire leaf with a flower bud in the axil of the leaf; 2, the venation of a leaflet ; 3, a sti- 
pule and 4, the pod, natural size. 

The following is a discription of the drug I have received : The 
twigs above-mentioned have hairy stems, and the leaves are alternate^ 
compound, with a very short petiole, bijugate, and the rachis ends in 
an extremely fine, short, hair-like point. The leaflets, which are so 
closely placed as to overlap each other, are entire, unequal at the base,, 
about \\ inch long, somewhat elliptic in outline, the lower margin being 
less curved than the upper ; they are mucronate at the apex. The 
most marked feature, however, consists in the venation. Three prin- 
cipal veins start from the base of the leaf, and diverging but slightly^ 
proceed nearly to the apex of the leaf. Each of these three veins is 
branched in a pinnate manner at a very acute angle (about 7°), so that 
at a casual glance the leaf appears furcate-veined. The two lower leaf- 
lets on each leaf are smaller than the two upper ones. The pods are 
brownish, about twice as long as broad, and covered with yellowish 
erect hairs. The stipules are lanceolate, with a cordate base, and have 
numerous minute veins. The flowers are large and yellow, with rigid 
scarious sepals, and are solitary in the axils of the leaves. 

Thinking it probable, since it belonged to the same genus, it might 
perhaps have the same purgative properties as senna, I made two infu- 
sions, one of Cassia brevipes^ and the other of Tinnevelly senna, each 
in the proportions directed in the British " Pharmacopoeia " for infu- 
sion of senna. In appearance the two effusions were exceedingly dif- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
May, 1875. J 

Cinchona or Chine hona. 


ferent, that of senna being of a rich brown, and the other scarcely 
darker than almond oil. Both were neutral to test paper, and with 
acetate of lead, tincture of galls, and solution of perchloride of iron 
gave similar precipitates, those from the Cassia brevipes being rather 
paler and more scanty than those from the Tinnevelly senna. The 
taste and odor of both were similar. 

Having tried a quantity of infusion equal to \ of an ounce of the 
leaflets, I found it to be without any effect whatever, while a 'similar 
quantity of infusion of Tinnevelly senna acted as a decided purgative. 

This experiment, however, only proved that Cassia brevipes^ D. C, 
is not purgative in \ of an ounce doses. I therefore tried the effect of 
a quantity of its infusion equal to ^ an ounce of the leaves, but with 
the same result as before. Hence I conclude that this new variety of 
senna is useless as a purgative, and can by no means replace or enter 
into competition with the official senna, even if it should be offered at 
a much lower price ; and that should it, hereafter, occur mixed with 
ordinary senna, it must be looked upon as an adulteration. — Pharm, 
Jour, and Trans, ^ Feb. 6, 1875. 


In his recently published " Memoir of the Lady Ana de Osorio, 
Countess of Chinchon," Mr. Clements R. Markham has revived the 
discussion of a question which, so far as preponderance of practice can 
determine anything, might now be supposed to have been satisfactorily 
settled. It is whether the orthography " Chinchona " or " Cinchona 
should obtain for this now famous genus. Reservmg for a future op- 
portunity a criticism of Mr. Markham's book, we briefly indicate here 
his views upon this subject. 

There can be no doubt that Linnaeus, in naming the genus, sought 
to connect with it the name of this lady, who is reputed to have first 
made the healing virtues of the bark known to Europe. Whether he 
was well acquainted with the lady's name is not so clear. Mr. Mark- 
ham thinks he was not, but that he received his knowledge of the 
Countess of Chinchon through a French source, and was thus misled 
into calling the genus Cinchona in the " Genera Plantarum " of 1742. 
He further thinks that Linnaeus showed his uncertainty by the orthog- 

* From the "Pharmaceutical Journal," February 13th, 1 875, communicated by 
Daniel Hanbury. 


Cinchona or Chinchona. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1875. 

raphy Cinhona which occurred in the edition of 1764, but that he died 
before the error was pointed out and corrected. Mr. Markham sums 
up his arguments by stating that all authorities agree that " Chinchona " 
is correct, and that consequently " Cinchona," " Cinhona," and other 
forms are wrong ; that the object sought of commemorating the ser- 
vices of the countess is defeated by the mutilation of her name ; that 
in much of the most important literature of the subject, the word is 
spelt " Chinchona," and lastly, that the correct spelling should be 
universally adopted because it is right." He also quotes the following 
botanical authorities, who have explored the native forests of the genus, 
as spelling the word correctly : Pavon, Ruiz, Tafalla, Mutis, Zea, 
Caldas, Seemann and Spruce. Finally, with a chivalric admiration of 
the " illustrious and beautiful lady. Ana de Osorio," which is manifest 
throughout the book, Mr. Markham pleads that the correct spelling 
may be retained as the only way by which the " memory of her who 
made known to the world the inestimable value of quina bark " may be 

On the other hand, it has been contended that Linnaeus purposely 
omitted the h for the sake of euphony, and that the law of priority 
must obtain ; that botanical names are means, not ends, and their use 
as means once established, it is all but impossible to alter them. Fur- 
ther, that " Cinchona " has been so universally adopted that great in- 
convenience and confusion would result frotn any attempt to substitute 
Chinchona " for it. 

Apropos to this discussion, Mr. Hanbury has taken the opportunity of 
investigating the introduction by Linnaeus of the genus Cinchona^ and 
has pointed out that the misspelling of the name of the Countess occurs 
in several authors much earlier than Linnaeus. He also proves that 
Mr. Markham is far from correct in asserting that the Spanish botanists, 
one and all, support the mode of spelling he (Mr. M.) advocates ; but 
that, on the contrary, Mutis, as well as Ruiz and Pavon, follow the 
orthography of Linnaeus. Mr. Hanbury's strictures are contained in 
the " Athenaeum " of Jan. 30th, and are as follows : 

In connection with Mr. Markham's proposal in his ' Memoir of 
Lady Ana de Osorio,' reviewed in the ' Athenaeum ' of the 23d of 
January, that botanists should abandon Linnaeus' word Cinchona ( Sin- 
kona) in favor of Chinchona (Tshin-tshona), and, as I presume, that 
doctors, pharmacists and chemists should do the same, and that the re- 
form should extend to the words Cinchonine^ Cinchonidine and Cinchoni- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. "j 
May, 1875. J 

Cinchona or Chinchona. 


cine^ as well as to any other derivations from the word Cinchona^ may 
I be allowed a few remarks on the origin of the Linnaean name, and 
on some of the arguments used by Mr. Markham to support his case 

" It may be at once conceded that Chinchona is a word which better 
commemorates the Countess of Chinchon than does Cinchona. 

" But let us trace the introduction of the genus Cinchona by Lin- 
naeus, and for this purpose let us have recourse to the actual volumes 
which formed part of the library of the great botanist, and are, many 
of them, enriched with his MS. notes. They are now in the posses- 
sion of the Linnean Society of London. 

" In an interleaved copy of the ' Systema Naturae,' published in 
1740, there occurs in the section ' Pentandria Monogynia ' a memo- 
randum in Linnaeus's hand, after the genus Genipa — '-Quinquina Cond' 
This is the first allusion to the tree discovered by La Condamine, and 
on which Linnaeus founded the genus. 

"In 1742 appeared the second edition (aucta et emendata) oi the 
'Genera Plantarum,' and on one of the two pages of Addenda (p. 527) 
is the following sentence : ' In Pentandria monogynia post Genipam, 
Num. 168-1021, Cinchona. Quinquina Condamin Act. Gall. 1738.' 
In the ' Ordo Generum,' the name is again printed Cinchona, and so 
likewise in the index. 

" In the fourth edition of the ' Systema Naturae,' published at Paris 
in 1744, we read at page 30: 'Cinchona, ^inquina. Cond. Le Quin- 
quina,' and the same spelling is adopted in the editions of 1748 and 
1756. Again, in the fifth edition of the 'Genera Plantarum,' — ^ ah auc- 
tore reformata et aucta which appeared at Stockholm in 1754, the spell- 
mg of the controverted word is again (p. 79) Cinchona, and so it is in 
in the ' Species Plantarum,' of which the first edition was printed in 
the previous year (1753). 

" From these quotations it may be fairly assumed that Linnaeus fully 
meant to use the word Cinchona, and that its occurrence as ^Cinhona ' 
in one solitary instance in the sixth edition of his 'Genera,' 1764, was 
a mere typographical error, and not, as Mr. Markham seems to think, 
a proof that he desired to spell the word correctly. 

" ' It was still more unfortunate,' says Mr. Markham, ' that Linnaeus 
died before the error was pointed out and corrected. This was done by 
the Spanish botanists, Ruiz and Pavon, who landed in Peru in 1778, 
the very year of Linnaeus's death. They explored the forests of Hu- 
anuco and Loxa, discovered many new species of Chinchona;^ and are 


Cinchona or Chinchona, 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t May, 1875. 

among the highest authorities on the subject. They strongly advocated 
the correct spelling. . . . The botanist Mutis, with his disciples 
Zea and Caldas, were engaged in the study of the ChinchorKs of New 
Granada, the former residing in South America, chiefly at Bogota, 
from 1783, until his death, in 1808. They also spelt the word cor- 
rectly. . . .' 

" That Linnaeus could not have been ignorant of the correct spell 
ing at a much earlier date than that mentioned seems probable from the 
following circumstance: In 1758, J. Ch. P. Peterson read at Upsala 
an academic dissertation, ' De Cortice Peruviano,' Linnaeus presiding. 
In this production, which was afterwards printed, the name of the 
Spanish Viceroy appears (more than once) as ' Comes del Chinchon,' 
while the bark is spoken of ' Chinchona,' and never as Cinchona 
('quamvis nonnulli Chinchonam in scorbuto esse magni ponderis remed- 
ium . . . .' p. 10). 

"As to Mutis, Mr. Markham overlooks the fact that that botanist 
was residing at Bogota, not merely in 1783, but in 1763, under which 
latter date he wrote thence to Linnaeus ; and that a correspondence 
was kept up between them for eighteen years. Some of Mutis' letters 
are fortunately extant, and form part of the Linnaean collections at 
Burlington House. As they throw some light on the subject, I have 
made from them a few extracts. Translations of the letters may be 
found in Sir J. E. Smith's ' Selection of the Correspondence of Lin- 
naeus,' London, 1821. 

" 24th Sept., 1864. (Mutis to Linnaeus.) ' Verum ne plane inep- 
tissimae hae literae tibi viderentur, iconem et flores quosdam Chinchonae 
adjungere duxi. An descriptioni suae figuram ullam addiderit Celeber- 
rimus de la Condamine, vel an plantam siccam examinasse tibi licuerit, 
necne, cum nullam notam in descriptione Chinchonae editionis Holmiae 
54 videam, non plane mihi constat.' [The drawing and specimens 
here alluded to, still exist in the Linnean herbarium.] 

"3d Oct., 1767. — (The same to the same.) * . . . . sane praeter 
ultimas lineas, in quibus nunciabatur, te Cinchonam accepisse ; quasque 
in Civitate Bogotensi, antequam illinc longissimae peregrination! paratus 
decederem, summa jucunditate legisse contigit ' 

" 15th May, 1770. — In this letter the name of the plant occurs four 
times, and is always written after the fashion of Linnaeus with one h. 
Appended to the letter, Mutis sends a botanical description of a plant 
which he calls Cinchona Gironensis. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
May, 1875. ; 

Cinchona or Chine hona. 


" 6th June, 1773. — Mutis here acknowledges the receipt from Lin- 
naeus of certain works of the latter, and expresses his pleasure at the 
honorabl e mention of himself by Linnaeus under the head of Cin- 
chona ; and he also refers to a small present which he transmits by 
Don Ruiz-Pavon, who is going to Upsala. 

" 8th Feb., 1777. — This letter contains notes on some plants sent 
by Mutis to Linnaeus, one of them being entered as Cinchona Bogotensis. 

" 1 2th Sept., 1778. — A long letter of condolence from Mutis to the 
younger Linnaeus. It contains the following passage : Maxime disto 
a solo natali Cinchonae officinalis a me detectae, cujus viciniis crescit 
etiam Mutisia.' 

" In none of these letters is there a hint of disapprobation of the 
name Cinchona, which it will be noticed that Mutis adopts, immediately 
he finds it used by Linnaeus. 

" Mr. Markham asserts that the error was pointed out by Ruiz and 
Pavon. But surely he cannot be conversant with the ' Quinologia ' of 
Ruiz, published at Madrid in 1792, or with the ' Suplemento,' which 
appeared, under the joint authorship of Ruiz and Pavon, nine years later, 
in neither of which works is the name of Linnaeus's genus written 
otherwise than Cinchona. Mr. Markham must be also unaware that in 
the ' Flora Peruviana et Chilensis ' of Ruiz and Pavon, the name in 
dispute is uniformly written Cinchona, and never Chinchona. Pavon, 
indeed, in his later years is stated by Howard to have pleaded for the 
word Chinchona. This was done in his ' Nueva Quinologia,' a work 
written between 1821 and 1826, but which never saw the light until 
1862, when it was edited in an abridged form by Mr. Howard. 

" But the error in the name of the Spanish viceroy originated long 
before the time of Linnaeus. Sebastiano Bado, the author of ' Anas- 
tasis Corticis Peruviae ' (Genoa, 1663), and one of the principal author- 
ities for the early history of Peruvian bark, writes ^C'lnchon^ for Chin- 
chon. Morton, in his ' Pyretologia,' 1692, mentions the Count's name 
in the same inaccurate manner. So does La Condamine in 1738, and 
GeofFroy in 1741. By some of these writers Linnaeus was misled, and 
was afterwards, perhaps, fortified in his error by the rules he had laid 
down about the immutability of generic names. 

" That one of these rules was supposed to apply to the case in ques- 
tion, is evident from the remark of Ruiz : ' Linneo parece que debio 
haber expresado el titulo de los Condes de Chinchon en su genero, dan- 
dole el nombre de Chinchona y no el de Cinchona^ con el que tambien le 

222 Apparatus for Estimating Urea. {^™iviay'i87^^'"'' 

nombro yo, atendiendo al Canon 243, de su Filosofia Botanica en que 
dice, Nomen genericum dignum alio^ licet aptiore^ permutare non licet. '''^^ 

" Though the Canons of Linnaeus may no longer command the im- 
plicit obedience that they were once thought to deserve, it cannot be 
denied that there is a general reluctance among botanists to alter the 
Linnean names, and this is particularly the case in the present instance, 
where the alteration advocated would require to be followed in innum- 
erable writings on pharmacy and chemistry. ' In our science,' wrote 
Dr. J. E. Smith, in 1807 (' Introduction to Botany'), 'the names estab- 
lished throughout the works of Linnaeus are become current coin, nor 
can they be altered without great inconvenience. Perhaps, if he had 
foreseen the future authority and popularity of his writings, he might 
himself have improved upon many which he adopted out of deference 
to his predecessors, and it is in some cases to be regretted that he has 
not sufficiently done so." 



Proelector of Chemistry in Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. 

A rapid and accurate process for estimating urea is of so much im- 
portance in a medical point of view, that the recent memoir of Russell 
and West on the subject (see ''Journal of the Chemical Society," Au- 
gust, 1874) has necessarily attracted much attention. The principle of 
the method they have employed is the same with that suggested many 
years ago by Davy, viz., that urea, when brought into contact with 
hypochlorite of calcium, is resolved into nitrogen, carbonic anhydride, 
and water in virtue of the following reaction : 

2(CON,H,) + 3(CaCl,0,)=3(CaCy+ 2(CO,) + N, 

For the hypochlorite of calcium Russell and West have substituted 
a mixed solution of hypobromite of sodium and caustic soda, which,, 
by a like reaction, yields similar products, the carbonic anhydride, how- 
ever, being absorbed by the caustic alkali. Working with the latter 
solution, I have recently made many experiments which have conducted 
to the conclusion, that at a given temperature and pressure a given 
quantity of urea always yields the same volume of nitrogen. Operating 

" It seems that Linnaeus ought to have indicated the title of the Counts of Chin- 
chon, by giving to his genus the name Chinchona, and not Cinchona, which latter, 
however, I adopt, in accordance with Canon 243 of the * Philosophia Botanica/ 
which says: Nomen genericum^ etc." 

^'"MaT'iyt'"''} Apparatus for Estimating Urea. 223 

with 0*15 grms. of urea, the barometer being at 30, and the ther- 
mometer at 6o°F. the volume of the nitrogen disengaged and collected 
over water was found to be 55 c.c, a result almost identical with that 
obtained by Russell and West. 

The apparatus which I have devised for the estimation of the urea 
is materially different from that employed by Russell and West. It is, 
I think, more simple, more easily worked, and will give results of at 
least equal accuracy. It also possesses the advantage that the mate- 
rials for its construction are to be found in every laboratory. They 
are : 

1. A glass measuring tube of about a foot in length, drawn out at 
the end, which will be uppermost when the tube is used, like a Mohr's 
burette, and subdivided into 30 parts of equal capacity, the aggregate 
volume of which is 55 c.c. 

2. A small wide-mouthed gas bottle of about 60 c.c. capacity. 

3. A short test-tube of about to c.c. capacity, and of such height 
that when introduced into the gas bottle it will stand within it in a 
slightly inclined position. 

The following are the arrangements for combining the apparatus and 
working an experiment : 

The graduated tube, held in a clamp attached to a retort stand, is 
depressed into a glass cylinder, nearly filled with water, until the zero 
mark, which is near the upper end, exactly coincides with the surface 
of the water. 15 c.c. of the hypobromite solution (100 grms. of 

NaHO, 250 c.c. of water, 25 c.c. of bromine) having been poured 
into the flask, the test-tube containing the urine is introduced by means 
of a forceps, care being taken that none of its contents shall spill into 
the hypobromite. The flask is now closed with a very accurately fit- 

224 Apparatus for Estimating Urea. {^VaT'is^ys"""' 

ting india-rubber stopper, perforated with a hole in which is inserted a 
short piece of glass tubing, open at both ends, and is then connected 
with the measuring tube by means of a piece of elastic tubing. It is 
now inclined so as to allow the urine to mix with the hypobromite. 
Effervescence at once commences, and as it proceeds the measuring 
tube is gradually raised so as to relieve the disengaged nitrogen from 
the hydrostatic pressure. The flask is shaken a few times, and when 
the reaction is completely over, the apparatus is left for a few minutes 
until it has acquired the temperature of the room in which the experi- 
ment is performed. Another exact levelling of the measuring tube is 
made, and the number of the division corresponding to the volume of 
the developed nitrogen is read off. Since 55 c.c. correspond to 0*15 
grm. of urea, a single division corresponds to — 

= 0*005 gi*"^' urea. 
Consequently, if n is the number of measures of nitrogen obtained in 
an experiment, 0*005 X ^ will represent the amount of urea present. 
But as the quantity of urine generally experimented on is 5 c.c, if x 

be the percentage of urea in the urine, — will be the urea in 5 c.c. 



Hence we have = 0*005 X n. and x = 0'i x n. 


It therefore follows that if we operate on 5 c.c. of urine each meas- 
ure of nitrogen evolved will correspond to 0*1 per cent, of urea. 

The accompanying rough sketch represents the apparatus just before 
the flask is inclined so as to bring the urine and the hypobromite solu- 
tion into contact. 

The following results, obtained from known quantities of pure urea, 
will give an idea of the accuracy which is attainable by this process : 

c.c. of a 2 p.c. 

Measures of 

Weight of urea 

Weight of urea 

urea solution. 

nitrogen evolved. 














0*1 19 

























In working with a specimen of urine, three experiments gave on 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
May, 1875. ; 



each occasion 3 per cent, of urea. In the case of another specimen, 
in two experiments the percentages of urea were 3*0 and 3*1. 

By using a longer and narrower measuring tube, which would admit 
of finer subdivision, and by making the necessary corrections in the 
volume of the gas for temperature, pressure, and the tension of aque- 
ous vapor, strictly accurate results could, I have no doubt, be obtained. 
It should, however, be recollected that the instrument is not intended 
to yield results of theoretic accuracy, and that in its present form the 
urea is estimated with sufficient precision for medical purposes. — Chem. 
News^ Jan. 22, 1875. 



Geological Museum, Princton, N. J., April i9_th, 1875. 

Editor American jfournal of Pharjnacy : 

My friend, Prof R. P Whitfield, Palasontologist, of Albany, N. Y., was good 
enough to give me the following recipe for mucilage to mend fossils and minerals, 
and, after several months of experience with it in the Museum, I find it so valuable 
that, with his permission, I send it for the benefit of the readers of your journal : 
Take of Starch, . . . . . . . ^ii 

White Sugar, . . . . . -5^ 

Gum Arabic, ...... ^ii 

Water enough. 

Dissolve the gum, add sugar, and boil until the starch is cooked. 

Prof. Whitfield is in the habit of drying it into sheets, on paper, and redissolving 
when wanted. He does not claim to have originated the recipe ; but thinks it is 
one of the compositions offered to the U. S. Government for gumming stamps. 

It is certainly a very adhesive mucilage, and, owing to the sugar, never becomes 
brittle ; so that it never scales off, as most glues do, from stones or other hard sub- 
stances. In a geological cabinet, it is simply invaluable. 

Very truly. Franklin C. Hill, P/^r.G, 

Toothache. — Dr. G. C. Smith praises the following most highly: Take of car- 
bolic acid, saturated solution ; chloral hydrate, saturated solution j paregoric, fluid 
extract of aconite — of each one ounce ; oil of peppermint, half an ounce j saturate 
the pledget of cotton, or a piece of sponge, and tightly pack into the cavity. — 
Charleston Med. Jour.^ April ^ from Lond. Med. Record. 

The Physiological Action of Thebaina. — Dr. J. Ott, of Easton, Pa., from 
his physiological experiments made with thebaina prepared by Merck, arrives at the 
following conclusions : 

1. Thebaina is a tetanoid agent, and pigeons have no special immunity against it. 

2. The tetanus is not cerebral, but spinal in origin. 

3. The motor and sensory nerves, and the striated muscles are not aft'ected by it. 


226 Minutes of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, { 

4. It increases the pulse and blood pressure, by an action on the vasomotor centre 
and the heart itself. 

5. The reflex action of the depressor nerve is in no way interfered with. — Boston 
Med. and Surg. Jour., 1875, ^/^zV d>th. 

Imitation of Walnut Wood. — Dingler's "Polytechnic Journal," vol. 214, 
p. 426, gives the following directions for staining wood, and more particularly the 
European red beech and alder, in close imitation of American walnut : Well-dried 
and warm wood is impregnated once or twice with a solution of i part of extract of 
green walnut rinds in 6 parts of soft water, and before it is quite dry, a solution of 
I part of bichromate of potassium in 5 parts of boiling water is applied. The 
wood is allowed to dry thoroughly, when it may be polished in the usual way. 

Glycerin for Gas Meters. — The superiority of glycerin over water for this 
purpose, according to Dr. Heeren, is founded in the fact that, in case water is used, 
one cubic metre of gas will carry with it about 23 litres of aqueous vapors, which 
the consumer will have to pay for the same as gas. 


The annual meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held on the 
afternoon of March 29th, at the College Hall, Charles Bullock, First Vice-President, in 
the chair. Twenty-two members entered their names in the register. 

The minutes of the meeting held in December, 1874, were read and approved. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees for the last three months were read by 
William C. Bakes, Secretary of the Board, and, on motion, adopted. 

The following report of Thomas S. Wiegand, Librarian, was read and accepted r 

The Librarian respectfully reports that all the volumes in the Library are arranged according to the 
following classification, preparatory to making out a new catalogue : 

7th. Miscellaneous. 

8th. Manuscripts, Theses and Reports of Com- 
mittees on Scientific Matters. 

9th. Serial Publications on Physics, Pharmacy, 
Chemistry, Mechanics. 

ist. Encyclopasdias and Dictionaries. 
2d. Public Documents and Reports. 
3d. Chemistry. 

4th. Materia Medica and Pharmacy. 
5th. Botany and Physics. 
6th. Medical Treatises. 

All the theses have been bound, up to the year 1874, inclusive, there now being fifty-four volumes of 
that kind in the Library. 

Fifty-five new volumes have been added to the Library since last report, most of them being exchanges 
with the "Journal " ; some few, of very great value, as illustrating the natural history of the Cinchona 
tribe, being new volumes. 

The report of Professor J. P. Remington, Curator, was read by him, and accepted. 

In reporting upon the present condition of our Cabinet, the Curator is forced to admit that, whilst there 
have been many acceptable donations of specimens during last year, and the work of refitting and refur- 
nishing has been going forward to some extent, it is yet a cause of great regret that on this, the day of our 
annual meetinti in 1875, but about /ourieen monthsh&ioTC the opening of the American Centennial Exhibition, 
in 1876, when we shall be crowded with pharmaceutical visitors from abroad as well as from distant parts 
of our own country — finds us in a very backward state in regard to the necessary preparations for represent- 
ing the progress which this institution has made during the century in the cause of pharmacy. It would 
seem eminently fitting that we should have here, in this hall, a collection of specimens and products which 
would be more commensurate with the needs of our College ; thai this is the place to display the contribu- 

'''^-ATy:7^s^"-} Minutes of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 227 

tions from the vegetable, mineral and animal kingdoms that have been appropriated as remedial agents in 
pharmacy, admits of no doubt ; that this is the time to labor in this direction, and that this opportunity to 
obtain specimens and valuable contributions may pass away and not occur soon again is apparent to many 
of us. In view of these facts the Curator would respectfully appeal to the members of the College for aid 
in this particular. There is yet time, during the coming spring and summer, to fill the bottles which have 
been furnished by the Committee and placed in the new cases, and it is hoped that the appeal will not be 
in vain. Respectfully submitted, 


Profes.sor Maisch expressed his hearty approval of the recommendation of the 
Curator, that early action be taken by the members in assisting to fill \ip the Cabinet 
with specimens, that a display may soon be made which will be creditable to the 
College. He called upon all the members to come forward, and contribute each 
something, either in labor or in specimens, towards fitting up the cases which are now 
in readiness to be filled. He offered the services of one member who was in attend- 
ance, and it is to be hoped that others will quickly follow this example. 

Mr. Bullock and others expressed similar views, and the propriety of publishing 
a call for a meeting to be held specially for the consideration of this subject was 

The following report on behalf of the Publication Committee was read by Henry 
N. Rittenhouse, and accepted : 

To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy : 

The Publication Committee respectfully reports that the duties imposed upon it by Chapter VII, Arti- 
cles III and IV, have been duly attended to during the past year. The new postal law, which went into 
operation at the beginning of the present year, requires the prepayment of postage on all periodicals at 
the office of publication. Although considerable expense is thereby imposed upon the "Journal," the 
Committee deemed it advisable not to raise the subscription price in consequence thereof, hoping that the 
subscribers would promptly pay their subscriptions in advance. In this the Committee have not been 
mistaken, the great majority of the subscribers having remitted in due time, and the remaining ones who 
are still in arrears will most probably comply with the Committee's request as soon as their attention will 
be specially called to this matter. 

It has been deemed advisable to have suitable binders prepared, large enough to retain twelve numbers 
of the "Journal." These covers being suitable for permanent binding, as well as for preserving unsoiled a 
volume until it is complete and ready for the bookbinder, have met with considerable favor. They are 
sold, full cloth, at 75 cents, and cloth back and corners at 50 cents each. 

The General Index to the first forty-two volumes of the " Journal," which was published two years ago, 
meets with a slow sale, and at least four hundred more copies must be sold before the Committee will be 
reimbursed for the expense of preparing and publishing the same; the price of the work having heen 
fixed low, so that even those might be induced to procure a copy who are in possession of a portion of 
those volumes. 

The Committee is pleased to report the unabating interest in the "Journal" taken by its friends, and 
take this opportunity of urging upon them, and more particularly upon the members and the graduates of 
this College, to furnish original contributions on suitable subjects, and of drawing attention to a suggestion 
in the Editor's report, referring to this matter. 

HENRY N. RITTENHOUSE, Chairman Publishing Cotttmittee. 

The Editor's report to the Publication Committee was read, giving a detailed 
account of his labors. It specifies the number of original communications received, 
selections made from theses, and essays contributed by members and others, many 
of which emanated from the pharmaceutical meetings of the College, which are now 
being well attended, and are increasing in interest. The following is an extract from 
the report : 

To the Publishing Committee : 

The Editor rtspectfully reports that, during the past year, the "Journal" has been regularly issued 
early in each month, and the arrangements with the printer are such that it is hoped all irregularities in 
issuing the "Journal" will hereafter be avoided. The adoption of a new style of type with the begin- 
ning of the present volume has been approvingly noticed by several correspondents and subscribers to the 

228 Minutes of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {'''^■^^^'/J^^''^- 

"Journal," the appearance of which having been materially improved by the clearness of the type and 
the mechanical execution of the printing. The pharmaceutical meetings of the College have added con- 
siderably to the interest of the pages of the "Journal," a number of original communications having been 
presented, and the discussions, which are now reported more fully than they were several years ago, hav- 
ing been often of great interest to the readers of the "Journal " and the profession at large. Although 
pharmacists and other persons interested in science are invited by the by-laws to participate, this does not 
appear to be generally known, and the Editor would therefore suggest that non-members of the College 
be invited to present essays and other communications to these meetings through the Publication Com- 
mittee, which ought to receive them by about the tenth day of the month in which the meetings will be 
held. For those intending to be present it would doubtless be of interest to be advised beforehand of some 
of the subjects to be brought forward, and the Editor would suggest that the title of the papers to be read, 
and the subjects to be introduced, be communicated — if possible — to the Registrar a week or ten days in 
advance of the meeting, so as to give this officer ample time to notify the members, who might then come 
to the meetings more fully prepared for discussion. 

The foreign exchanges, which have been somewhat extended during the past year, have promptly 
•come to hand, and it has been endeavored to select therefrom, as early as possible, the most important 
papers, either in full or as abstracts. 

The annual report of the Treasurer of the Publication Committee was read, giv- 
ing a detailed statement of its operations. It was accepted and approved. 

The financial exhibit reflects great credit on the Committee for the judicious man- 
agement of all the matters submitted to their care. 

The report of the Business Editor, H. H. Wolle, was also read for information, 
and from the thorough manner in which he has attended to his duties the Committee 
have been materially assisted in their labors. 

The report on the Sinking Fund was read by Thomas S. Wiegand, Chairman, 
on behalf of the Committee, showing a balance in his hands amounting to S843.68. 

William C. Bakes moved that a Committee of five be appointed by the Chair- 
man to take into consideration the proper course to be pursued by the College dur- 
ing the Centennial year, 1876. He suggested that the Members of the Committee 
give the matter their earnest consideration, and report their recommendations to the 
College at the meeting in June next. The motion was adopted, and the Chair ap- 
pointed Messrs. Wm. C. Bakes, Robert Shoemaker, James T. Shinn, Alexander H. 
Jones, and Prof. John M. Maisch the Committee. A further motion, that the Chair- 
man, Charles Bullock, be added to the Committee, was unanimously adopted. 

This being the annual meeting, an election for officers, eight Trustees, and mem- 
bers of the standing committees was ordered. 

The Chair appointed Messrs. William Mclntyre and Edw. M. Boring, Tellers, 
who reported the following gentlemen unanimously elected, viz. : 

President. — Dillwyn Parrish. 
First Vice-President. — Charles Bullock. 
Second Vice-President. — Robert Shoemaker. 
Treasurer. — Samuel S; Bunting. 
Recordi?ig Secretary . — William J. Jenks. 
Corresponding Secretary. — Alfred B. Taylor. 

Board 0/ Trustees .—\^oh&ri Bridges, M. D., John M. Maisch, Daniel S. Jones, Thomas S. Wiegand, 
James T. Shinn, T. Morris Perot, William B. Webb, Joseph P. Remington. 

Publication Co7nmittee.—}o\vx\. M. Maisch, Henry N. Rittenhouse, Thomas S. Wiegand, James T 
Shinn. Charles Bullock. 

Sinking Fu7id Committee. — Thomas S. Wiegand' T. Morris Perot, James T. Shinn. 

Editor.— ]ohi\ M. Maisch 

Librarian —Thomas S. Wiegand. 

Curator. — Joseph P. Remington. 

There being no further business, then, on motion, adj'ourned. 

Wm. J. Jenks, Secretary. 

} Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 229 


The seventh meeting of the session was held April 20th, 1875, President Dillwyn 
Parrish in the chair. The minutes of the sixth meeting were read and approved. 

The following donations to the Library and Cabinet were made: A copy of the 
" Year Book of Pharmacy," and " Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Con- 
ference," from the Conference; and a specimen of a new variety of Cinnamon, 
from E. N. & J. B. Lawrence, which is mentioned on page 477 of Fliickiger and 
Hanbury's " Pharmacographia," under the name of China Cinnamon-^ it is in 
unscraped quills, and has a saccharine and pungent cinnamon taste. A sample of 
the same in powder, ground by Bullock & Crenshaw, was likewise exhibited ; it is 
much darker in color, but of a stronger cinnamon flavor than the ordinary pow- 
dered Chinese cinnamon. 

The President presented a bottle of crab orchard salt, from Dr. Blackburn, with 
the request that it be examined. 

G. W. Kennedy remarked, that in Tennessee this salt, but of a darker color than 
the specimen, is sold at retail, to be used in place of Epsom salt. Several analyses 
have been published in the "Journal" (vol xxxii, page 238 and xlviii, p. 212). 

The President requested Rich. V. Mattison, who was present, to give the meeting 
his views on crab orchard salt, which he did, as follows : 

" Crab orchard salt is obtained from a tract of land in Lincoln county, Ky., about 
three miles wide and fifteen long, called the ' Epsom Belt ' Wells are dug in the 
ground, and the rain, percolating and lixiviating the soil, which contains a large per- 
centage of the sulphates of sodium, potassium and magnesium, collects in these 
wells, and is from thence evaporated in iron kettles, and brought into the market in 
barrels. As found commercially, it consists of varying proportions of organic mat- 
ter and water, from 15 to 40 per cent., with balance of the above alkaline sulphates 
and some sodic chloride. The insoluble portion (I have obtained 30 per cent, upon 
solution and filtration) consists of silicaceous and organic matter, with about one- 
tenth of one per cent, of ferric oxide. 

"A short time ago the product of this belt of land was leased or purchased by a 
stock company (Col. Shelby, Dr. Blackburn and others), who now control the salt, 
and have raised the price of it from 23 and 27 cents to 632 and 75 cents, selling it 
only in bottles. Regarding Dr. Blackburn's statement that 'a large quantity of arti- 
ficial salt is sold, and that it is very injurious,' we agree to both statements. First. 
There is a very large quantity of artificial salt sold. Second. The sale of this arti- 
ficial salt is very injurious, but only to the pecuniary interests of the company, and 
not, as Dr. Blackburn, who in the interest of the company desires to impress people 
with the belief that it is injurious to their health. It is no more so than Epsom salt, 
or similar purgatives." 

Dr. Pile presented a handsome specimen of crystallized bromide of sodium. 

Dr. Miller presented three samples of oil of cedar j pure German, cedar of Leba- 
non for perfumery, and a commercial sample of a strong turpentine in odor ,• also. 
Cochin ginger-root and a powder from it ; this root is devoid of the coating of 
lime adhering to bleached Jamaica ginger, but yields a whiter powder ; also, a sam- 
ple of North Carolina and of Texas serpentaria. Prof. Maisch remarked that the 
former was the produce of Aristolochia serpentaria, Lin., and the latter of A. reticu- 
lata, Nuttall. The market is now almost exclusively supplied with the latter variety, 
which is known as Red River snake-root, and is sold for half the price of the former. 

230 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations,\^'^- ^"^y; ^875!"™" 

Dr. Miller also stated that stavesacre was sometimes sold for the seeds of Delphinium 
consolida, Lin. ; the latter are much smaller and darker in color. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a block of hard-wood, fitting a drawer, and having several 
places excavated to receive small prescription weights, his attention had been called 
to this convenient arrangement by W. C. Bakes. 

The following papers were read and discussed : On liquor potassii citratis, by 
A. Hohl 5 on wine of tar, by J. B. Moore 5 and on angelica-root, by Dr. Miller. 

Prof. Maisch observed, that many indigenous drugs were frequently confounded 
either from want of knowledge on the part of the gatherer or from the identity of 
the common names, applied to very different plants in different sections of the country. 

Attention being called to the inefficiency of root-cutters now in use, Dr. Miller 
stated that he had in use one made by the Enterprise Manufacturing Company and 
found it very serviceable. 

Messrs. Mclntyre, Mattison and Kennedy, the committee on formulas for elixirs, 
appointed by the American Pharmaceutical Association, were all present. Their 
chairman stated the object of the committee and what had been done, and desired an 
expression on the part of the meeting of any views that might be of service, and, if 
thought advisable, take some action on the subject. Samples were exhibited of elixir 
of calisaya bark, (A. P. A.,) and elixir of calisaya bark with iron, (A. P. A.,) and 
also so-called elixir of calisaya containing quinia, cinchonia and cochineal, and so- 
called ferrated elixir of bark containing quinia, cinchonia and citrate of iron. 

The prevailing opinion was that there exists no necessity for the multiplication of 
this class of preparations j that a better acquaintance with the composition of elixirs 
has greatly diminished their use with physicians, and that the name of every prepara- 
tion should be in accerdance with its actual composition. 

Upon motion the following resolution, offered by Dr. Miller, was adopted : " That 
elixirs containing alkaloids should be called by the name of their alkaloidal con- 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a specimen of a resinous exudation from a plant unknown 
to him, which is used in Texas in making chewing gumj it had been sent by Mr. 
W. B. Addington. 

Adjourned. E. M. Boring, Registrar pro tern. 


American Pharmaceutical Association. — The druggists and pharmacists 
of Boston and vicinity have been at work for some time past in making arrange- 
ments for the next meeting of ihis Association, which will take place in Boston on 
September 7th, next. We are glad to learn that they appear to be a unit in the en- 
deavor to give the National Association a hearty reception, and to make the meeting 
an undoubted success. A suitable hall has already been secured, and the prospects 
for the exhibition are so encouraging, that the Local Secretary, Mr. S. A. D. Shep- 
pard, will request, in his forthcoming Circular, to make application for space by 
June ist, if possible. The attendance will most likely be larger than ever before, 
and it is to be hoped that all pharmacists and druggists, who feel an interest in the 
objects of the Association, will make application for membership 5 and that all 
who are or intend to become members, will postpone their summer vacation to par- 
ticipate in this meeting. In connection Avith this we venture to suggest to our 

Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 231 

Western friends, that the fares by the Great Trunk Lines are now so very low, that 
it is hardly probable for these figures to be maintained until fall. 

An important consideration at the next meeting, will be the arrangements for the 
meeting in 1876, and we are glad to learn that the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy has appointed a Committee tp make suggestions, the intention being to enlist, 
as in Boston, the co-operation of the entire " Drug Trade." 

The following is the Committee appointed in Boston to make the requisite 
arrangements for the next meeting : 

Joseph Burnett, A. R. Bailey, L. Babo, S. M. Colcord, S. Carter, Henry Canning, 
E. H. Doolittle, W. S. Folger, M. H. Gleason, W. F. Horton, T. L. Jenks, R. R. 
Kent, J. S. Melvin, G. F. H. Markoe, J. S. Orne, I. B. Patten, W. B. Potter, N. 
J. Rust, B. F. Stacey, C. A. Tufts, B. O. Wilson, S. A. D. Sheppard, and Edward 
T. Kelley. 

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — At the Annual Meeting, held 
March ist, the following officers were elected : S. M. Colcord, President 5 B F. 
Stacey and Charles A. Tufts, Vice-Presidents j S. A. D. Sheppard, Recording Sec- 
retary ; G. F. H. Markoe, Corresponding Secretary} E. L. Patch, Treasurer, and 
J. S. Orne, H. Canning, H. W. Lincoln, S. C. Tozzer, J. T. Leary, J. S. Melvin, I. 
B. Patten and D. G. Wilkins, Trustees. 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The Trust Funds, created by the 
donation of Peter Williamson and by the bequest of the late Professor Procter [^see 
*'Amer. Journ. Pharm.," 1874, p. 243), have been suitably invested, and the interest 
thereof will become available for the next course of lectures. The Board of Trus- 
tees have made the following regulations to carry out the objects for which the trusts 
were created : 

" T^he Peter Williamson Scholarships consisting of matriculation and lecture tickets, 
will, in accordance with the design of the donor, be annually awarded to one needy 
and deserving student, who may be elected by the Board of Trustees. Applica- 
tions for this Scholarship, accompanied by the requisite documents, must be handed 
to the Senior Professor (Robert Bridges, M. D.) on or before September ist, preced- 
ing the session. The Committeon Examinations and the Professors shall, after due 
examination, report on these applications at the meeting in October, when the 
Board of Trustees shall decide on awarding the Scholarship. 

The Procter Prize will be annually awarded to the most meritorious Graduate in 
Pharmacy 5 provided that, in accordance with the will of the late Prof. Wm. Proc- 
ter, Jr., such a reward, consisting either of a medal, of books, of instruments, or of 
any other appropriate object, is deserved, in the opinion of the Board of Trustees. 

The Committee on Examination and the Professors shall, previous to the Annual 
Commencement, specially report upon the most meritorious student of the Grad- 
uating Class, as determined from the regular examination, or from other proofs in 
addition thereto, and, if deemed worthy of the distinction, the Procter Prize shall be 
awarded to him by the Board of Trustees." 

The Board has also adopted the following regulations for conferring the degree 
of Master in Pharmacy [Ph. M.) 

" Every person upon whom this degree shall be conferred must be a Graduate of 
this College of not less than five years' standing ; must have been engaged in the 
practice of pharmacy for the period named since his graduation, and must be of 
good moral character and professional repute. He shall present to the Senior Pro- 
fessor (Robert Bridges, M. D.) an original dissertation upon some subject connected 
with any of the branches taught in the College, together with suitable specimens of 
the results, and an account of whatever aid he may have received in his investiga- 
tions 5 also the written evidence above mentioned. The dissertation, which shall be 
of his own composition, and written in his own handwriting, shall be carefully ex- 
amined by the Committee on Examinations and the Professors, who shall report 
to the Board of Trustees upon its value, and if deemed sufficient, and the applica- 
tion be finally approved, the applicant shall receive the diploma of Master in Phar- 


< Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May, 1875. 

The Alumni Associaton of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy has 
adopted a new Constitution, by virtue of which all graduates of this College are 
members. No dues are to be paid, the income being derived from the charge for 
the certificate of membership ($5), which, we presume, is obtained by every gradu- 
ate who values the recollections of his college life. 

We notice from the printed Minutes that this Association has received from the 
Zeta Phi Society (Class 1873-74) $150, which sum is to be applied for furniture, 
whenever the College can spare a separate room for the purposes of this society. 

The National College of Pharmacy at Washington held its fourth an- 
nual meeting April 5th, President Ferguson in the chair, J. C. Fill, Secretary. 
After the reports of the officers and committees had been received, the resignation 
of Mr. G, G. Simms, as Professor of Pharmacy, was accepted, and Professor Oscar 
Oldberg elected as his successor. During the past winter, thirty-four students at- 
tended the lectures, three of whom graduated. It was stated that an alumni asso- 
ciation has been organized. A Committee was appointed to confer with the med- 
ical profession of the district, with reference to the so-called " elegant pharmaceu- 
tical specialties." 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : President, R. B. Fer- 
guson j Vice-Presidents, F. S. Gaither and F. D. Dowling 5 Corresponding Sec- 
retary, Prof. O. Oldberg 5 Treasurer, W. L. Thompson ; Librarian and Curator, 
Rud. Oldberg; Recording Secretary, J. C. Fill; Trustees, J. A. Milburn, J. R. 
Major, W. G. Duckett, J. D. O'Donnell and Chas. Becker. 

St. Louis College of Pharmacy. — The annual course of lectures, which closed 
March 22d, 1875, was attended by seventy-four students, seventeen of whom passed 
a successful examination before the Professors and the Board of Examiners, consist- 
ing of Charles Habicht, J. M. Good and Charles Bang. 

Vice-President Good presented the diplomas, and Prof. O. A. Wall, M. D., de- 
livered the Valedictory Address to the following graduates : Charles Geitner 
(Thesis : Iron and its Preparations), Henry Rommel (Sulphur), John R. Raboteau 
(Antimony), H. W. Barkhoefer (Bismuth), Charles A. Lips (Lead), Joseph E. 
Ilg (Polygala Senega), Francis Hemm (Morphology of Vegetable Organs), H. T.. 
Bechtold (Jalap), Edward Gallenkamp (^ther), John G. Goehring (Sulphuric 
Acid), Wm. A. Briichner (Iodine), Ernest Krebs (Antimony), Elliott Steinhauser 
(Opium and its Preparations), Fred. F. Reichenbach (Cinchona), Wm. C. Bohra 
(Bismuth), James R. Watkins (Percolation), Julius E. Koch (Creasote). 

The prize for Materia Medica was awarded to F. Hemm ; for Botany, to Chas. 
Geitner; and for Chemistry, to H. Rommel. 

University of Vienna. — The chair of pharmaceutical chemistry, made vacant 
by the death of Prof. Rochleder, has been filled by the appointment of Prof. Lieben, 
heretofore of Prague, Bohemia. 


American Association for the Advancement of Science. — At the cel- 
ebration of the centennial anniversary of the discovery of oxygen by Priestley, the 
chemists assembled at Northumberland, Pa , August ist, 1874, took steps to sug- 
gest to the above association the establishment of a chemical section. The Asso- 
ciation responded thereto, and at its Hartford meeting last summer, a new constitu- 
tion was adopted, and under its provisions a section of" chemistry, chemical physics,, 
chemical technology and metallurgy " was organized, of which Prof. S. W. Johnson, 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May, 1875, I 


of Yale College, was elected chairman, while Dr. F. W. Clarke, of Cincinnati, was 
deputed to make the necessary efforts to ensure a full attendance of chemists and 
others interested in the application of chemistry. 

The next meeting of the Association will be held at Detroit, August nth next, 
and continue about a week. Most of our readers being interested in chemistry, we 
take pleasure in directing their special attention to this new section, in which, to 
make it a success from the beginning, there should be a full attendance. 

RiciNus Communis against Vermin. — A recent number of the "Pharmaceu- 
tische Zeitung" contained a correspondence from Turin, Italy, stating that M. 
Mossa, pharmacist, has directed attention to the use made in Italy of the press- 
cakes obtained in the manufacture of castor oil ; besides their use as manure, this 
residuary product serves for the destruction of the field mice and certain insects 
which are injurious to hemp 5 he recommends it against Phylloxera ^astatrixj which 
has attracted much attention of late years for being very destructive to the Eu- 
ropean grape-vine, and also against the ravages of the Colorado potato-bug, Dory- 
phera decemlineata. 

A few years ago, we were informed by Mr. Chas. A. Heinitsh, that the saf- 
fron beds in Lancaster county. Pa., are protected against mice by planting a small 
variety of Ricinus among the crocus^ and that this is regarded as an effectual remedy. 

It will be remembered that the seeds from which the castor oil has been expressed, 
contain an acrid poison, and it is not impossible that this may be obnoxious to the 
lower animals. At any rate, the proposed remedy is so far superior, in regard to 
harmlessness, to Paris green, which is usually employed against the potato bug, that 
it deserves a careful trial. 

Explosive Mixtures. — We have repeatedly alluded to serious accidents which 
occurred in the preparation of solid or liquid compounds put up upon physicians' 
prescriptions. The great majority of such explosions result from the injudicious 
combination of oxidizing agents with substances readily combining with oxygen 
with the elimination of gaseous products. One of these dangerous oxidizing agents 
is permanganate of potassium^ which parts very easily with a portion of its oxygen 
under various circumstances. The dangerous nature of a solution of this salt in 
glycerin is well known to many pharmacists. 

In the " Journal of the Austrian Apothecaries' Society," 1875, 8, Dr. Witt- * 
stein reports an explosion whereby a pharmacist was seriously injured about the eyes, 
and which occurred soon after the vial had been corked, after filling it with a solu- 
tion of 10 grams of permanganate of potassium in 15 grams each of distilled water 
and alcohol. Wittstein states that such a mixture will always explode when kept 
in a stoppered vial. Permanganate of potassium, whether intended for internal or 
external use, is best prescribed, dissolved in distilled water and avoiding all com- 
binations, but more particularly with carbon compounds. 

The Stamp Tax on Medicines. — In our last number we have given the ruling- 
of Internal Revenue Commissioner Douglass, in relation to the exemption of officinal 
and other medicinal preparations from stamp tax. Since then Mr. Alexander H. 
Jones, President of the Philadelphia Drug Exchange, has addressed the Commis- 
sioner on the subject, and we are pleased to state that this officer has modified his ruling 



fAm. Jour. Pharm. 
t May, 1875. 

in accordance with the views generally entertained by druggists and pharmacists, 
with this qualification : that if two or more formulas for the preparation in question 
have been published on the same page, the one used must be specially designated. 
This is eminently proper, as the fundamental conditions for exemption are, that such 
medicines must be actually prepared by a known formula, and that the formula must 
be readily accessible to everybody by printing it either upon the label or by distinctly 
referring to the place where it may be found in any standard Dispensatory, or Phar- 
macopoeia or Pharmaceutical Journal issued by an incorporated college of pharmacy. 

We are indebted to Mr. Jones for a copy of the letter, which we print in full for 
the information of our readers: 

Treasury Department, Washington, April 2d, 1875. 
Sir, — Referring to my letter of the 4th ultimo, and in reply to the letter of Alexander H. Jones, Pres- 
ident of Philadelphia Drug Exchange, addressed to me under date of March 22d, to which you call my 
special attention in advance in your letter of the 20th ultimo, I have to inform you that the interpretation 
of the 22d Section of the Act of February 8th, 1875, as contained in my letter to you of March 4th as to 
the scope and intent of said Section, the extent of the exemption provided for medicinal articles, and the 
conditions on which such exemption is made to depend, are matters which were not passed upon hastily 
by this office, nor without full and careful consideration. 

As I read Mr. Jones' letter I notice but a single point of any practical or vital importance, in which he 
■differs in his views from the views entertained by this office as they have been officially set forth in Special 
145, changed or modified by my letter to you of March 4th, which has been published in the " Internal 
Revenue Record." 

Mr. Jones admits what this office holds— that all medicinal preparations or compositions whatever, made 
and sold, etc., wherein the person making or preparing the same has, or claims to have, any private for- 
mula or occult secret or art for the making or preparing the same, or has, or claims to have, any exclusive 
right or title to the making or preparing the same, or which are prepared, uttered, vended, or exposed for 
sale under any letters patent, or held out or recommended to the public by the makers, vendors, or pro- 
prietors thereof as proprietary medicines, are liable to stamp tax. 

So much of the conditions of taxation under Schedule C, of the Act of June 30th, 1864, remains to-day 
as when first enacted. These conditions have not been changed, altered, or abridged by any legislation 
subsequent to that time. They are in force to-day as per Revised Statutes, Chapter E, Schedule A, Sec- 
tion 3437. 

The Act of July 13th, 1866, Section 13, exempted from taxation medicines compounded according to 
formulas published in the United States or other National Pharmacopoeia, etc.; at the same time declar- 
ing that there should be no exemption given by said Section to any medicinal articles, no matter by what 
rule, authority, or formula compounded, if the same were put up in a style or manner similar to that of 
patent or proprietary medicints in general, or if advertised as having any special proprietary claim to 
merit, or to any peculiar advantage in mode of preparation, quality, use, or effect, whether such claim is 
real or pretended. 

Now it is for this last class of medicines, excepted from the exemption provided for by the last-named 
Act, medicines usually designated by the trade as " officinal," but " put up in the style or manner of pat- 
ient or proprietary medicines," together with a class of medicines which are not regarded as " officinal," 
and not compounded according to any published authority, that Section 22, of the Act of February 8th, 
1875, provides conditional exemption. 

What are these conditions ? 

With regard to unofficinal medicines, the law is sufficiently explicit and plain, and there does not seem 
,to be any difference of opinion between Mr. Jones and others and this office. They admit that the for- 
mula shall be printed on the label, and there shall be no proprietorship claimed. This is precisely the 
construction given in my letter to you of March 4th. 

With regard to the " officinal medicines," "put up in the style of patent or proprietary medicines," for 
if they are not put up in such style they require no stamps, even though the formula be neither printed on 
the labels nor referred to thereon. Mr. Jones claims that a mere reference to the formula and the authority 
where found is sufficient, and gives his idea by an illustration as follows : 
" Tinctura Opii Camphorata. 
(Camphorated Tincture of Opium.) 
Prepared by A. B. 
Dose, etc. 

6"^^ 'U.S. Pharmacopoeia' (1873), page 315." 

But let me ask what words in this form distinctly refer to a published formula ? The words " Tinctura 
Opii Camphorata" do not. 'J'hey give the name of the article, not the formula. The words "Camphor- 
ated Tincture of Opium " are a translation of the Latin words above — nothing more. The words " Pre- 
pared by A. B.," " Dose, etc.," in no manner refer to a formula. The other words — " See ' U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia,' etc." — may distinctly refer to a book and the page where a formula for making this article may 
be found, but they do not distinctly, nor otherwise, refer to the formula itself. 

The language of the Statute is " when such formula and where found shall be distinctly referred to on 
the printed label attached to such article." 

It is not one or the other, but both, which are to be distinctly referred to. The copulative " and" not 
the disjunctive " or " is the conjunction employed in the Statute. 

Sometimes two or more formulas are given for the preparation or compounding of the same article. On 
page 1471, " U. S. Dispensatory," 13th Edition, two* separate and distinct formulas are given for the 
preparation of " Tinctura Opii Camphorata." 

*0n page 315, " U. S. Pharmacopoeia," there is but one formula ior , Tinctura Opii Camphorata. 
On page 1471, " U. S. Dispensatory," there are two formulas — one being that of the " United States 
Pharmacopoeia" as above, the other that of the British. 

"^'"kiyrxs/^'"'' } Reviews and Bibliographical Notices 23 5 

How shall a distinct reference to the formula be made in such a case ? Clearly not by simply naming 
the book and the page. 

Something more than that is necessary for a distinct reference. Can a better method be adopted than 
by simply publishing the formula? Is such a publication harder in this case than in the case of unofificinal 
medicines where the formula 7)iust be published ? 

This office is of the opinion that the shortest, easiest, and most definite manner of referring distinctly 
both to the formula and where found, is the manner prescribed in office letter to you of March 4th, but does 
not insist upo?i the publication in full of the forjnula. 

If. in additioti to the other inatter pri7ited on the label, the na7ne of the 7nedicine, dose, directions , etc., 
the maker or compoiinder distinctly sets forth that the article made , prepared , or compounded by him 
is according to a publisJied formula, and gives tJie medical authority — the book, editio7t, page, etc., or 
the medical jour7ial, the voluine, mitnber, date of issue, and page, and if two or 7ttore different for- 
mulas are g^v en by the sa7ne authority on Ihe sa77ie page, designating the particular for7nula by its 
number on the page, as No. i. No 2 or i7i so7ne other 7nanner equally definite and distinct, this office 
■will regard the condition of exe7fiption co77iplied with. 

In conclusion, under the Internal Revenue Law now in force, this office holds — 

(i.) That all patent and proprietary medicines and medicinal preparations, and all medicines, etc., for 
which any proprietary claim is made, real or pretended, must be stamped when sold, offered, or exposed 
for sale. 

(2.) That officinal and standard medicines, etc., prepared according to the formulas published in author- 
ized medical books or journals, put up and labelled simply with the name of the article and the name of 
the maker or compounder, are exempt from stamp tax, without the " formula and where found " being 
printed or referred to in any manner upon such label. 

(3.) That officinal medicines, etc., put up in a style or manner similar to patent or proprietary medicines 
in general — the same being in retail packages with labels attached statin the diseases for which they are 
remedies, stating the dose and giving directions for use, are liable to stamp tax — U7iless, in addition to such 
matter as is indicated above, there shall be also printed on the label the formula and the reference to the 
standard medical book or journal where the formula is found ; or a distinct an?tounce7nent that the article 
in question is 77tade or co77ipounded according to a published for7nula with a distittct refere7ice to the 
standard authority where found in the manner herei7ibefore described. In this latter case such medi- 
cines, etc., so put up are not liable to stamp tax. 

(4.) Unofficinal medicines, or medicines, etc., made, prepared, or compounded, but not in accordance 
with formulas published in any standard Dispensatory or Pharmacopoeia, Pharmaceutical Journal, etc., 
are liable to stamp tax — unless the exact formula is printed upon the labels attached to such articles, and 
unless there is an absence of all claim to any proprietorship in the making or preparing of the same. 

Very respectfully, 

Alexander P. Tutton. Esq., J. W. DOUGLASS, 

Supervisor , Philadelphia. Com77tissioner. 


The Histology and Histochemistry of Man. A Treatise on the Elements of Compo- 
sition and Structure of the Human Body. By Heinrich Frey, Prof of Medicine 
in Zurich. Translated from the fourth German edition by Arthur E, J. Barker, 
Surgeon to the City of Dublin Hospital, &c., with 608 engravings on wood. New 
York: D. Appleton & Co. 1875. 8vo, pp. 683. 

Prof. Frey's work is regarded in Germany as one of the best treatises on this sub- 
ject 5 it has passed there through four editions, and, through a translation into French, 
has become known to and is appreciated by the students of histology in France. Dr. 
Barker has done good service in making this work, which by its author has been 
revised up to the time of publication, accessible to the English-speaking histologist 
and the medical-profession. 

The introductory chapter gives a historical sketch of the beginning and develop- 
ment of this branch of science, which has reached its present acknowledged importance 
with the aid of the microscope and of chemistry, more particularly zoochemistry. 

The work is divided into three parts, the first of which treats in two sections of 
the elements of composition and of structure of the body, describing concisely, in 
properly-arranged groups, the chemical compounds found in the body, and the 
formation and development of the cell and other elements of tissue. This is fol- 
lowed, in Part H, by a consideration of the various kinds of tissue, those composed 
of simple cells in two groups, the connective tissues likewise in two groups, and the 
composite tissues. The remaining 260 pages are devoted to Part III, the organs of 
the body, which are divided into "organs of the vegetative type" and "organs of 
the animal group."" A good index, of 19 pages, in double columns, concludes this 

236 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. {^"^-AtyiS^t^' 

valuable work, which, with its comprehensive arrangement, its clear language, its 
judicious criticisms and its numerous illustrations, will constitute it a valuable addi- 
tion to the library of the zealous student. 

Bot anise her Jahreshericht. Systematisch geordnetes Repertorium der botanischen 
Literatur aller Lander. Herausgegeben von Dr. Leopold Just, Professor in Carls- 
ruhe. Erster Jahrgang (1873), Berlin : J875. Gebriider Borntrasger. 8vo. pp. 

Annual Report on Botany. A systematically arranged repertory of the botan- 
ical literature of all countries. 

This, we believe, is the first attempt to collect and report on the botanical publi- 
cations which have appeared in the course of a year. This branch of scientific 
literature is by far too extensive as that every student of botany should be able to 
acquaint himself with all the publications which, in the shape of books or in period- 
icals, are continually appearing in civilized countries. The undertaking is, there- 
fore, a most praiseworthy one, meriting the support of the botanist for the above 
reasons as well as because the task has, in this first volume, been accomplished in 
such a commendable manner. 

The vast material has been judiciously divided, each branch having been assigned 
to a different botanist, and containing references to the publications in the German, 
French and English languages, while the entire botanical literature in the Dutch, 
Italian, Russian and Hungarian languages are specially reported on. 

We have not the space to enter more minutely into the arrangement and object of 
this publication ; we may be permitted, however, to state that the list of contents em- 
braces 30 pages, and that the chapter on pharmaceutical botany has been reported by 
Professor Fliickiger. 

Eleventh Annual Report of the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy. 1875. 8vo, pp. 52. 

Besides extracts from the Minutes, several reports, lists of officers and graduates, 
&c., the pamphlet contains the Introductory Address of Professor Remington to the 
fifty-fourth course of lectures, the Valedictory of Professor Maisch and the Annual 
Address before the Alumni Association by Laurence Turnbull, Ph. G., M. D. 
We have not the space to publish these addresses, which contain many interesting 
statements 5 but a passage in the latter seems to call for a few remarks in this place. 
Speaking of the late Professor Parrish, Dr. Turnbull remarked : 

"This was the first time a non-medical man filled the chair of Materia Medica irn 
this College, and we regret the change for three reasons : first, therapeutics and 
toxicology are less dwelt upon than formerly (more time being devoted to the lead- 
ing physical characteristics of each individual drug and its commercial history) f 
secondly, it is therefore less a preparatory school for medical students j thirdly, it is 
no longer a training school to supply professors to our medical institutions." 

Whatever views may be held, regarding the necessity for the apothecary, of a 
thorough knowledge of the physiological action of medicines upon man and animals, 
it must be certainly granted that a knowledge of the botanical, physical, histological, 
chemical and commercial relations and of the proper doses of drugs, is of by far 
greater importance to the apothecary and druggist. Outside of the United States, 
physicians are only in exceptional cases appointed as teachers of pharmacognosy, as 
they cannot be conversant with drugs unless they have made these their special study 
for years. Regarding the two last points raised by Dr. Turnbull, we believe that 
the Colleges of Pharmacy were not established for the purposes indicated. It may 
perhaps be of advantage to the medical student to become acquainted with chem- 
istry, pharmacy and Materia Medica, as taught from the standpoint of the pharm- 
acist and druggist \ but if it be true that the efficiency of a teacher is likely to in- 
crease with his experience, we cannot understand why colleges of pharmacy should 
be or become training schools to supply other institutions with professors. 

Outlines of Proximate Organic Analysis^ for the identification, separation and quan- 

^"'May'"i875^'"''} Rev'icws afid Bibliographical Notices. 237 

titative determination of the more commonly-occurring organic compounds. By 
Albert B. Prescott, Prof, of Organic and Applied Chemistry in the University of 
Michigan. New York : D. Van Nostrand. 1875. i^mo, pp. 192. Cloth, price 

A work like this has been needed for a long time, and although it does not cover 
as much ground as we should have desired for it, yet it is a very valuable addition 
to our literaure, and will prove of great service to those engaged in proximate analy- 
sis, since there is not, to our knowledge, another work in the English language in 
which the same kind of information is given in such a comprehensive and conveni- 
ently-arranged style. The author himself states that " this compilation is frag- 
mentary and very brief," and we have, therefore, no reason to find fault with the 
absence of such compounds as gentiopicrin, arbutin, &c., or with the brevity with 
which a number of the alkaloids and neutral principles have been treated. 

In examining the various articles, we have observed little that would seem to re- 
quire correction or modification ; as, for instance, the composition of colophony, 
which is abietinic anhydride. Many facts have been collected together in tabular 
form, and the reactions of identification, of separation and of quantitative determina- 
tion, though briefly, are given very clearly, so that they may be readily understood 
by the somewhat advanced student of analysis, who alone is capable to undertake 
proximate analytical investigations. 

We heartily recommend this little volume, and hope that in a future edition the 
author may find it convenient to extend it and to add thereto an outline of an 
analytical course, commencing with the crude material as may be found, for in- 
stance, in the very valuable work by Wittstein, entitled "Analyse von Pflanzen und 
Pflanzentheilen,"" to which we refer those of our readers who are conversant with the 
German language. 

Chemical Examination of Alcoholic Liquors. A manual of the constituents of the 
distilled spirits and fermented liquors of commerce, and their qualitative and 
quantitative determination. By Albert B. Prescott, M. D., Prof, of Organic and 
Applied Chemistry in the University of Michigan. New York : D. Van Nostrand. 
1875. i^mo, pp. 108. Cloth, price $1.50. 

The title explains the aim of this manual. The directions are simple, in accord- 
ance with the design to make them not more elaborate than required for commercial, 
hygienic and legal purposes. The work is well adapted for the purpose for which 
3t was written. 

Tear-book of Pharmacy : Comprising Abstracts of Papers relating to Pharmacy, 
Materia Medica and Chemistry, contributed to British and Foreign Journals, from 
July ist, 1873, to June 30th, 1874; with the transactions of the British Pharma- 
ceutical Conference at the Eleventh Annual Meeting, held at London, August, 
1874. London : J. & A, Churchill. 8vo, pp. 664. 

The issue of this volume was delayed through the protracted illness of the editor. 
The arrangement of the material is the same as in the volumes previously published, 
and which has been adopted for the last volume of the Proceedings of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association in so far that the Report on the Progress of Pharmacy 
commences the latter, as the volume now before us begins with the Year-book," 
which covers 380 pages, the abstracts being, as usual, rather extensive. Then fol- 
lows the list of members and the minutes of and papers read at the last Annual 
Meeting, of which we have given a brief account on page 485 of our last volume. 
A list of objects on exhibition during the meeting and the index, complete the volume. 

Note on Salicylic Jcid. By Edward R. Squibb, M. D,, of Brooklyn. 8vo, pp. 10. 

It reviews the chemical history and gives an account of the various uses for which 
this interesting compound has been recently recommended. The paper was read 
before the Medical Society of the State of New York. 



(Am. Jour. Pharm, 
\ May, 1875. 

Fift/i and Sixth Annual Reports of the State Salt Inspector of the State of Michigan^ for 
the fiscal years ending No-Tjember '>,oth^ 1% J and iZ-j/^.. East Saginaw : 1875. ^vo, 
pp. 24. 

Besides the official reports, the pamphlet contains a paper giving a sketch of the 
salt industry, together with an account of the uses of salt for curing hams, maJcing 
cheese and butter and as a fertilizer. We learn that the first salt blocks in Mich- 
igan were opened July 4th, i860. During the folio wmg year 125,000 barrels were 
made, and the number has steadily increased until, in 1874, reached 1,026,979 
barrels — a very gratifying result, particularly if taken in connection with the fact, 
that the Inferior grade (second quality salt) is decreasing in amount. For the de- 
velopment of this industry, we presume, Michigan is, to a considerable extent, in- 
debted to the efficient State Salt Inspector, Dr. S. S. Garrigues. 


Daniel Hanbury is no more. As one of the most learned pharmacists of the 
present time, and one of the most thorough and indefatigable investigators of Mate- 
ria Medica, his name will long be remembered, and his researches be as highly val- 
ued in the future as they are at present. Many of his classical essays have been, 
republished in this Journal, and his last, which is embraced in a paper communi- 
cated to the editor with a letter written a few days before his last illness, will be^ 
found in the present number. Among the numerous societies of which he had been 
elected an honorary member, may be mentioned the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation, and the Massachusetts, New York, Philadelphia and Chicago Colleges of 

The following biographical notice is taken from the London Pharmaceutical 
Journal," April 3d : 

"Daniel Hanbury was born iith September, 1825. He was the eldest child of 
Daniel Bell Hanbury, who for many years was a valued member of the Council of 
the Pharmaceutical Society, and for eleven years its Treasurer. In early life he 
showed superior ability At school he always maintained a foremost place, and 
attained a considerable degree of proficiency in classical studies, and also in water- 
color drawing. 

"In the year 1841 he commenced his business training under the firm of Allen,. 
Hanbury & Barry, of which his father was an active member. Here his peculiar 
abilities were speedily manifested and appreciated. 

" His innate love of precision and accuracy were stimulated by the example and 
influence of Mr. Barry; he became an exquisitely neat experimenter, and his hand- 
writing assumed the form which those familiar with it will never forget, combining 
in a singular degree, firmness, force of character, and complete accuracy of detail. 
Whatever he undertook was done with uncompromising thoroughness. He never 
spared himself any labor, nor sought the notice of those around him by talking of 
any effort he had made, but quietly brought his fine abilities to bear with painstaking 
conscientiousness on the one matter immediately before him, whether dispensing a 
prescription, posting an account book, or writing a scientific paper. With such 
qualities he not only accomplished a very large amount of work, but the quality of 
what he did was almost faultless. 

"In the year 1844 he studied at the laboratory of the Pharmaceutical Society. 

" His pursuits early brought him in contact with the late Dr. Pereira, who treated 
him with great consideration, and a warm friendship sprang up between the professor 
and his pupil, which lasted till the death of the former, and the remembrance of 
which has since often been manifested by Mrs. Pereira. His first contribution to 
this Journal was, we believe, on * Turnsole,"" in January, 1850. From that time to 
the present his papers are scattered thickly through our volumes, numbering, accord- 
ing to the index, sixty-one, the last being incorporated in an article entitled * Cin- 
chona or Chinchona,' published on the 13th of February, in the present year. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1875. 


" The series of papers on Chinese Materia Medica, published in the years 1 860-1-25, 
were highly esteemed by those most capable of appreciating them, and afford a char- 
acteristic example of accurate and careful research. 

" He never wrote without having original information to impart, and his papers 
uniformly bear evidence of careful investigation and thorough knowledge. 

" Most happily the work upon which he had been engaged for many years in con- 
junction with Professor Fliickiger, the * Pharmacographia,' was completed and pub- 
lished last year. This work is a storehouse of reliable information to which future 
generations will have recourse, and it is by his part in this important work that he 
will hereafter be best known. No one can read the historic sections of the book 
without being struck by the vast variety and extent of reading to which they bear 

" Narratives of travels were especially attractive to him. He took nothing at 
second-hand, but always sought his information from the fountain head. His library 
contained many Latin volumes of the early Portuguese, Dutch and Spanish voy- 
agers, to which he constantly referred, and he eagerly read modern books of travel 
likely to throw light on his favorite studies. 

" Whilst alluding to his writings, we must not omit to mention the important part 
he took in the preparation of the ' Pharmacopoeia' of India, a work involving much 
labor. He was one of those deputed to draw up the Admiralty manual of scientific 
inquiry. Botany was the science to which he especially devoted his attention He 
contributed to the * Transactions of the Linnean Society' the following papers ^ 

* Note on Cassia Moschata,' H. B. et K., xxiv, 161 5 'On the Species of Gircinia 
which affords Gamboge in Siam ' (G. Morella), xxiv, 487, and with Mr. Currey,, 

* Remarks on Sclerotium Stipitatum and Similar Productions,' xxiii, 93 5 and numer- 
ous papers by him will be found in the * Journal of the Linnean Society.' 

" We believe he has collected a large mass of original information for a mon- 
ograph on an important genus, and trust it may yet be given to science. 

" Occasionally he contributed an article to the literary periodicals. A paper con- 
taining curious information on Frangipani, in * Notes and Queries,' and another on 
the botanical origin and country of Myrrh, published in * Ocean Highways' for 
April, 1873, will be remembered by some of our readers. He occasionally contrib- 
uted to the ' Athenaeum,' and a review of * The Countess of Chinchon and the Cin- 
chona Genus' is about to appear in the 'Academy.' He served on the juries of the 
International Exhibitions in 1862 and 1867, and in the former year acted as secre- 
tary to the jury on vegetable products, the proceedings of which were conducted in- 
French In the year 1855 he was elected a Fellow of the Linnean Society, lepeat- 
cdiy served on its Council, and held the office of Treasurer at the time of his death. 

'* He was also a Fellow of the Chemical Society, and Member of its Council in 
the year 1869. 

"In the year 1867, on his first nomination, he was elected a fellow of the Royal 
Society, and a Member of its Council in 1873. 

" Of the Pharmaceutical Society he was a warm supporter almost from its origin. 
For many years (from June, i860, to May, 1872) he rendered very valuable services 
as an examiner, often at great personal inconvenience, and he was a very constant 
attender of the evening meetings, to the usefulness of which he often contributed. 

"In 1870 he retired from business. He never married, but lived with his parents, 
to whom he was a most kind and affectionate son. Though possessed of ample 
means, his habits, we believe, both from principle and taste, were remarkably simple 
and inexpensive. He disliked and shunned everything approaching ostentation, and 
luxury and self-indulgence were utterly alien to his life. He was always an early 
riser, and habitually got through an important amount of work in his library before 
breakfast, and few, indeed, were the moments wasted from early morning until he 
again retired to rest. 

" Travelling on the Continent was one of his greatest pleasures. He read German. 
He had some knowledge of Italian, but he spoke French almost as a native, and 
hence travelling in France was specially attractive to him. It was not only in Paris, 
where the late Professor Guibourt and other scientific friends always gave him a 
warm welcome, but in the provincial towns and in the cities of the South, wherever 



( Am. Jour. Pharm, 
1 May, 1875. 

there was a botanist ot standing, he found an open door, and often gained an 
acquaintance who became a valued correspondent, able to afford local or other spec- 
ial information. 

"But his journeys were not confined to France. In the year i860 he visited the 
Holy Land with Dr. Hooker, and of late years he frequently spent considerable 
time at a residence belonging to a brother near Mentone. Here he took great 
delight in introducing into the beautiful gardens the vast variety of interesting plants 
which can there be acclimatized, 

"During these journeys he frequently exercised his skill in water-color drawing, 
and the productions of his pencil, like those of his pen always possessed the rare 
merit of truthfulness, whilst a thoroughly artistic effect was preserved. The same 
exquisite delicacy of touch was apparent in his drawing, writing or printing, or form- 
ing of Arabic, Chinese, or other complicated characters. 

"In his frequent travels he seemed to have acquired something of the continental 
practice of using but little meat in proportion to the vegetable food taken. His diet 
was always spare, and it may be doubted whether his health did not suffer from the 
abstemiousness of his habit of living, coupled with the constant strain to which he 
subjected his mental powers. But, if this was so, the motive was never the gratifi- 
cation of ambition or other unwoithy object, but the pure love of action, and desire 
rightly to use the powers bestowed upon him. No feature of his life was, in fact, 
more striking than his freedom from that anxious self-assertion wliich too often dis- 
figures the characters of men of science. Whilst remarkably self reliant, he never 
sought to thrust himself into notice, but rather kept out of view until drawn out by 
those who had learned his worth. Though never robust, his health rarely impeded 
his activity, and slight ailments were resolutely disregarded. There were no indica- 
tions of approaching illness until he was attacked with a severe rigor about the 6th 
of March 5 this was followed by serious inflammation of the mouth, and on the 
subsidence of this local affection symptoms of typhoid fever appeared. On the i8th 
his condition first caused serious alarm. With little apparent change, his strength 
gradually failed till the evening of the 24th, when he peacefully passed away. 

"Long will the memory of his fine, thoughtful features and spare frame dwell 
with many who have known and valued him, and long will they continue to miss the 
decided tones in which his clear judgment and exact knowledge were unhesitatingly 
expressed. With him every benevolent object connected with science or scientific 
men has lost a munificent supporter. 

" Mr. Hanbury remained to the last a member of the Society of Friends, amongst 
whom he had been brought up. With characteristic reticence, he- scarcely ever 
alluded to his own religious experience, but his habits of devotion, and an occasional 
expression, afford evidence of the reality of his Christian faith. 

" That a man thus endowed with talents, both natural and acquired, should be 
taken away ere he completes his fiftieth year, is to us an inscrutable mystery. The 
light of eternity alone can reveal the full significance of any life." 

George D. Wetherill, one of the original members of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy, died in this city April 13th, aged eighty years. He commenced 
business, on North Front street, in 1816, and, though not active in it for some years, 
was, at the time of his death, the senior partner of the well-known firm of George 
D. Wetherill & Co. During his last illness, his wife, Catharine C, was assiduous 
in her attention toward him ; but, as the mortal remains of her husband were carried 
away to his last resting-place, she breathed her last on the fifty-ninth anniversary of 
their marriage-day. 

William Brown, for many years in business, in Boston, as an apothecary, died 
there, in his seventieth year, February loth. The deceased was born, at Little 
Compton, R. I., and, with three brothers, all apothecaries, settled in Boston, where, 
by industry and perseverance, he gained for himself a high reputation. He had 
been a member of the American Pharmaceutical Association since 1858. 



JUNE, 1875. 



[From an Inaugural Essay.) 

The plant is propagated by cuttings c)f the rhizome, which are sent 
out from the main root annually, and have to be removed each year, 
which constitutes what is termed grubbing. This is performed in the 
spring, as soon as the frost is out of the ground sufficiently to permit, 
that the young shoot or vine, after it starts, may not be broken off 
during the process. 

The kind of soil best adapted to the growth of the plant, in the 
vicinity of Reedsburg, Sauk county, Wisconsin, is a rich, black sandy 
loam, with a subsoil that will hold water well, enabling the vine to 
withstand drought. The locations found to be best adapted are elevated 
tables, where there is a free circulation of air, but shielded from heavy 
winds, which are very injurious to the fruit at the time of ripening, 
because they whip the branches against each other, breaking off some 
and causing the outer surface of the bracts to turn reddish-brown, 
which greatly injures the appearance. 

In starting hop-yards, the rhizomes removed by grubbing are cut into 
pieces six to eight inches long, each piece containing two or three pairs 
of eyes, and planted as early in the spring as the weather will permit, 
usually in April, four or five pieces being placed in a hill. The hills 
are usually set eight feet apart in each direction, and in straight rows. 
When the plants come up they should be cultivated the same as corn. 
The hop-plant does not yield the first year, not until the second year, 
when the vine is trained on poles prepared for the purpose, fifteen to 
sixteen feet in length, and two or three poles are set to a hill, and two 
or three vines are run up each pole. When three poles are used, gen- 
erally two vines are run up each. 


242 Hop Culture in Wisconsin. 

The plant flowers about the middle of July, and remains in blossonrs 
from a week to ten days, when it expands (which is termed hopping- 
out) and forms the strobiles of commerce. They soon attain their full 
size, but are allowed to remain on the vine to mature until about the first 
of September, when picking commences. The picking is performed 
mostly by women and children, who gather the fruit into boxes, the 
size of which is regulated by law. Each consists of a large box,, 
usually made of pine or some light wood, divided into four equal com- 
partments, each compartment measuring three feet long, one foot and 
a half wide and two feet in depth, and hold about seven bushels. 

The pickers are arranged four to a box, each picking in one of the 
small compartments, which constitutes, when full, what is termed a box 
of hops. The average number of boxes picked per day by our pickers 
is two, which varies, however, according to the sprightliness of the 
person, some picking three to four, and others only one to one and a 
half boxes, for which thev receive generally from thirty to forty cents 
per box. 

The average weight of a box of hops, when dried, is about ten 
pounds. The drying is performed in kilns, in houses which are built 
either of stone, brick or wood. Stone or brick is preferred, but 
wood is mostly used with us, and is plastered all the way up on the in- 
side to the peak, to prevent the escape of heated air laterally. The 
kilns vary in size. A common size is about 16 x 20 feet, and 14 to 
15 feet from the ground to the kiln floor, and about 8 feet from the 
kiln floor to the roof, which is a common gable roof, with an opening 
or cupola about the centre of the peak. The kiln floor is made of 
slats 1 inch by 2 or 2J inches, set upon the edge, about two inches 
apart, upon which is spread a cloth, usually burlap, weighing eleven 
ounces to the vard. At the bottom of the kiln, on each side, are one 
or two holes, about three feet long by one foot high, called airholes,, 
and closed by a slide. The heat is received from a stove placed on the 
ground floor, with the pipe running around the room in the form of a 
square, or parallel with the walls of the kiln, about five or six feet below 
the kiln cloth, so as not to scorch the hops. The hops are now placed 
upon the kiln, and are spread from a foot to a foot and a half in thick- 
ness. The fire is then started gradually, with the airholes open below, 
and the cupola open above, to admit a good current of cool air 
in from below, and allow the escape of the heated air from the top. 
The temperature is raised during the early part of the drying to ioo°- 

Am. Jour. Fharm. 
June, 1875. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1875. j 

Hop Culture in Wisconsin. 


120° F., when the hops have become thoroughly warmed, so as to give 
out their moisture, which is commonly known as sweating. Brim- 
stone is burnt on the stove for the purpose of bleaching. The quantity 
of brimstone used varies according to the condition of the hop : when 
the hop is bright and free from disease, and a light-green color is de~ 
sired, only two or three pounds are used to a kiln of about twenty 
boxes ; but when a bright golden-yellow color is required, or when the 
hop has been injured by disease or wind, then larger quantities are re- 
quired, say from three to four pounds, or even as high as live or six 
pounds. The brimstone is placed in a small dish on the stove, a small 
quantity at a time, and this is repeated until the moisture is mostly ex- 
pelled from the hop. In some instances, when the hop has been injured, 
or become brown on the vine, the bleaching process is desired to be 
continued after the natural moisture has been expelled. In this case, 
sprinkling the hop on the kiln, or setting kettles of water on the stove 
are resorted to. The time required to dry a kiln of hops is about 
twelve hours. When the hop is a little green, as at the beginning of 
the picking season, more time is required, and, at the close, when the 
hop has become fully ripe and does not contain as much moisture, less 
time is required. The heat should be very carefully regulated, not 
running above 1 10° or 120° F. in the commencement, as there is danger 
of scorching when the hop is full of moisture, then gradually increasing 
the heat as the process goes on to i40°-i50° F. Great care is neces- 
sary, that the temperature may not be allowed to recede during any 
stage of the process, as the steam will settle back on the hops and give 
them a dull, darkish color, which materially lessens their market value. 
The drying is considered complete, when one hop out of four or five is 
found brittle when taken from the surface of different parts of the kiln. 
The fires are then suffered to die out, and the hops allowed to remain 
on the kiln until cool, the doors being thrown open to hasten the cool- 
ing. They are then shoved off from the kiln into a room, called a 
cooling-room, where they are allowed to lay until wanted for baling. 
They should be examined every day to see that they do not heat, which 
is sometimes the case when they have been insufficiently dried. They 
should be allowed to remain in the cooling-room four or five days before 
baling, or, better, about two weeks, when not in haste to shove them 
into the market, as they are then not required to be dried quite so much 
on the kiln, and allowed to finish in the cooling-room, which makes a 
softer, silkier sample, and one not as liable to be broken and powdered 
in baling. 

•244 Hop Culture in Wisconsin, {^""i^^^ln""' 

Baling is performed in portable presses of sufficient power to make a 
handsome bale, weighing about two hundred pounds. Care is neces- 
sary in baling not to powder and break the hops, as there is a great loss 
of strength by the lupulin sifting out, and it also injures their appear- 
ance upon which their market value largely depends. 

For pharmaceutical use they are pressed into quarter-pound, half- 
pound and pound packages. 

In the years of 1866-68 the yield reached the almost increditable 
amount of 2,400 to 2,500 pounds per acre, 2,000 pounds per acre be- 
ing only a fair yield ; but since then, owing partly to a lack of care in 
culture, caused by a decline in price for a few years below the cost of 
production, and the appearance in our yards of the hop-leaf louse [Aphis 
humuli)^ which make their appearance on the lower leaves of the vine 
about the middle or last of June. When the weather is favorable for 
their increase (warm, muggy weather especially), they increase so 
rapidly that they weaken the vine by sapping the juice, but they do not 
do much damage usually until the hop is fully formed and a few days 
before picking, when, if the weather is warm and muggy, two or three 
days is sufficient to almost destroy the whole crop. They go into the 
hop after it is formed and suck the juice from the tender bracts, and 
their piercing of the bracts causes the juice to exude, which, in dry or 
bright weather, evaporates and does no damage ; but in damp, muggy 
weather the evaporation is so retarded that it produces decay at the 
point of puncture, the effect of which is a black spot, known as mould ; 
and, when the lice are in sufficient numbers, the strobiles will be found 
to be almost entirely black inside, and are then nearly worthless. This 
and other causes have lessened the vitality of the vine to such an ex- 
tent, that 1200 to 1500 pounds per acre is now a large yield, and the 
average yield will not exceed 600 to 800 pounds per acre. The crop 
of the entire State of Wisconsin for 1874 was from 15,000 to 20,000 
bales, not over about one-half what it was in 1868. The cultivation 
of hops is conceded to be more renumerative than any other class of 
farming, when followed for a succession of years. 

As the quality of the hop depends largely upon the amount of lupu- 
lin it contains, care is necessary to select those which have been fully 
matured on the vine before picking, when the lupulin will be found in 
much greater abundance, and of better quality. When derived from 
the fresh hop it is of a very brilliant light-lemon color, almost trans- 
parent, and of a strong aromatic odor. When rubbed between the 

"""june'.g^s""'} Hop Culture in Wisconsin, 245 

fingers the grains are very easily broken and adhere to the fingers, but 
on exposure to the Hght, or when from older hops, it becomes darker 
in color, more opaque, and less gummy when rubbed between the fin- 
gers, according to the age. Owing to the difficulty of separating the 
powder from new hops (from the tendency it has to adhere to the scales, 
because of the resinous exudation with which it is coated, making its 
yield by mechanical process smaller), and the comparatively high price 
of new hops, as compared to old, making it less remunerative, the 
powder is mostly obtained from old hops. When the hop becomes 
old the resinous exudation coating the lupulin concretes, and no longer 
adheres to the leaf, when it can be easily separated by whipping the 
strobiles and sifting. When liops have become a year old, or as 
soon as the new crop comes into market, they are called old, and com- 
mand only about one-half the price of the new crop. When two years 
old they are called old-olds, and are still less valuable, and when five 
years old are considered worthless to brewers, although they still con- 
tain the lupulin, which still possesses a part of its bitterness, but is des- 
titute of volatile oil. 

The age of a hop can be told pretty accurately until it has attained 
three years, after that it is very doubtful. During the first year they 
retain their bright color and fine, strong aromatic smell, and the lupu- 
lin is bright yellow. 

The second year they become darker, more dead-like, losing their 
bright color, and have a sweetish, slightly cheesy odor, the latter due 
to the oxidation of the volatile oil, converting it into valerianic acid. 
The lupulin is of a golden-yellow color. 

The third year the color is not much changed, but the odor becomes 
faint, with the same cheesy smell. The lupulin is of a dark-yellow or 
reddish tint. As the narcotic properties are due to the volatile oil, the 
hop should be obtained as fresh as possible ; and the " tincture " made 
from a fresh, well-matured hop is preferable to one made from old 
lupulin, although it would not be as uniform in strength, from the great 
range in quality \ but, as it is difficult to obtain either hops or lupulin 
fresh at all times, the lupulin is preferable, as it is of more uniform 
strength and retains its properties longer. 

The hop, when old, is of very unequal strength, from the loss of 
lupulin sifting out in handling. 

246 Benzoin Odoriferum. — Asclepias Incarnata. {"^'^ ^me.'isjs'"'' 


[Abstract from an Inaugural Essay.) 

The author obtained from sixteen troyounces of the berries, dried 
and reduced to coarse powder, by exhausting it with petroleum benzin, 
seven troyounces of an oily liquid of a beautiful deep red color, very 
aromatic in taste and highly odorous. It is soluble in bisulphide of 
carbon, ether and chloroform, and partly soluble in alcohol, glycerin 
and turpentine. Its specific gravity is '925. It was used in several 
cases in liniments, acting as a good stimulant, and it even appears to 
be applicable for lubricating purposes. 

By distilling eight troyounces of the fresh berries with water, four 
fluidrachms of a colorless volatile oil was obtained, having the specific 
gravity '87 and a very fragrant odor, resembling somewhat that of jes- 
samine. The author suggests that it could doubtless be used with 
advantage in perfumery.* 



[Abstract from an Inaugural Essay.) 

This plant is known under the names of rose-colored silk-weed, 
white Indian hemp, swamp milkweed, flesh-colored Asclepias^ etc., and 
is found in almost all parts of the United States. The rhizome and 
rootlets are officinal. 

A cold infusion of lOOO grains of the powdered root in four fluid- 
ounces of water, had a decidedly acrid taste and a slight alkaline reac- 
tion to test-paper. On heating it a coagulum appeared (albumen), and, 
after acidulation with muriatic acid, a whitish precipitate occurred with 
iodoyhdrargyrate of potassium ; the alkaloid thus indicated was not ob- 
tained in a pure state. Treatment with carbonate of sodium, and after- 
wards WMth diluted muriatic acid, produced a copious gelatinous pre- 
cipitate, which was partly soluble in acetic acid ; the presence of a 
pectin compound was thus proven. The powder exhausted with cold 
water gave, with iodine, evidence of the presence of much starch. 

The above figures give the large yield of volatile oil, equal to 5 per cent, of the 
weight of the fresh berries. It deserves closer investigation. — Ed. Am. Journ. 

^^"junerT?7i'™'} Rectification of Alcoholic Liquids, 247 

A tincture made with alcohol, spec. grav. '835, had a fine, brown- 
ish-yellow color with a tinge of green, was slightly acid to test-paper, 
and possessed a less disagreeable taste than the infusion. On evapor- 
ating the tincture, 1000 grains of the root were found to yield 210 grains 
(21 per cent.) of extract, which consisted of fixed oil and two resins, 
one soluble and the other insoluble in ether, the former of which had 
a stronger acrid taste than the latter. 

A trace of volatile oil was obtained on distilling the root with water. 
Glucose was detected by Trommer's test in the infusion and tincture. 

The air-dried root yielded, on an average of three experiments, 8*25 
per cent, of ashes, containing silica, and chlorides and sulphates of 
potassium, sodium and calcium. 

The organic constituents are : albumen, pectin, starch, glucose, an 
alkaloid, fixed oil, volatile oil and two acrid resins. 



After fluid extracts are made, there is a very considerable amount of 
alcohol left within the material operated upon, which, by persons having 
no dreg still, can be recovered only by running water through the resi- 
due and distilling the mixture ; and sometimes the manufacturer is con- 
siderably annoyed by a tendency which the runnings from certain sub- 
stances, such as sarsaparilla, exhibit for the formation of large amounts 
of froth, which, filling the still, interrupts the process by coming over 
with the alcohol. 

This can be remedied by giving the runnings an acid reaction with 
sulphuric acid. Where a copper still is operated with, this will prove 
unobjectionable, as the menstruum will not corrode copper. 


No. I. 


Lately I bought Kanawha Salt No. i," which, by certain reactions, 
roused my suspicion that it contained besides lime other impurities of 
the nature of an alkaline earth. 

The examination to which it was subjected proved the presence of a 
large amount of barium chloride. 

248 Barium in Kanawha Salt. 

The filtered solution of salt was precipitated with carbonate of sodium^ 
the thoroughly washed precipitate, dissolved in hydrochloric acid, the 
solution evaporated to dryness, and the remnant heated in a platinum 
crucible for a long time, but not to fusion. After cooling, the mass 
was rubbed to a fine powder, introduced into a dry bottle and about 20 
to 24 parts of absolute alcohol added. 

After two days' maceration under frequent agitation, the undissolved 
portion was collected on filter, repeatedly washed with absolute alcohol 
and then dried. By dissolving it in water a small remnant was left on 
filter consisting of magnesia and sesquioxide of iron. The clear watery 
solution contained chloride of barium ; it gave with chromate of potas- 
sium a pale-yellow precipitate, with hydrofluosilicic acid a crystalline 
white precipitate, and in very dilute solution with sulphuric acid a white 
precipitate, insoluble in acid. 

The alcoholic solution burned with the reddish-yellow flame peculiar 
to lime, without showing the least carmine-red color characteristic for 
strontia. Evaporated to dryness to drive off the alcohol and then dis~ 
solved in water, the watery solution contained lime, magnesia and iron^ 
and besides a trace of barytes, as the acidulated solution produced with 
sulphate of calcium solution a slight turbidity. As chloride of barium 
is not entirely insoluble in alcohol, this trace of it in alcoholic solution 
is easily accounted for. My intention being only to prove the presence 
of barytes (or strontia, if present), I did not make a complete analysis. 

The barium chloride obtained in the above way being considerable^ 
I determined its quantity by precipitating the filtered salt solution^ 
strongly acidulated with hydrochloric acid, with solution of sulphate of 
calcium, washing, drying and weighing the precipitate. 

In this way from i8'325 salt were obtained, 0'68o sulphate of barium^ 
corresponding to 0'6o65 dry chloride of barium, or 0'7ii5 crystallized 
barium chloride, which latter amount represents 3*88 per cent. Finding 
so large an amount of barium chloride in the barrel from which the 
sample was taken for examination, I examined the balance of the bar- 
rels on hand and found some that did not contain any barytes at all, as. 
the solution remained entirely clear on addition of sulphate of calcium^ 
one barrel contained only traces, and another one again gave consider- 
able precipitate with calcium sulphate. 

Chloride of barium is much more soluble in boiling water than chlo- 
ride of sodium, and therefore, the circumstance that some salt is en- 
tirely free of barium chloride, while another one contains a great deal. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1875. / 

On the Syrup of Ferrous Iodide. 

is easily explained. By evaporating the salt-brine for crystallization^ 
the salt which crystallizes out first will be free of, while that obtained 
last must contain, barium chloride, if originally contained in the solution. 

Another brand of salt from the same salt region in West Virginia^ 
branded "West Virginia Salt," did not contain a trace of barytes. 

I must here also remark, that those salt solutions in which no barytes 
could be detected, did not give any reaction with barium chloride, and 
therefore did not contain sulphuric acid. 

The presence of chloride of barium as a natural constituent of Ka- 
nawha salt is very interesting in a geological aspect, since there are but 
few waters known in which barytes are found in solution. 

Its presence in the salt examined by me may, however, be owing to 
other than natural causes. In conversation with an extensive dealer in 
salt he observed that Kanawha salt was preferred by the pork- packers 
of this city to other brands, on account of its freedom from " lime," 
meaning doubtless sulphate of calcium. It is, therefore, not improb- 
able that the manufacturers of Kanawha salt remove sulphate of calcium 
by means of chloride of barium, which would amply explain its presence 
in the sample examined. 

If, however, chloride of barium is naturally present, the manufactu- 
rers of the salt in question should remove it by the addition of sulphuric 
acid, or preferably of sulphate of sodium ; correct analyses of the brines 
of the various salt-wells of the Kanawha valley would be very interest- 
ing, particularly, if some would be found not to contain barytes at all. 

LouisnjilUy Ky., May, 1875. 



[Read at the March Meeting of the California Pharmaceutical Society.) 
The "American Journal of Pharmacy" for the year i860, page 171, 
has a paper on liquor ferri iodidi, and the tests of iodine by F. F. Mayer„ 
which induced me to take up the subject, and I submit the following 
experiments made by me and the conclusions arrived at, to your kind 
notice : 

When iodine, iron and water are brought in contact, a small part of the 
iodine decomposing water, forms hydriodic acid, which, by a surplus of 
iron, is decomposed again to ferrous iodide and hydrogen. The quan- 
tity of ferric oxide formed, corresponds with the hydriodic acid, and it is 

250 On the Syrup of Ferrous Iodide. 

only by taking equivalent proportions of iodine and iron that HI will 
escape. The fresh solution of ferrous iodide, even when shaken with 
pulverized iron, turns blue litmus paper red, not indicating free HI, but 
merely the characteristic reaction of the iron groupe. 

My researches on this subject were made in the following way : 10 
grams of dry iodine, 2, 2 grams of iron filings, and 50 grams of water 
were put in a flask, connected by a bent glass tube with a receiver con- 
taining a small quantity of water ; the flask was exposed to a gentle 
heat until all the iodine was combined. The water in the receiver was 
found to contain HI equal to 0*025 grams of iodine. In the flask re- 
mained a brown liquid, yielding, by filtering, a greenish solution of fer- 
rous iodide, and leaving on the filter ferric oxide. The solution was 
tested and found to contain 9*975 grams of iodine. The process re- 
peated with a surplus of iron gave no HI, but by titre the full amount 
of iodine taken. 

A third experiment was made by heating 10 grams of iodine, 5 grams 
of iron filings, and 20 grams of water in the same apparatus ; the re- 
maining surplus of iron, well washed, was dissolved in diluted sulphuric 
acid, passing a slow stream of carbon dioxide in the meantime through 
the flask. The solution of ferrous and ferric sulphate, tested volume- 
trically with potassium permanganate, gave the quantity of ferric oxide, 
and this the equivalent HI, which was generated and decomposed again 
during the process equal to 0*075 grams. 

My volumetric tests were made by heating 10 to 15 c.c. of the 
liquid ferrous iodide with 4 to 5 grams of dry ferric chloride. The 
iodine evolved was led in a solution of potassium, iodide, and this 
was tested with a volumetric solution of sodium hyposulphite. The 
liquid in the flask containing the iron salts was immediately diluted with 
cold distilled water and tested with a volumetric solution of potassium 
permanganate. As i equivalent of ferric chloride and i of iron form 
3 equivalents of ferrous chloride, only one-third of the iron found was 
contained in the liquid ferrous iodide. 

These results differ entirely from Mr. Mayer's experiments, as he 
could not find, in a single instance, the liquid ferrous iodide to contain 
the full amount of iron corresponding to the quantity of iodine em- 
ployed. The deficiency is only explainable by the impurities of the 
iodine, especially its moisture, but where allowance is made for these, 
the amount of iron in the liquid will correspond equivalently with the 
iodine employed. 

^"^jlTjjs:""- } On the Syrup of Ferrous Iodide, 2 5 1 

Further, says Mr. iMayer, that the officinal liquor ferri iodidi con- 
tains free hydriodic acid, and the quantity of iron in solution is not suf- 
ficient to bind all iodine. 

This conclusion differs from my experiments. The aqueous solution 
of ferrous iodide is very liable to decomposition. Ferric oxide is pre- 
cipitated and free iodine is held in solution. This is only effected by 
the formation of HI, which again is decomposed into hydrogen and 
iodine, and naturally the amount of iron will decrease in the liquid as 
the process goes on. 

The existence of a ferric iodide is very doubtful. Ferrous iodide 
dissolves free iodine, but the solution gives only the reactions of a fer- 
rous salt and of free iodine. Freshly- precipitated ferric oxide dissolved 
in HI yields by heating only iodine and ferrous iodide.* The aque- 
ous solution evaporated in a glass retort in a water-bath to syrupy con- 
sistence gives, on cooling, a greenish-black, solid ferrous iodide which, 
dissolved again, contains free iodine ; even when passing a stream of 
carbon dioxide over the evaporating solution, I could not succeed in 
getting a greenish solution from the salt. As most of the dry ferrous 
iodide of commerce is decomposed, I would recommend every apoth- 
ecary to prepare it himself at a minute's notice, by pulverizing iodine 
with the aid of a few drops of alcohol, and adding pulverized iron in 
slight excess, the chemical heat evaporates the few drops of alcohol 
and leaves a hard, black, ferrous iodide. 

Samples of syrup, obtained from different retail stores in San Fran- 
cisco, showed a variation of from 10 to 46 grains of iodine to the 
fluidounce. In some cases a syrup -of standard strength had evidently 
not been aimed at, but in some the deficiency might be explained by the 
moisture of the iodine and the carelessness of the operator. I would 
recommend the following way of making the syrup : 

Test first your resublimed iodine for water by heating a weighed 
quantity of it in a watch-glass until fumes of iodine commence to 

According to Mohr (1858), a mixture of ferric chloride and iodide of potassiums 
impart, after some time, merely a faint blue color to starch paste, and solution of fer- 
rous sulphate will dissolve notable quantities of iodine, before the iodine and starch 
reaction occurs. Ferric hydrate, ether and iodine yield, according to Nickles (1865), 
a red solution, which is precipitated blue by ferrldcyanide of potassium, and we may 
add, that syrup of ferrous iodide will indicate the presence of a ferric salt by sulpho- 
cyanide of potassium, before ferric oxide is deposited. These facts appear to us to 
demonstrate the existence of ferric iodide, although a portion of the iodine is held 
in a loose com-bination. — Editor Amer. Jour. Phar. 


Syrup of Acacia, 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1875. 

escape, then cover it with another watch-glass exactly fitting the firsts 
and drive the iodine into this by increasing the heat j the difference in 
weight gives the amount of water. 

After this preliminary proceeding, put into a glass-stoppered bottle 
the full quantity of iodine, a surplus of iron, best in the shape of small 
French nails or fine wire, water sufficient to make, with double the 
weight of sugar, the exact volume of syrup. Expose the bottle to a 
gentle heat until the iodine is combined, filter when cold, and make 
the syrup by gently heating the solution with the sugar. If time is 
given, the heating is unnecessary, as an occasional shaking of the bottle 
is sufficient to bring on the chemical combination between the iodine 
and the iron. 

The quantity of sugar of the officinal formula is insufficient ; the 
syrup will keep better when thicker, though even then it is liable to the 
same decomposition, but slower than the aqueous solution. As a pre- 
ventative, Mr. Mayer recommends sodium hyposulphite ; this is surely 
of all known remedies the best, but he decomposes it by iodine, and so 
converts it into sodium iodide and sodium tetrathionate. A solution of 
ferrous iodide, prepared by his formula, separated ferric oxide in twenty- 
four hours. But when a small quantity of sodium hvposulphite was 
added to the fresh syrup, it kept its greenish color well for months. 

Experiments which I made with a browned syrup to restore the color 
by iodine and heat, as found by Mr. Mayer, were not successful, though 
some iodine escaped with the vapors. A dark syrup exposed to the 
rays of the sun turned greenish by the conversion of the free iodine into 



Syrup of gum arable prepared by the officinal formula is, as Mr» 
Rother remarks of the mucilage, remarkable for its instability ; yet its 
superior adaptability as a demulcent, and, many times in the prepara- 
tion of pills, troches and mixtures, make it a very desirable prepara- 
tion. However, in localities, and at times when business in the pre- 
scription department is slack, we frequently turn to our syrup bottle only 
to find its contents sour. 

Some time since, while reading an article by Mr. Rother, on muci- 

* Compare also papers on the same subject published In "American Journal of 
Pharmacy," 1854 and 1855. — Editor. 

Phosphorus Pills. 253 

lage, it occurred to me that glycerin would apply as well to the syrup. 
The first time I had occasion to prepare some of the syrup I sub- 
stituted one ounce of glycerin for one ounce of the water, and followed 
the officinal formula in other respects. 

The result was unsatisfactory, as some sugar was precipitated. Since, 
I have used the following : 

Take of Acacia, in pieces, ..... 2 troyounces, 

Glycerin, ....... i fluidounce. 

Water, ....... 7 fluidounces, 

Sugar, . . , . . . . .13 troyounces. 

Mix the glycerin and water, then dissolve the gum arable in the mix- 
ture and strain, add the sugar and dissolve with a gentle heat ; finish 
by raising to the boiling point. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meetings May iZth.) 

Various excipients have been proposed for phosphorus, a few only of 
which I shall notice. 

At the request of physicians, I have used balsam of tolu, dispensing 
the pills under water, also coating with mucilage gum arable and French 
chalk. The balsam is very easily handled by triturating it and the 
phosphorus together under hot water. 

After repeated experiments with various substances, I adopted the 
following formula, viz.. 

Take of Butter of cacao, . . . . . . . gr. 300 

Powdered white castile soap, . . . . • gr- ^00 

Phosphorus, . . . . . . . . gr. 25 . 

Melt the butter of cacao in a capsule, transfer to a quinine bottle, add 
phosphorus and shake vigorously ; add the soap and continue agitation, 
applying some heat, if necessary, until the phosphorus is all taken up. 
The mass is easily, if rapidly, worked. Make into five hundred pills, 
containing one-twentieth grain of phosphorus each. Coat with muci- 
lage of gum arable and French chalk. They will stand a dry heat of 
110° without running together. Their behaviour under heated water 
compared with other excipients is as follows : 

No. I. Pills made according to the foregoing formula; No. 2, by 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
June, 1875. J 

2 54 Experiments with Pills of Phosphorus. { 

Bullock & Crenshaw ; No. 3, by Warner & Co., and No. 4, made 
with balsam of tolu. 

All were placed in water at 90° F. and heat gradually raised. In two 
minutes coating on No. 2 entirely dissolved, but pill hard. 

In five minutes No. i completely liquified. 

The heat was now up to 98°, showing little effect upon No. 3, and 
none whatever upon No. 4. 

In six minutes coating on No. 3 was slowly dissolving. Heat raised 
to 110°. No. 3 coating dissolved and pill with No. 2, slowly separat- 
ing, but not softened much. No. 4 soft, but retaining form. After 
half an hour's digestion, Nos. 2 and 3 still undissolved, no change in 
No. 4. From these simple experiments, we see the relative solubility 
in the stomach of the various excipients used in making these pills. 

One of our physicians made several experiments with some of the 
above pills, the results of which are given in connection with this pa- 
per. These pills can be made of any desired strength, and will keep 
indefinitely. I present a sample made as above. It is not the purpose 
of this article to enter into the discussion of the action of phosphorus 
upon the system, but that its effects and doses ought to receive more 
attention no one will dispute, especially as it is being extensively used, 
and in such variable doses. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, May iSth.) 

Experiments with phosphorus pills, combined with the excipient bal- 
sam of tolu^ one-twentieth grain in each pill, (No. 4 of pill series in 
preceding paper.) 

Experiment i . — Two pills were taken one hour after a hearty meal, 
by adult male, in good health. Examination of faeces ten hours after- 
wards, revealed the pills as entire as when swallowed, but somewhat 

Experiment 2. — Another subject swallowed one pill half an hour 
after a hearty meal. The pill was recovered eighteen hours afterwards 
in the faeces, — hard, and as a nucleus, about which was gathered faeces 
one-sixteenth of an inch in thickness. 

^""june'igy^s^'""'} UhusuuI Doses and their Correctness ^ etc. 255 


Experiments with phosphorus pills, combined with the excipient silica^ 
one-sixtieth grain phosphorus in each pill, (No. 2 of preceding pill series.) 

Experiment i. — Three pills were taken by the same party, and under 
the same circumstances as in experiment I, of tolu series. 

Examination of faeces eight, twenty and thirty-two hours thereafter 
revealed no trace of the pills in that form. 

Experiment 2. — Two pills were taken by patient, who was subservi- 
ent to science in experiment 2, of tolu series, under same condition. 

No traces of pills in faeces in three succeeding evacuations. 


Experiments with pills of phosphorus, combined with the excipient 
cacao butter^ one-twentieth grain in each pill, (No. i pill series.) 

Experiment i. — Same subject as in preceding experiments, and under 
same circumstances. Two pills were taken. In half an hour, breath 
heavy with odor of phosphorus. 

In fourteen hours faeces were examined ; failed to find any vestige 
of the pills. 

Experiment 2. — Patient No. 2 swallowed two pills, one hour after 
hearty meal. Odor detected in breath in quarter of an hour. Could 
find no traces of the pills in faeces in succeeding discharges. 

These experiments were conducted with great care, and under favor- 
able circumstances, and go to show the relative value of the excipients,, 
balsam tolu, silica and cacao butter. 



[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meetings May i?,th.) 

I have often thought of the necessity and convenience of having a 
system of marks or signs between physicians and pharmacists, as sig- 
nificant as the letters " P.P." for poor and deserving, (something that the 
patient would not notice, or, if noticed, not know the import of it) to 
designate that the prescription has been reread after writing, when un- 
usual large doses are prescribed, and is correct. It would be of great 
benefit to the pharmacist and relieve him of a great deal of uncertainty, 
and many times save valuable time both to patient and pharmacist. 

It is an important part of the dispensing of prescriptions to see that 

T256 Unusual Doses and their Correctness, etc. 

no over or dangerous doses are administered ; and how frequently it is 
necessary to consult the physician before the prescription can be com- 
pounded properly (as there are none of us of either profession perfect), 
every pharmacist knows. 

My attention has lately been forcibly drawn to this subject from some 
prescriptions I have been called on to dispense, viz.': Fifteen (15) 
grain doses of bismuthi subnit. every three hours, for child five months 
old. Two and a half (2J) grain doses acid, carbolic, crystal., three times 
a day (for adult.) Three (3) drop doses tr. aconit. rad. every two 
hours (adult). Three-quarter (J) grain doses morphiae sulph. every 
two hours (adult). Half drop doses acid, hydrocyan. dil. U. S. P. 
every three hours (child 10 years). 

And yet each of these were legitimate prescriptions, given in these 
large doses for a specific purpose, and not to have dispensed them thus 
would have thwarted the purpose of the prescriber, while, in many 
other cases, would have resulted in serious consequences to the patient. 

What I would suggest is some symbol letter, word, or mark to de- 
signate to the pharmacist that the physician is fully cognizant of what 
he has written, and wishes it followed out (of course, this only to be 
applied in extraordinary cases). The pharmacist is at once relieved of 
all doubt and anxiety, and there is no need of questioning the applicant 
about the patient, or putting him ofF with the idea of a long time being 
necessary to compound the prescription, and in the meantime seeing the 
physician to find out his intentions ; all of which is calculated to cause 
doubt and distrust on the part of the applicant and patient. 

I would suggest that whenever an active substance is prescribed in 
large or unusual doses, the asterisk or check mark be used in connection 
therewith, and at the bottom the letters "C. C," signifying considered 
and correct, thus : 

K. — Liq. ammon : acet : f^iii- 

Spits, nitri dulc: ......... f^^ii. 

Tr. aconit : rad : ........ fgss. 

Syr. limonis, 2 s ft. . . . . . . . . f^iv. 

M. et sig. One dessert spoonful every two hours. 
C. C. 

I think the subject is of sufficient importance to bring to the notice 
of both professions, and respectfully submit it to their consideration. * 

The reader is referred to a paper on the same subject, by Mr. R. Hampson, pub- 
lished in "American Journal of Pharmacy, 1873, P^&^ 489> ' ^^^o to the discussion 
on the above paper, in the minutes of the Pharmaceutical meeting. — Editor, 

"^""junerXt™'} Cream of Camphor.— Paraffin Ointment. 257 



[From an Inaugural Essay). 

Cream of camphor prepared according to the following formula, has 
been used successfully in inflammatory affections of the throat, also 
catarrhal and other pectoral complaints of children, it having the ad- 
vantage over the linimentum ammoniae, U. S. P., on account of being 
free from all oily matter. 

To make cream of Camphor, take of 

White Castile soap ( in shavings), ...... Jiss 

Camphor, ........... 511 

Carbonate of ammonium, . ■ . . . . .* . 511 

Water, ........... Oiv 

Tincture of opium, , . . . . . . . f 

Oil of origanum, . . . . . . . . . f^i 

Alcohol and oil of turpentine, of each a sufficient quantity. 

Dissolve the soap-shavings in three pints of water and stand aside. 
Dissolve the carbonate of ammonium in the remainder of the water, 
and mix the two solutions. Then add the camphor, previously re- 
duced with alcohol to a thin paste, and agitate briskly. Oil of turpen- 
tine is then to be added in sufficient quantity, to bring the mixture to 
the consistence of a cream, on brisk agitation ; after which the tinc- 
ture of opium and oil of origanum are to be added, — then the whole is 
to be thoroughly mixed. 

As it is readily absorbed by the skin, it may be applied by the hand, 
or by saturating a piece of flannel and placing over the affected part. 




[Read at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, May iSth.) 
Preparation. — Procure a cylindrical percolator, having a height of 
from ten to twenty times its diameter, and arranged so that it can be 
maintained at a temperature of about 150° F. by a steam or water- 
bath. Introduce a diaphragm having about 300 perforations to the 
square inch, or tie a coarse cloth over the nozzle. Fill the percolater 
nearly to the top with granulated animal charcoal. Then allow the 
rectified residuum of the Smith's Ferry petroleum, of 30° Beaume 


Paraffin Ointment. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t June, 1875. 

gravity, to percolate through. Reserve as much of the percolate as is 
nearly free from color, odor and taste. Pass the succeeding portions 
through a second percolator arranged in the same manner, and when 
this ceases to decolorize and deodorize sufficiently, pour those portions 
which have already passed through the first and second percolators 
upon a third one. At every operation reserve those first portions of 
oil which are very light in color, and nearly devoid of the petroleum 
taste and smell. Add 16 parts of this purified oil to one part of best 
white, hard paraffin, which has been previously melted by means of a 

Notes on the above Process. — The melting point of the paraffin used 
was 140° F. That having a lower fusing point will probably answer 
■quite as well, if the amount is increased proportionally. The applica- 
tion of direct heat must be carefully avoided in every step of the pro- 
cess. Whenever it becomes necessary to melt the ointment subse- 
quently, this should always be done with the assistance of a water-bath. 
The color of the ointment will vary somewhat with the care used in 
the purification of the oil. By very slow and careful repercolation it 
may be obtained almost colorless. 

It is quite possible that the residuum of other oil wells may be equally 
appropriate for this purpose, but, of those experimented with, none 
were found that could be so conveniently purified as that of the Smith's 
Ferry Well, and the so-called cosmo-lubricating oil. The Smith's 
Ferry Well is located on the Ohio river, between Pittsburgh and Wells- 
ville, Ohio. We are informed that the crude oil obtained from it varies 
in gravity from 46° to 48° Beaume. The German edition of " Mus- 
pratt's Chemistry," published in 1868, specially mentions this oil on 
account of its clearness, transparency and freedom from sulphur, phos- 
phorus and arsenic compounds, to which the penetrating and offensive 
odor of ordinary crude coal oils is attributed. 

The natural Smith's Ferry oil yields from 15 to 20 percentum of 
residuum, after the benzin and burning oils have been removed by 
distillation. This residuum is rectified by treatment with from 10 to 
1 5 percentum of sulphuric acid, succeeded by sufficient caustic soda to 
neutralize it completely. All traces of chemicals are carefully re- 
moved by washing the oil three or four times successively with hot 
water. Its chief consumption is as an engine and cylinder oil, for 
which purposes it is very important that none of the acid is left adher- 
ent to it. The same residuum is also rectified in Elmira, New York, 

^'^'^TuSeTXt''"'"} Selections from Banish Archives f. Pharm. 259 

and elsewhere, by means of superheated steam, the process being 
patented. Provided the chemicals have been properly removed, the 
result is 'the same. We boiled a portion of our Smith's Ferry re- 
siduum for some time in distilled water, which remained entirely neu- 
tral to test paper. 

In the course of our experiments, we tried a number of other sub- 
stances, such as clay, sodic silicate, glycerin, willow charcoal, &c., for 
purifying the oil, but none were found at all comparable to animal char- 
coal. Still, it is really surprising, and, in fact, somewhat discouraging, 
that so large a proportion of this substance is requisite. On an average, 
two pounds of charcoal and a quart of residuum will yield only about 
a pint of purified oil, the other pint being retained by the bone-black. 
On a large scale, it will no doubt be advantageous to regain this by 
percolation with benzin, or perhaps by superheated steam. 

In warm summer weather, the water-bath can be dispensed with in 
the percolation of the residuum, as the purified oil melts at 70° F. and 
congeals at 60°. Paraffin ointment melts at 98° F., while the cerate 
softens at 80° and melts at 106° F.. 

Beeswax combines readily with the oil, and seems also to have the 
power of masking the petroleum odor, when this has not been com- 
pletely removed. We therefore suggest the following formula as an 
elegant substitute for simple cerate : 

Paraffin Cerate. Ceratum Paraffini. 
Pure beeswax, ........ i part. 

Purified paraffin oil, . 9 parts. 

Melt the beeswax on a water-bath and add the oil. 
Paraffin ointment seems to be peculiarly adapted for use as an appli- 
cation to the hair, as the hydrocarbons composing it are not like other 
oils, prone to combine with oxygen. It can be conveniently perfumed 
with any desirable odor. We present herewith, a sample of the fol- 
lowing : 

Paraffin Pomade. 

Paraffin ointment, ....... 10 ounces. 

Oil of rose, ......... 20 drops. 

Oil of Bergamot, ....... 30 drops. 



Mistake. — In putting up the following prescription : Morph. acet., 0-05 
grms. ; chloral hydrat., 5 grms. ; aq. dist., 60 grms., the clerk took hold 

26o Selections from Banish Archives/, Pharm, {^"j^erxsj^s"'"' 

of a bottle containing a solution of atropiae sulphas (1:30), which hap- 
pened (contrary to the poison-law) to stand next to a solution of 
chloral hydrate (1:2) ; consequently he took 10 grms. atropia solution 
(which would be equal to 5 grms. chloral hydrate, if he had taken the 
right bottle), so the mixture contained 33J centigrams sulphate of atro- 
pia. The mistake was first discovered the next morning by the clerk 
himself, who immediately notified the physician. The patient, by the 
prompt exhibition of appropriate remedies, recovered in two days ; he 
had only swallowed one tablespoonful, equal to about 8 centigrams. 

Administration of Nitrous Oxide Gas. — A dentist, who has studied 
dentistry and received a diploma in Philadelphia, applied to the Board 
of Health (Copenhagen) for permission to practice dentistry and ad- 
minister nitrous oxygen gas. He was permitted to practice ; but as to 
the gas, he was not at all permitted to make it, nor to administer it, 
unless in the presence of an authorized physician. 

Female Assistants. — By ordinance of January 15th, 1875, permissior^ 
was given to N. N.'s wife to pass .examination as assistant (Physicat- 
Examen). I believe this to be the first instance in Denmark. 

Sarepta Mustard., by H. Haurowiz. — Its unrivalled quality is chiefly 
due to its careful preparation. The plant grows in dry, clayey soil^ 
requires but little moisture and can stand a hot sun. The seed is sown 
in spring and harvested in the month of August, when it is dried in the 
sun, shelled and winnowed. The seeds are ground with a runner 
(drug-mill fashion), and the flour, packed in canvass-bags, is exposed 
for a certain time to steam, after which the oil is expressed. The care 
with which this part of the process is conducted is, in the opinion of 
the manufacturers, the real secret to its superior quality. In order to 
deprive the seeds as much as possible of the oil, only small quantities 
at a time (say 6-8 pounds) are expressed. The meal-cakes form bricks 
of by 2j by i inches, and are ground fine when large quantities 
have been collected. The different numbers refer to different degrees 
of fineness. The yield is stated to be : i bushel generally gives 6c 
bushels of seed ; 9 pounds of seed give i pound of oil. 

Russian Cure for Drunkenness., by H. Haurowiz. — For some time 
past Herba serpylli (wild thyme) has been used with great success to 
effect a permanent cure of drunkenness : in case of a relapse (only 
after years), a short treatment will effect a cure again. The treatment 
consists in making an infusion of wild thyme (ij oz. to ij pints), and 

■^"ji"x?7t'"*} Selections from Banish Archives/. Pharm. 261 

give the patient a teacupful every half hour. The next day it is given 
every two hours, and then 4-6 times a day until the cure is complete, 
which generally takes from 2-3 weeks. The effects are in the follow- 
ing order : vomiting, diarrhoea, increased urine, strong transpiration ; 
then, generally, increased appetite and craving for acidulous beverages. 
The diet : easily digested food, and lemonade or other acidulous liquids. 

Koumiss — The original way of preparing koumiss (in leather bags) is 
very dirty and uninviting. In Russia (Saratow) the following method is 
used, according to Haurowiz : The ferment is made by mixing two 
teacupfuls of wheat-flour dough, two spoonfuls of millet-flour, one 
spoonful of honey, one of good beer yeast and sufficient milk to form 
a not too thin paste, which is put in a moderately-warm place to fer- 
ment. This ferment is now put in a linen bag, and hung in a jar or 
keg containing sixteen pounds fresh mare's milk, cover and let stand 
till the milk has acquired a pleasant acidulous taste (about 16-24 hours, 
according to the temperature). The butter and cheese particles, which 
float about, are now skimmed, the liquid is poured into another keg 
and shaken for one hour, after which time it is filled into bottles, corked 
and put in the cellar A " cure " requires twelve to fifteen pounds 
of milk daily (two mares), and the best season is from May to July. 
The koumiss is taken early in the morning every half or one hour (a tea- 
cup to a tumblerful at a time) and plenty of exercise. 

The Estimation of Phosphoric Jcid^ by means of a volumetric solution 
of uranium, is rendered quite troublesome by titrating the latter. It is 
true, that we are told only to dissolve perfectly dry and non-efHoresced 
phospate of sodium lO'oSf grm. in one litre distilled water, and titrate 
with this solution ; but the trouble is to get always phosphate of sodium 
possessing the above qualities. Dr. C. J. Kayser (Sweden) recommends, 
therefore, the following : Dissolve pure phosphate of sodium in distilled 
water in the before-named quantities. Of this solution take 50 c.c. m., 
evaporate in a tared platinum crucible to dryness, and heat gradually in 
a sand-bath until the salt loses no longer in weight. It is easy now to 
calculate the quantity of phosphoric acid contained in the original 50 
c.c. m. of the solution, and, consequently, the titration of the uranium 
solution will be exact. — Farm. Tidskr..^ 1873,/). 130. 

Estimation of Nitrogen in Manures. — K. Lund recommends, as free 
from errors, to mix the sample of manure with bitartrate of potassium 
and soda-lime, introduce into a combustion-tube and ignite as usual. 

262 Detection of Adulterations in Beer, {^"jin^^s^^''''" 

The evolved ammonia is passed into a solution of tartaric acid in ab- 
solute alcohol, tartrate of ammonium being insoluble in it. — Tidskr.f 
Phys. and Chetn.^ i874« 

Ultimate Analysis, — Dr. C. J. Keyser modifies the combustion-tube^ 
by not drawing one end into a point ; he onlv closes it with a cork 
provided with a glass-tube drawn to a point. In this way he saves the 
combustion-tube, which, with some care, can serve for several oper- 
ations. — Farm. Tidskr.^ I^yS- 

Sale of Patent Medicines in Siueden. — A Frenchman, Damenez, ap- 
plied to the Board of Health for permission to advertise and sell his- 

specialties " in Sweden (after their being analyzed by the Board). 
The Board replied that there was nothing whatever to prevent him 
from advertising ; but, as to the sale, none but apothecaries are per- 
mitted to sell medicine in any shape, and no apothecary is permitted to* 
import compound medicines, but has to prepare them himself — hence his 
application had to be refused. — Farm. Tidskr.., 1875, No. 5. 



Without asserting that adulterations of malt liquors are practiced, the 
author admits the possibility of such occurrences, and proposes the fol- 
lowing course for detecting them : 

The addition of soda and potash is best detected by determining the 
amount of ashes, which, for German beer, should not exceed |^ per 
cent. English ales yield a much larger percentage of ashes [see "Phil. 
Magaz.," 1849, 3 ^^^-7 xxxiii, p. 341). If glucose has been substituted 
for a portion of malt, the amount of extractive matter in beer will be 
considerably reduced. The addition of glycerin is scarceij to be ap- 
prehended on account of its sweet taste. 

Of much greater importance is the substitution of hops by bitter 
drugs, none of which, however, contains the important principles of the 
former, namely, volatile oil, resin and tannin. Among the drugs which 
may possibly be used for the purpose indicated, bogbean (menyanthes\ 
gentian, wormwood and quassia, may be regarded as innocuous ; of 
greater import are the drastic drugs, aloes and colocynth, and positively 
dangerous are colchicum, cocculus indicus, nux vomica and picric acid. 

Condensed from a reprint from "Archiv der Pharmacie," January, 1875, <'om- 
jiiunicated by the author. 

^"'junerXt'"''} Detection of Adulterations in Beer, 263 

To detect these, one litre of the suspected beer is evaporated by a 
moderate heat to the consistence of a thick syrup, which is weighed 
in a glass cylinder, mixed with five times its weight of strong alcohol, 
whereby gum, dextrin, sulphates, phosphates and chlorides are precipi- 
tated. The clear liquid is decanted, the precipitate washed with alcohol, 
and the united filtrates evaporated to a syrupy consistence. 

a. A small portion of this syrupy residue is diluted with three times its 
weight of water and a piece of white woolen macerated in it for an 
hour, when it is repeatedly washed with clean water ; if picric acid was 
present the woolen will have acquired a yellow color, which cannot be 
removed by washing. 

h. The remaining largest portion of the syrupy residue is agitated for 
some time with six times its weight of pure, colorless benzol (boiling 
point 8o°C.=i76°F.) ; the operation is repeated, and the clear benzol 
solutions evaporated to dryness. The pale yellowish, resinous residue 
may contain hrucia^ strychnia^ colchicia^ or colocynthin. Several small por- 
tions of this residue are placed upon a porcelain plate ; to one, strong 
nitric acid is added, which will produce a red color if brucia, or a violet 
color if colchicia is present ; a red color produced upon another portion 
by concentrated sulphuric acid, indicates colocynthin \ and a purple color 
obtained by bichromate of potassium and sulphuric acid proves the pres- 
ence of strychnia. If none of these colorations have been produced, 
the resinous residue obtained as above will have the well-known bitter 
taste of hops ; otherwise this will be modified bv the taste of the 
principles mentioned. 

c. The syrupy residue above is freed from benzol by a moderate heat, 
and then twice agitated with pure, colorless amylic alcohol of 132^0. 
(267° F.) boiling point. The first portion of the amylic alcohol will 
have acquired a lighter or darker wine or golden-yellow color ; also, a 
strongly bitter taste if picrotoxin or aloes are present. The bitter princi- 
ples of hops, wormwood, gentian, bogbean and quassia, are not soluble 
in this solvent. A portion of the bitter amylic alcohol is evaporated 
spontaneously from a glass plate, when picrotoxin will separate in white 
crystals, and aloes may be recognized by the peculiar safFron-like color. 

d. A piece of filtering-paper will absorb the last portions of fusel 
oil from the syrupy residue, which is then agitated with ether. This 
solvent removes the remaining hop bitter, and will also dissolve a/?sint/?iin^ 
if present. The ether being evaporated, the absinthiin is recognized by 
the peculiar odor of wormwood and by the reddish-yellow coloration, 
changing to indigo-blue on the addition of sulphuric acid. 


IVhich is the best Sarsaparilla? 

J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t June, 1875. 

e. After the removal of the ether the syrupy liquid should be almost 
destitute of bitter taste ; if decidedly bitter, it may contain gentiopicrin^ 
menyanthin or quassiin. It is diluted with water, and to a portion of the 
filtrate some ammoniacal solution of silver is added and heat applied. 
Ouassiin, if present, does not disturb the clear solution ; the other two 
principles separate a mirror of metallic silver. The remaining liquid 
is evaporated to dryness, and to a portion of the cold residue concen- 
trated sulphuric acid is added, which occasions no coloration in the 
cold, but, on heating, a carmine-red color if gentiopicrin is present, and 
at once a yellowish-brown color, gradually changing to violet, if meny- 
anthin is present. 



The "Achiv der Pharmacie," 1875, April, pp. 331-352, contains an 
essay on this subject, detailing the results of an exhaustive investigation, 
such as have been made for some years past in the Pharmaceutical In- 
stitute of the University of Dorpart, Russia, under the supervision of 
Prof. Dragendorff. We can give only a brief abstract of this interest- 
ing paper. 

The air-dry substance, in coarse powder, was dried at 110° C. (230° 
F.) ; the loss indicated the moisture. The powdered root was exhausted 
by digestion with 30 per cent, alcohol, and the resulting dry extract 
weighed. The extract was exhausted with cold distilled water, and its 
sugar determined in the filtrate \ the residue was exhausted with boiling 
alcohol, which left a minute flocculent residue of a brown color. Af- 
ter the evaporation of the alcohol and drying, the brownish-yellow mass 
was weighed as smilacin. The residuarv root powder from the previous 
experiment was exhausted with cold distilled water, and the resulting dry 
extract weighed. This extract was again dissolved in water and the 
solution mixed with five times its volume of alcohol; the precipitate, 
after drying, was weighed as mucilage ; it was found to contain but a 
trace of albumen. The mucilage was incinerated and the ashes weighed. 
The starch was estimated by Fehling's solution after converting it into 
glucose by continued boiling with diluted sulphuric acid. The total 
percentage of ashes was determined by incinerating fresh portions of 
the root. The following table gives the results obtained for 100 parts 
of the air-dry roots : 

Am. Jour. Pharm 


875^.''"''} Gleanings from European Journals. 16^ 





CO. ext. 
luble in 



shes of 

q. ext. 
I. in ale. 



shes of 



rj.onciura.Sj ioy4* 











(( (( 


5 '44 




2' I 



45 'o 



1 oo5' 



I -26 






u ^5 


6-1 c; 

Caraccas, 1868. 











(( (( 

I I "2 











Italian, 1 865 . 

I I ' I 2 











Lisbon, (RioNegTo^ old. 

I I 02 











I 5 00. 












lalllcliCa, loQK. 

1 1 - 1 6 











<< (( 








^ 38 




Vera Cruz, without rhi- 

zome, 1874. 












Vera Cruz, without rhi- 

zome, unwashed, 1865. 






4-06 0-38 


6 92 



Vera Cruz, rhizome, old 






1-82 0-24 




" " roots, " 












Smilax aspera. 






















Thirty years ago the percentage of smilacin had been determined as 

follows : 

Vera Cruz. Lima. Caraccas. Lisbon. Honduras. Jamaica 

By Adrian. 1-688. 1-458. 1*292. 1-125. 1-083. 1-042. 
By Ingenohl. i 880. 1-410. i ioo. 

Since the virtues of sarsaparilla are most probably due to smilacin, 
it would appear that the Vera Cruz and Jamaica varieties are the best 
for medicinal purposes. M. 



Diluted Hydrocyanic Acid, — In a paper containing critical observations 
on the hydrocyanic acid of the French codex, A. Gault argues in favor 
of reducing the strength of this preparation to \ per cent., instead of 2 
per cent., as it is at present ; he believes, also, that greater stability is 
attained by employing diluted alcohol, instead of water, as the men- 
strum. — V Union Pharm.,, 1875? P- 36. 

Glycerin in Medical Pastes. — Ferdinand Vigier recommends to add to 
marshmallow paste and similar preparations some glycerin, to prevent 
them from getting dry and hard ; i part of glycerin to 40 parts of gum 
will be found sufficient for this purpose. This idea had suggested itself 
to him from the good results obtained by the addition of a little glycerin 
to pillmasses. 

•266 Gleanings from the European Journals. 

Medicated Gelatin. — In a paper read before the Therapeutical and 
Pharmaceutical Societies of Paris, Mr. Limousin describes an apparatus 
constructed by him for the exact preparation of medicated gelatin. It 
consists of a rectangular mould, which is divided by grooves into 60^ 
parts, each being 10 millimetres square. Upon this mould is fitted a 
cover similarly divided, but having the sides of the squares elevated. 
These plates are made of copper plated with silver. In the frame sur- 
rounding the mould, metallic strips are inserted, for the purpose of in- 
suring a uniform thickness of the gelatin sheets. After the solution of 
gelatin in water has been effected by the heat of a water-bath, the exact 
weight of a gelatin sheet is ascertained, as follows : The mould is 
slightly warmed, sufficient gelatin solution is poured upon it, the cover 
is put on, and the apparatus then subjected to some pressure. In a 
few moments the gelatin will have solidified, the sheet is removed from 
the mould and trimmed with exactness. Its weight is then ascertained^ 
and from this and the ascertained weight of the whole gelatin solution,, 
the amount of the medicament is readily calculated, which is necessary 
to obtain gelatin squares so as to represent exactly any desired weight 
of the medicament.— ^e/)^r/. de Phann.^ 1875, March 25th, p. 161. 

Rhatanin. — Dr. Wittstein discovered (1854) in South American ex- 
tract of rhatany a crystallizable compound, which he stated to be ident- 
ical with tyrosin. E. Ruge obtained (1862) the same compound, which 
he found to be homologous with tyrosin, and named rhatanin. Dr. 
G'mtX (see " Amer. Journ. Pharm.," 1869, p. 300) obtained the same 
compound from a Brazilian resin, known as resina d'angelim pedra. 
Dr. Kreitmair recently (1874) investigated this subject, and obtained 
that compound from an old sample of extract of rhatany by the follow- 
ing process : The extract was treated with much water, the solution 
precipitated with subacetate of lead, the filtrate treated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen and the filtrate concentrated. The crystals now obtained 
were freed from the mother-liquor, dissolved in ammonia containing 
some ammonium carbonate, filtered from the calcium carbonate and 
again crystallized ; they were obtained pure by dissolving them in hot 
water, adding some subacetate of lead, treating with sulphuretted hydro- 
gen and filtering while boiling hot. Its composition is CjoH^.^NOg. 

To obtain a larger quantity of this body, the author examined numer- 
ous samples of extract of rhatany, obtained from different parts of Ger- 
many, one, at least, having been imported from Peru, but rhatanin could 
not be obtained from them or from the root, nor could it be found in 

^""june^^js?™'} Gleanings from the European Journals. 267 

catechu or kino. It is possible, but not proven, that the extract of 
rhatany exported from Peru is adulterated there. Subacetate of lead 
produced with the extracts of rhatany dark-red precipitates, except with 
those imported from Peru, with which the precipitates were pale, pur- 
plish-red. — Ann. d. Chemie^ vol. 176, p. 64-70. 

Refrigerating Mixtures of Snow and Sulphuric Acid. — Prot. D. L» 
Pfaundler has instituted a series of investigations on this subject, from 
which it follows, that an acid containing 66' 19 per cent. H2SO4 is the 
most advantageous for the purpose ; i part of it with 1*097 P^i'^s of 
snow will reduce the temperature to — 37°C. ( — 30'6^F.), but for prac- 
tical purposes an excess of snow will be better, since the refrigerating 
value of the mixture is thereby largely increased, though the lowest 
temperature is not attained. — Anzeig. K. Akad. d. JViss. Wien.^ 1875^ 
No. 9. 

On the Coagulation of Albumen. — Gautier's results agree with those of 
Urbain, according to which albumen, which has been deprived of its 
gases in a vacuum, and diluted with 8 to 10 parts of water, is scarcely 
coagulated at the boiling temperature ; but is modified so that it is pre- 
cipitated even in the cold by the weakest acids and dissolved again by 
an excess thereof. — Chem. Centralbl. 1875, No. 11, from Bull. Soc\ 
Chem. Paris. See, also, Amer. four. Phar. 1874, p. 361. 

Cauterizing pencils of sulphate of copper are best prepared, according 
to W. StefFen, by heating the crystals slowly in a porcelain dish, stir- 
ring constantly. The salt fuses at first and after a short time acquires a 
pasty consistence ; the plastic mass is now rolled out upon a warm board 
or plate, like a pill mass, into any desired form, thickness or length. 
Such pencils may be kept for years and can be pointed like a lead pen- 
cil. Pencils of alum and of a mixture of alum and sulphate of copper 
may be made in the same manner. After a few trials the proper degree 
of consistency is easily attained. — Phar. Centralh. 1875, No. 11. 

Salicylic acid becomes more soluble in water * and its antiseptic and 
disinfecting properties are considerably increased by combining it with 

* Mr. Fred. Toussaint, of New York, informs us that ammonium phosphate in- 
creases the solubility of an equal weight of salicylic acid in water and glycerin,. 
Ten grains each of salicylic acid and ammonium phosphate yield with a mixture of 
2 drachms each of water and glycerin a permanent solution 5 also 15 grains each of 
the two former with 2 drachms of water and 4 of glycerin. — Editor Amer. Jour. 

^68 Gleanings from the European Journals, {^"jJS'xfy';""- 

sulphite of sodium ; 2 parts of the latter, and i part of salicylic acid 
yield with 50 parts of water a clear solution, which according to M. 
Rozsnyay, does not irritate wounds and preserves milk for a much longer 
period than a solution of salicylic acid with sodium phosphate. — Ibid.^ 
No. 13. 

Neutral tannate of quin'ia is obtained, according to M. Rozsnyay, by 
dissolving the quinia sulphate in boiling water without the aid of acid 
and adding thereto the tannin solution neutralized with some largely 
diluted ammonia ; thus prepared it is entirely tasteless and more soluble 
m the stomach than that ordinarily met with. One part of sulphate 
yields 2*5 parts of tannate of quinia. — Ihid. 

To distinguish petroleum benzin from benzol^ Pusch uses a little iodine, 
which dissolves in coal-tar benzin (benzol) with a violet-red, and in 
petroleum benzin with a raspberry-red color, the latter being so preva- 
lent that the addition of a small quantity of petroleum benzin to benzol 
can thus be readily detected. — Ibid.^ No. 16. 

Testing Oil of Chinese Cinnamon. — To detect adulterations with fixed 
oils, rosin oil, &c., Hager recommends to agitate it with an equal vol- 
ume of petroleum benzin, which yields a turbid mixture becoming 
clear in several hours. Petroleum benzin dissolves at 5° to 10° C. (41° 
to 50° F.) nothing, at the ordinary temperature not over 2 per cent, of 
the volume of oil of cinnamon cassia, the adulterations mentioned being 
soluble in that menstruum. The pure oil evaporated at a temperature 
between 240° and 250° C. (464° and 482° F.) leaves a residue weighing 
35 to 40 per cent, consisting of oxidation products and cinnamic acid. 

New Crystalline Principle in Ivy., Hedera Helix., Lin. — On concentrat- 
ing the alcoholic tincture of the leaves, a principle is separated, 
accprding to Dr. F. A Hartsen, which is purified by re-crystallizing from 
boiling alcohol and washing with benzin and cold water. It consists of 
microscopical scales, which are easily soluble in hot alcohol, but with 
difficulty in cold alcohol, ether and benzin ; the aqueous solution is 
strongly frothing. Warm water takes up from it 15*5 per cent, of 
sugar, and by boiling with diluted sulphuric acid 33 to 38 per cent, of 
sugar are formed. This principle appears to be a glucoside. — Achiv d, 
Phar.., 1875, April, p. 299. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
June, 1875. J 

Improvement of the Burette Valve. 




[From a paper read before the American Philosophical Society , Aug. zist, 1874.) 

The author discussed first the merits and demerits of the various 
valve burettes, constructed by Mohr, Gay-Lussac, and others, and 
then proceeds v^ith the description of a device, which has realized his 
expectations as to the possibility of combining the advantages of Mohr's 
principle with universal applicability and convenience of handling.* 

I, The burette, I take a Mohr burette tube, as it is furnished by 
the trade, hold the inflated part of the neck (serving for a hold to the 
rubber) over a Bunsen flame and let it contract slowly at a dull-red 
heat, until the channel has become capillar as shown in figures i^, ic 
and 2a of the accompanying plate. It needs hardly to be remarked, 
that during the process, the tube has to be kept revolving, and allowed 
to cool slowly. The glass wall has become very thick and strong,, 
facilitating the next process of grinding. This is done upon an ordin- 
ary rotary grindstone, in from 8 to 10 minutes. I grind off one-half 
of the inflation at a steep angle, as shown in the figures. The orifice 
is not required to have a definite size and is naturally given by the 
points The grinding is continued until the elliptic section of the 

channel has come with its lowest point from about 1-16 to 1-8 of an 
inch above the lowest point of the inclined ground plane. A very 
short practice affords sufficient skill to grind a very nearly plane surface. 
Absolute planeity is not required. The sides and back are ground 
next to produce a point, which is necessary for the letting out of small 
drops of liquid. The ground face stands at right angles to the gradu- 
ation and may be put either on the right or on the left side, according 
to the convenience of the operator. Figure ic represents a front 
view of the ground face, with the capillar orifice at 0. The size of 
the latter depends on the kind of work which is to be done with the 
burette, as it influences the size of a drop. On my 20 c.c. burette, 
divided into twentieths, I have a very narrow orifice, a drop correspond- 
ing to one-half a division. I use the burette exclusively for argentum 
nitrate solution. For ordinary alkalimetric work I use a burette (50 c.c.) 
graduated into one-fifths and allow the drops to equal one-tenth cc. 
This opening empties the burette in one minute and a quarter, when 
running at full stream. 

The cuts illustrating this paper were kindly furnished by tiie American Philo- 
ophical Society. — Editor Amer. Jour. Pharm. 


Improvement of the Burette Valve, {^"^-^^^I'S^t'"^' 

2. The valve. Platinum in the form of a smooth plate is not acted 
jpon materially by any of the solutions now in use for volumetrical 
analysis. The valve consists of a platinum plate p of elliptical shape, 
I and 3-16 of an inch being the respective parameters. Thickness 
p.bout 1-32 of an inch. To the centre of this plate is soldered the 

platinum stem /, the end of which is pierced by an eye. The spring 
made of brass or German silver and platinated, is screwed to the 
clamp and has a fork at its other end for the insertion of the platinum 
stem z, forming thus the hingh h. It carries a nut through which 
the [screw s passes. In order to open the valve, the screw head is 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1875. 

Improvement of the Burette Valve. 


turned, when the screw bolt comes into contact with the glass tube 
and forces the spring backwards. The valve plate assumes then a po- 
sition as represented in figure allowing the full stream to run straight 
downwards without the least splashing. The capillar orifice being ellip- 
tical, with its long axis parallel to the stream, it is evident that by re- 
versing the screw, the orifice 
will close gradually, the lowest ^ 
point the last, allowing a most 
complete regulation, and when 
once reduced to dropping a quar- 
ter of a turn of the screw will 
close totally. The only objec- 
tion to this arrangement of the 
valve, which has presented itself 
thus far, is the delicacy of the 
hinge. Yet I have had one in 
use constantly for six months 
past, and it works as satisfac- 
torily as on the first day. In 
the hands of beginners it may 
come out of order sooner. The 
clamp c is made of brass tubing, 
with the flanges ff and the block 
g soldered on. It is made suf- 
ficiently large to admit of vari- 
ation in the diameter of the bu- 
rette tubes, a strip of paper being 
used as a filling. The delicacy 
of the hinge, and to some extent 

the cost of the apparatus (^2.50) have prompted me to substitute a 
simpler construction. 

Figures ia and 2^ represent this device. 

The platinum plate is replaced by a piece of pure rubber sheeting 
the thickness of strong paper by 3-16 of an inch, which is attached 
to the end of the spring by means of a solution of rubber. The lower 
part of the spring may be rendered proof against chemical action by 
galvanic platinum plating, or by a coating of rubber. The former is 
certainly the best, but I found by several months' experience that a 
spring coated with rubber, will resist the action of standard acids, and 


Syrian Sponges. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm, 
\ June, 1875 

shows no sign of oxydation and dissolution. The rubber coating is 
done very quickly with a concentrated chloroformic solution. The 
dipping in and drying is repeated several times. I have furnished now 
all the burettes used by my students with this simpler contrivance 
($1.00) and have found my expectations more than realized. The sur- 
face of contact between the rubber and the standard solutions is so 
small, that a deteriorating influence on the latter could not be noticed. 

I must acknowledge my obligation to Mr. J. Zentmayer, the well- 
known optician and mechanician, of this city, for the practical execu- 
tion of my ideas and for many valuable suggestions in the course of my 
experiments. — Proc. Jmer. Philos. Society^ vol. xiv^ p. 220. 

Laboratory, Uninjersity of Pennsylvania. 


The latest project before the Acclimatization Society of Paris is the 
cultivation of the celebrated Syrian sponge in the waters of Southern 
France, a valuable and most useful product, which, like many another 
gift of the sea, is in danger of extermination through excessive fishing. 

The sponge-producing grounds of Syria occur along the coast, from 
Mount Carmel in the south to Alexandretta in the north, the centers 
of production being Tripoli, Ruad, Lattakia and Bartroun, on the coast 
of Mount Lebanon. The best qualities are found in the neighborhood 
of Tripoli and Bartroun. According to a late report of the British 
vice-consul at Beyrout, as many as three hundred boats are engaged in 
the fishery ; the annual yield, though falling off^ through the exhaustion 
of the grounds, still amounts to $100,000 to $125,000. The majority 
of the boats used are ordinary fishing boats, from eighteen to thirty feet 
in length, three parts decked over, and carrying one mast with an or. 
dinary lug sail. They are manned by a crew of four or five men, one 
to haul and the rest to serve as divers. 

In former years the coast was much frequented by Greek divers from 
the islands of the Archipelago ; the number is now restricted to five 
or six boats a year, the skill of the Syrian combined with his better 
knowledge of the fishing grounds, enabling him to compete successfully 
with his foreign rival. 

Diving is practised from a very early age up to forty years, afte^ 
which few are able to continue the pursuit profitably. The depth to 
which the diver descends varies from five to thirty " brasses," or from 
twenty-five to one hundred and seventy-five feet. The time he is able 

Am. Jour. Pharm. "I 
June, 1875. j 

Preparation of Urea. 


to spend under water depends on natural capacity, age and training ; 
sixty seconds time is reckoned good work — in rare instances eighty 
seconds are spent under water. The Syrian diver uses a heavy stone 
to carry him quickly to the bottom, and is drawn up by a comrade. 
On the bottom, he holds the guide rope with one hand and tears ofF the 
sponges with the other, placing them in a net which he carries. No 
knife, spear or instrument of any kind is used in detaching the sponges ; 
nor does he, like his Greek competitor, ever use the diving dress, hav- 
ing an antipathy to it on the score of its reputed tendency to produce 
paralysis of the limbs. Two or three fatal accidents occur annually, 
mainly among the skillful and daring, who sometimes drop the rope to 
secure a tempting prize, and missing it on their return, attempt to rise 
to the surface unaided, and are drowned. At other times the driver 
will be wounded by jagged rocks, or his rope will become entangled, 
exposing him to great risks where the depth is great. 

Though varying much in quality and size, the sponges are roughly 
divided into three classes : (i) The fine white bell-shaped sponge, 
known as toilet sponge ; (2) the large reddish variety called bath sponge ; 
(3) the coarse red sponge used for household purposes, carriage clean- 
ing, etc. Two-thirds of the produce of the Syrian coast are purchased 
by native merchants for exportation, while the remaining third is pur- 
chased on the spot by French agents. France takes the bulk of the 
finest qualities. One-tenth the price received by the finders goes to 
the government for revenue. 

It is possible that this high-priced and durable variety of sponge 
might be cultivated in our southern waters, as a substitute for the beau- 
tiful but tender sponge they now yield. The experiment would be 
worth trying. — Scientific Jmer.^ April 3^, 1875. 



Many methods have been devised for the preparation of urea. The 
substance, first discovered by Rouelle in 1777, was clearly described 
and named by Fourcroy in 1799. The urine previously filtered is 
treated with commercial nitric acid (in the proportion i ounce nitric 
acid to 20 ounces urine), and allowed to evaporate spontaneously, the 
nitrate of urea separates from the urine in the form of blackish-red scales, 
which are removed and dried by pressing between folds of common 




f Am. Jour. Phai m. 
t June, 1875. 

nltering paper ; these scaJes are now dissolved in twenty times their 
weight of distilled water, and heated to 200° F.; when the nitrate of 
urea is all dissolved, animal charcoal (four times as much as the weight 
of nitrate of urea used) is added, the whole brought up to a boil, and 
kept boiling for three minutes, filtered, the filtrate evaporated to one- 
eighth its bulk, and allowed to crystallize (if the crystals are not suffi- 
ciently white the operation must be repeated) ; the white crystals of 
nitrate of urea, dissolved in twenty times their weight of water, are 
mixed with pure carbonate of barium ( parts carbonate of barium 
to parts nitrate of urea) ; the mixture disengages carbonic acid gas, 
nitrate of barium and free urea being formed. The whole mass is 
evaporated to dryness o\ er a water-bath, the residue treated with twenty 
times its weight ot water, and again evaporated to dryness ; this residue 
heated to boiling with 95 per cent, alcohol, filtered, the filtrate evapo- 
rated to one-fourth its volume and allowed to crystallize ; the crystals 
dried over sulphuric acid are perfectly pure, and should be kept in a 
well-stoppered bottle, as they readily deliquesce. The advantages of 
the above are, ist. Spontaneous evaporation, whereby the urine is not 
at all decomposed. 2d. Direct addition of nitric acid, whereby alka- 
line fermentation and destruction of urea are pievented. 3d. Purifica- 
tion of the nitrate of urea, whereby a pure urea is obtained.- — American 
Chemist.^ April ^ 1875. 
Summer School, Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia, March 1., 1875. 


Estimation of Quinia in Cinchona Barks. — Perret uses soluble glass (silicate 
of sodium ) in the following manner : Heat 10 grms. bark for ten minutes with 50 grms. 
alcohol and 5 grms. silicate of sodium (40° B.), filter, repeat the heating twice, first 
with 30 grms, alcohol and 2.5 grm. silicate of sodium, then with 20 grms. alcohol. 
Evaporate the filtrates to syrupy consistence, treat the mass with first 30 grms. then 
with 20 grms. and at last with 10 grms. ether. Evaporate the ethereal filtrates, acid- 
ulate with sulphuric acid, and estimate quinia as sulphate. This quinia contains 
only traces of quinidia and cinchonidia. — Ber. d. d. chem. Ges, 1874, p. 735. 

Solubility of Sulphate of Calcium. By Erlenmeyer. — Sulphate of calcium 
dissolves in water in much larger quantities (than supposed) when it has previously 
been heated to 120'' — 130° C. (248 — 266° F.), until it no longer loses in weight. 
If this dehydrated calcium sulphate be shaken with 50 parts of distilled water for 
ten minutes, and filtered, it will soon commence to deposit crystals, which increase 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
June, 1875. J 



in quantity, so that soon after filtration the solution contained 1*22 per cent, 5 ten 
minutes after, 0*59 per cent. 5 two days after, 0*26 per cent. 5 and a fortnight after 
only 0-2 per cent, of sulphate of calcium, and this at a temperature of 2o°-22° C. 
(68° — 70° ¥.)—Buchners Report, xxii, p. 483. 

Sulphate of Aluminium. — The best way to examine whether it contains sul- 
phuric acid in excess, is by treating it with strong alcohol, which only extracts the 
excess of acid. Sulphate of alumina is insoluble in alcohol. — Hager, Ph. Centralbl.y 
xiv, p 330. 

Oxide of zinc sometimes becomes gritty (sandy). Speidel recommends to recal- 
jlne it. — Polyt. Centralbl.^ xxvil, p. 1306. 

Volatility of Mercury — Prof. Merget (Lyon) has found that mercury is 
much more volatile than generally supposed. Instead of using gold-leaf as test, he 
used a slip of paper covered with ammoniacal silver-nitrate, which turns quickly 
black in the presence of mercurial vapors. The result he arrived at is : That mer- 
cury evaporates even at its freezing point, and that its vapors possess a great diffusion 
power. As protection to the workmen in looking-glass factories, he recommends 
sprinkling about of chlorinated lime. — Jahresh. d. phys. Ver. Frank/., 1874. 

Danger in Handling Dynamit. — That dynamit is not so very dangerous to 
handle, seems to follow from the experiments of Prof. Nobel, in England, A heavy 
box containing dynamit was thrown down from a height of forty feet, it did not 
explode j neither did explosion occur by letting fall a box with 500 pounds of sand 
the same distance upon some dynamit cartridges 5 nor by letting fall the same dis- 
tance 300 pounds of iron upon cartridges and ten pounds of dynamit. A strong 
fire was lit, and a box with 50 pounds of dynamit was thrown into it. It burst into 
a greenish-white flame, but burned out without explosion. 25 pounds of loose gun- 
powder were placed on the ground, covered with an iron plate (3-4 square feet), and 
on top of that were placed two boxes with ten pounds of dynamit in each. By 
igniting the gunpowder, the plate and the two boxes were thrown some distance : 
no explosion of the dynamit occurred. Several dynamit cartridges were placed, to- 
gether with some loose dynamit, on the rails, and a train passed over them. Some 
of the cartridges exploded, but without affecting the loose dynamit. 

It was necessary to institute such a series of experiments, since the transportation 
of dynamit is positively forbidden (for practical purposes, at least) on the English 
railroads. — Burkart, in Oetser. %.f. Berg — and Hiitten^ivessen. 

Preservation of Meat. — The following process has been patented in England, 
by E, Metge and F, N. C, Vuibert (France) : The animal is killed with one blow, 
and, after all the blood is run out, skinned, and the intestines, etc., taken out. The 
whole animal is now put into a mixture of alcohol (72 per cent,) with i per cent, 
carbolic acid ; it is taken out, and, when dry, put into a concentrated alcoholic solu- 
tion of sugar. It is now cut and canned, the cans being filled with pure melted fat. 

H. M. W. 



Am. Jour. Pharn>. 
June, 1875. 

Cochineal Insects have been imported into Mysore from Teneriffe, They 
have taken kindly to the acclimatized cactus : the climate is suitable, and the exper- 
iment promises well. — Jour. Applied Science^ May i, 1875. 

Assam Rubber. — India rubber Irom the Ficus elastica of Assam is a product 
belonging to the region whose commercial centre is Calcutta In 1872-73, there 
was a large increase in the quantity exported, 21,571 cwts., worth £143,760, against 
15,628 cwts., in 1871-72. Some India rubber also comes down the Irrawaddy from 
the same region, and specimens have recently been submitted to the Bengal Cham- 
ber of Commerce from the Shan States, which were not marketable in the state they 
were sent, but which, if properly prepared, would be worth fifty-nine rupees per 
maund at Calcutta. — Jour. Applied Science^ May i, 1875. 

Hard Glass. — The subject of hard, elastic and malleable glass is beginning to- 
attract considerable attention, and has several times been referred to in our columns. 
Some experiments made by Dr. A. Bauer; in Vienna, have recently been made- 
public, and will, no doubt, prove of interest to our readers. He remarks at the 
outset that the plates of glass prepared by him do not differ essentially in external 
appearance from ordinary glass ; when struck they have a peculiar ring, and may 
frequently be thrown on the ground without breaking ; but when they do break, 
unlike other glass, they break into a multitude of small fragments with very sharp 
corners, which is a great disadvantage of this glass. They stand scratching well,, 
but, like those made in France, they break when struck hard. Dr. Bauer prepared 
his plates in this way : An ordinary sheet of glass was heated until it began to bend^ 
and was then dipped into a bath of melted paraffin at a temperature of 200*^ C. 
(392° F.) The principal object was not to cool the hot and soft plate steadily and 
slowly, as is usually done, but to cool it suddenly to a certain temperature and then 
to allow it to cool slowly. If the cooling takes place in this manner it is no longer 
possible to cut the glass with a diamond, and it is easy to prove by the ordinary 
scale of hardness that its hardness is greatly increased. The thickness of the glass 
has also increased with its hardness ; the ordinary glass used by Bauer in his ex- 
periments was 2-429 to 2-438, which, after hardening, became 2-460 to 2"468. It 
cannot be denied, says Bauer, that this glass will be useful for many purposes, and 
also that there are many uses to which it cannot be applied on account of its breaking 
into such small pieces when it does break. There are also difficulties met with in 
preparing this glass on a large scale, especially in introducing hollow glass and 
large plates quickly and uniformly into the bath. 

It is not as yet possible to explain the cause of the glass being hardened by this 
method of cooling. The phenomenon involuntarily reminds one of the well-known 
Bologne flasks and the Prince Rupert drops, but the breaking of the latter cannot 
be sufficiently explained, since we know that this does not happen if the ends are 
eaten off instead of being broken. We are also reminded that when cooled slowly 
the constituents of the glass separate to a certain extent, which ean only be pre- 
vented by a rapid cooling. It was formerly believed that glass was a perfectly 
homogeneous and amorphous substance. In 1852, however. Prof. Leydolt proved 
by etching that all our glass, which apparently shows no signs of crystallization,, 
consists of a mixture which is in part crystalline. When glass is heated to fusion^ 

Am Jour. Pharm. [ 
June, 1875. j 


or even to softness, and then slowly cooled, it easily happens that the constituents 
separate and form crystalline groups. Reaumur made this experiment in the last 
century, hoping to make porcelain out of glass, and the product was called Reau- 
mur's porcelain. Siegwart and others, a few years ago, although with a different 
view, made experiments on this change. These experiments showed that this sep- 
aration takes place very easily if the glass is slowly cooled, and that sometimes the 
crystalline portion becomes visible, and when this takes place the glass is said to be 
devitrified. From these new experiments we may conclude that fused glass in a 
fused state forms a tolerably homogeneous mass, which separates more or less on 
cooling. If it is cooled rapidly to a certain point, the separation does not go so far, 
and the glass remains more homogeneous, which may be the cause of its hardness 
on the one hand, and of its peculiar way of breaking on the other. — Journ. Applied 
Chem., May, 1875. 

Fluorescence of Bodies in Castor Oil. — Charles Horner states that certain 
Tiatural organic coloring matters, which exhibited no fluorescence when in aqueous 
or alcoholic solution, were observed to fluoresce brightly when dissolved in castor 
oil 5 while other substances, possessing naturally a faint fluorescence, were found to 
have this property considerably augmented. 

In this solvent, cudbear exhibited a brilliant orange-colored light, and extracts of 
logwood and camwood a powerful apple green fluorescence. The well-known 
-fluorescent light of turmeric solutions was increased in brilliancy at least threefold, 
and is described as a vivid emerald green fluorescence, comparable only with the ap- 
pearance presented by the best uranium glass under similar circumstances. It is 
suggested, therefore, that, in studying the phenomena of fluorescence, advantage 
should be taken, when possible, of the solvent property of castor oil. — Scientifc 
Amer., April 17, 1875. 

Value of Gelatigenous Tissues in Nutrition. By Carl Voit. — The au- 
thor gives details of a feeding experiment with ossein on a dog. The results, like 
those with gelatin, show that it eff'ects a saving of albumin and of fat, but cannot be 
substituted for albumin. 10-71 grams of ossein per diem reduced the daily loss of 
nitrogen from 10*17 grams whilst fasting to 8*4. Unlike gelatin, it does not pro- 
duce diarrhoea. The author recapitulates the difterences of opinion between himself 
and Hoppe-Seyler. The latter thinks that the consumption of albuminous matters 
in the system is due to the decay of the cells and tissues 5 whilst Voit believes that 
by far the greater part is due to the oxidation of the circulating albumin of the lymph 
when this substance enters the cells and tissues, and not to the decay of the tissues 
themselves. — Journ. Chem. Soc, Jan., 1875. From Zeitschrift f. Biologic, x, 202 — 

A New^ Reaction of Essence of Mint. By C. Roucher. — If acetic acid of 
about 10 degrees be agitated with one-twentieth of Its weight of essence of mint, a 
feeble blue coloration will soon be observed, which gradually increases in intensity. 
Tlie color is of a dichroic character, being blue by transmission and cinnabar-red by 
reflection. It is not stable, but soon changes to green and then to yellow. — Journ. 
Chem. Soc, April, 1875. From J. Pharm. Chim. [4], xx, 354. 


V arieties. 

Am. Jour. Pharm^ 
June, 1875. 

Note on Chlorophyll. By E. Filhol. — The black matter resulting from the 
decomposition of chlorophyll by means of hydrochloric acid, referred to in a previ- 
ous paper by the author, is soluble in ether, benzene, chloroform, carbon sulphide^ 
and in boiling alcohol of 85°. The color of the solution in each case is not the same, 
being brownish-yellow with ether and benzene 5 yellow, with carbon sulphide, and 
violet with chloroform. All the solutions give a spectrum, having five absorption- 
bands similar to those produced by chlorophyll, but not occupying the same posi- 
tion in the spectrum, and varying a little according to the nature of the solvent. Pro- 
longed exposure to solar light decolorizes the solution. — Journ. Chem. Soc, April,, 
1875. From y. Pharm. Chim. [4], xx, 345-347- 

Dextrin. By L. Bondonneau.— Dextrin maybe prepared free from glucose by 
dissolving the purest obtainable sample in water, filtering and decolorizing with 
bone-char, then adding cupric chloride, followed by the addition of caustic soda 
sufficient to dissolve the precipitate which at first forms, boiling for half an hour, 
leaving the solution to stand until cold, and filtering. The glucose is then entirely 
destroyed. The blue liquid is then acidulated with hydrochloric acid and precipi- 
tated by means of alcohol This precipitate may be again dissolved and reprecipi- 
tated 5 pure dextrin is thus obtained. 

Pure dextrin is a white substance, easily soluble in cold water \ it is colored dark 
red by iodine. The author concludes that Mulder's dextrins were really mixtures 
of pure dextrin with varying amounts of glucose. It is further shown that a very 
small trace of acid brings about the conversion of a considerable amount of dextrirE 
into glucose, at a high temperature. — Journ. Chem. Soc, March, 1875, from Dingi. 
polyt. J., ccxii, 489-493. 

On the Hydrobromides of Quinia and on the Preparation of the Neu- 
tral Hydrobromide. By M. Boille. — Neutral quinia hydrobromide is prepared 
by gradually adding an alcoholic solution of neutral quinia sulphate to an alcoholic 
solution of barium bromide until no further precipitate occurs. The mixture is 
diluted with water and the alcohol distilled off 5 it is then filtered to separate the 
precipitated quinia sulphate : on concentration of the filtrate, an abundant crystal- 
lization of quinia hydrobromide takes place. It may also be prepared by dissolving- 
liydrated quinia in dilute hydrobromic acid 

The formula of the neutral hydrobromide is C20H24N2O2.HBr.H2O, and that of 
the acid bromide is C20H24N2O2.2HBr.3H2O. 

The author considers that the neutral hydrobromide possesses many advantages 
as a medicine over the officinal quinia sulphate, being richer in quinia and very 
much more soluble in water. — Journ. Chem. Soc, March, 1875, from J. Pharm. 
Chim. [4], XX, 1 81-187. 

Intermittent Ebullition. By Dr. T. L. Phipson. — Water strongly acidified 
with hydrochloric acid, and containing a small quantity of benzol, was found to. 
enter into violent ebullition every sixty seconds 5 after a while the boiling ceased: 
completely, and then recommenced suddenly every thirty seconds for some time.. 
The flask being still kept over the spirit lamp, the periods between quiescence and 
violent ebullition dropped to 20, 10, and finally to 8 seconds, at which interval the 

jinerifyr'"' 1 Mwutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting. 279 

phenomenon continued for some considerable time. The temperature of the vapor 
in the flask was ioi° C, in the liquid 103-5° C., during the whole time of the ex- 

When methyl alcohol was added to the above mixture of water, hydrychloric 
acid, and benzol, and the flask placed over a spirit lamp, no ebullition at all occurred 
for a very long space of time, and then it took place very suddenly and continued, 
— Chem. Neivs, April 23, 1876. 


The eighth and last meeting of the session was held May i8th, 1875, Pi'of. Rem- 
ington in the chair. The minutes of the seventh meeting were read and approved. 
The following donations were made to the cabinet: 

From Prof Maisch, a specimen of the bark of Dicypellium caryophyllatum, Nees, 
the South American clove-cinnamon, used there as a spice ; also, leaves of Eriodyc- 
tion glutinosum, Benth., known in California as mountain balm and of an extremely 
bitter taste 5 also Skunkbush — the root, leaves and flowers of a species of Garrya, all 
parts of which have an intensely bitter taste ; it is probably G. elliptica. 

Dr. Miller presented a specimen of commercial beeswax, the greater part of which 
was dirt, the amount of wax being only sufficient to give a thin coating 5 also an arti- 
ficial extract of vanilla fron Nashville, Tenn., intended for flavoring purposes, but 
destitute of the true odor of vanilla, apparently being a combination of benzoin, 
with some volatile oils \ also, a commercial oil of sandal wood. 

Dr. Pile presented creta praeparata, of his own manufacture, which is free from 
grit and of excellent quality. 

Mr. James Kemble had met with some difficulty in trying to use hyposulphite of 
sodium for the preservation of raspberry juice, which was afterwards used for flavor- 
ing soda water. Prof. Maisch remarked that the sulphites of sodium had been re- 
commended for such purposes, not the hyposulphites. Dr. Miller stated that in some 
individuals small doses of sulphites will produce vomiting. W. H. Walling sugges- 
ted that the fault might be in the syrup-can, from which poisonous metals might have 
been dissolved by the fruit acid. • Dr. Pile had observed that minute quantities of 
copper in soda water would in some cases produce rapid emesis. On motion Prof. 
Maisch was requested to communicate with Mr. Kemble on this subject 

A paper by James Kemble, on " unusual doses " was read. The discussion of this 
paper was very interesting and embraced a review of the various methods or checks 
that have been proposed and are partially in use in this country and Europe. In con- 
nection with posological tables, this subject warrants the attention of physicians and 
pharmacists — not only as to the amount of one dose, but also in regard to the maxi- 
mum dose within twenty-four hours 

In connection with this subject, the recent action of the Richmond PharmaceutL- 
oal Association was alluded to; that body having conferred with the Academy of 
Medicine of that city, had issued a circular, from which the following is taken: 

2 8o Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting, {^"^^^^Zl^^""^- 

" Whereas, the practice of medicine and pharmacy are so dependent on one another, that it behooves 
the physician and pharmacist to be in entire accord, and to endeavor by conference and mutual enlighten- 
ment to ensure a more strict conformity to the standards of their calling: In this spirit the Richmond 
Pharmaceutical Association would urgently invite the attention of the Richmond Academy of Medicine, 
and, through it, the practitioners of the city generally, to the following suggestions in regard to writing 
prescriptions, for it is within the knowledge of members of both Societies, that each are liable to errors in 
writing and dispensing prescriptions, and to guard against these is the object of this communication. 

''First. We would urge the great importance of writing in a legible hand, and never to erase a word or 
quantity and re-write over it ; always to use the technical language and abbreviations of the " Pharmaco- 
poeia " and " United States Dispensatory," and to write directions for use and dose on every prescription, 
and state whether for adult or infant, as a guide to the dispenser in case of error in quantity of any active 

"Secondly. We suggest that when an unusual dose or quantity of an active and potent medicine is pre- 
scribed — such as strychnia, opium, morphia, belladonna, digitalis, &c. — that the prescriber shall affix oppo- 
site a caution mark or sign, to inform the dispenser that he is aware that the dose is unusual, but required 
in the case. In some portions of Europe, such a regulation is a law of the State. In Germany the cau- 
tion mark is an exclamation point in brackets : (I), and is placed on the right hand side of the prescrip- 
tion, in a line immediately opposite the ingredient in question. We propose that the mark shall be placed 
on the left hand side, and that it shall be the letters "Q. R. — " {quantum rectum) with a dash or line 
connecting it with, or nearly so, the ingredient to which attention is called, for example : 
P?. — q. r. — Tinct. digitalis. 

Tinct. valer. am., aa iji. 

— SiG. Dose, teaspoonful every 3 hours. 

" We further suggest, that the physician should never write any of the following or similar prescriptions 
■without accompanying them with some written direction or explanatory note, as to the use intended to be 
made of them, so that the dispenser may not be left in doubt : 

It. — Plumbi acetat, 5i. ^i- — Chloral hydrat., .jii. 

]^. — Morphise sulph gr. v. Y^. — Opii pulvis, .ai. 

— Hydrarg. chlor. corros., gr. v. 1^. — Tinct. digitalis, 31. 

"All of these, and many others of like import, we could refer to, on the files of apothecaries, are dan- 
gerous in the hands of the inexperienced and ignorant, and it would take but little time or trouble to de- 
signate in some way the use intended. It requires discretion, judgment and prudence in manner and ac- 
tion on the part of the apothecary, to so demean himself, as to avert buspicion from himself, and to avoid 
casting injurious reflections on the physician, when he sees or thinks he sees an error in a prescription, or 
is doubtful about the propriety of dispensing "five grains of morphia" in a single package, upon a pre- 
scription handed in by a little child or ignorant servant, perhaps, and we respectfully urge that the practi- 
tioners of medicine should give serious attention*to these important suggestions. 

"The joint committee of the Association and the Academy unanimously approve the suggestions, and 
recommend their observance by the medical profession as one sure means of preventing errors in com- 
pounding and dispening prescriptions. 

" The caution mark proposed by the Richmond Pharmaceutical Association, "Q. R. — " {quanttan rec- 
they discarded, and recommended " P. C," {prceter consuettidinem) as less liable to objection. 
This mark, like the former, it is proposed, shall be placed on the left side of the prescription, and immedi- 
ately in line with the ingredient prescribed in ejrcess of the usual dose, when it is a potent one, such as 
strychnia, prussic acid, morphia, digitalis, aconite, &c. 

" The committee also discussed the evil consequent upon the frequent unauthorized renewing- of pre- 
scriptions composed in whole or in part of opium, chloral and other powerful remedies, liable to be abused; 
and, therefore recommend that physicians be requested to write " Not Renewable" on any prescription 
which they do not desire to be renewed, and the apothecaries are requested not to renew prescriptions so 
designated, except upon the written or verbal authority of the physician in attendance. 

" It was also resolved, that the Richmond Academy of Medicine and the Richmond Pharmaceutical 
Association request the national Associations of their respective professions to take action, in view of the 
fact that the symbols representing the drachm and the ounce are frequently, and sometimes fatally con- 
founded, because there is so slight a difference in their appearance ; that we recommend the Richmond 
Academy of Medicine and the Richmond Pharmaceutical Association, and propose that they shall do the 
same to the National Associations of Medicine and Pharmacy to lay aside the use of the 5 mark, and to 
substitute the Greek Delta A, the first letter in A/Js^^^^JJ, which is easily made and cannot be mistaken. 

" We also hold that the apothecary is not authorized to reveal to the patient the components of a phy- 
sician's prescription, when such prescription is written in technical language. 

A. P. Browa said, the Camden Association had adopted the mark, Q^R. 

^'^VS'isy?.^'^'^'} Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations, 281 

On motion, the subject was referred to the quarterly meeting of the College. 

W. H. Walling read a paper on Phosphorus Pills. Prof. Maisch complimented 
the coating, it being handsome in appearance, pearl white in color, and destitute of 
The sweet taste of sugar. It can be applied to a dozen pills in a few minutes, no 
heat or expensive apparatus being requisite (see " Am. Jour, of Ph.," 1874, page 

Wm. Mclntyre's impression was, that it was advisable in dispensing phosphorus 
to have it in a state of solution, and with this view had given preference to pills 
made with cacao butter in sufficient quantity to dissolve — they are larger, but readily 

Dr. Miller read a paper prepared by James L. Lemberger and himself on Un- 
guentum Paraffini as probably identical with the nostrum cosmolin, and presented 
samples of the cerate, ointment, pomade, and the crude and refined oil from which 
they were made. These specimens were very fine and reflected credit upon the 

Prof. Maisch presented a circular from E. Steiger, publisher in New York, call- 
ing attention to the contemplated issue of the " Popular Health Almanac," a 
publication designed to benefit the public, and to encourage and assist all high- 
minded pharmacists and druggists in a legitimate endeavor to check the mischievous 
spread of the nostrum traffic, and in maintaining and elevating the honorable char- 
acter of pharmacy. The Professor explained the nature of the contents and spoke 
of the choice of Dr. Frederick Hoffmann as editor of the same. Members ex- 
pressed their views of suitable contents and style of the work, all being pleased 
that the suggestion was assuming shape — and with a view of expressing the sense 
of the meeting the following resolution was proposed by Dr. Miller, seconded by 
Mr. Boring, and unanimously adopted : 

Resol'vedy That this meeting approve of the selection of Dr. Frederick Hoffmann 
as editor of the '* Popular Health Almanac," and trust he will accept and retain 
the position for a sufficient length of time so as to give assurance that the object of 
the work will be maintained. 

Dr. Miller presented Balsam of Tolu, which had been sent to him for examina- 
tion j it was adulterated with resin. Thanks were returned to the writers of papers 
and donors to the cabinet. Professor Maisch showed to the members present a 
handsome collection of Michigan and Florida woods, showing the grain upon dif- 
ferent sections. The collection, which came from Mr. F. Stearns, of Detroit, was 
much admired. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

William McIntyre, Registrar. 


Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The following gentlemen have re- 
cently been elected honorary members of this College: H. A, Weddell, M. D., 
Poitiers, France; Prof. A. Wiggers, Guttiiigen, Germany; S. M. Trier, Assessor 

2 82 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. {'^"'j/,ne!\8'7^^''^' 

Pharmaclas, Copenhagen, Denmark, and N. P. Hamberg, M. D., Director of the 
Pharmaceutical Institution at Stockholm, Sweden. Messrs. E. B. Shuttleworth, of 
Toronto, and William Saunders, of London, Canada, were elected corresponding 

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — At the Ninth Annual Commence- 
ment, held at Parker Memorial Hall, May 20th, the President, S. M. Colcord- 
conferred the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy upon the following gentlemen : 
Charles Henry Congdon (thesis : Solubility of Camphor In Water), Edward Everett 
Babb (Uva Ursi), William Carley Durkee (Tincture and Solution of Chloride of 
Iron), Frank Warren Hay (Iodide of Potassium), Ernest Clifton Marshall (Gly- 
cerin), and Joseph Benedict Fenelon (Cannabis Indica), Professor T. Sterry Hunt 
delivered an address on the relation of chemistry to pharmacy and therapeutics j 
the valedictory address was delivered by Prof. William P. Bolles. 

Chicago College of Pharmacy. — Dr. Trimble has resigned the chair ot 
Materia Medica and Toxicology. At the April meeting of the Board of Trustees^ 
a vote of thanks was tendered to the subscribers to the Chicago Druggists' Relief 
Fund, who, on the redistribution by the (Committee to the original donors pro rata 
of the unexpended balance, generously donated their share to this College. The 
following gentlemen were elected honorary members : Dr. C. Mehu, France \ Dr- 
O.Hesse, Germany 5 Dr. J. E. DeVrij, Holland 5 and Dr. W. Handsell Griffiths, 

The Pharmaceutical Association of Quebec has appointed the following 
Board of Examiners under the Pharmacy Act, recently passed for the province of 
Quebec: Nathan Mercer, Alexander Manson, W. E. Brunet, Henry R. Gray^ 
J. D. L. Ambrosse, H. F, Jackson and Henry Lyman. 

Victorian Chemists' Assistants' Association. — -We have received the Second 
Annual Report of this Association, which was instituted, in September, 1872, in 
Melbourne, Australia, for the promotion of unity and good feeling amongst the 
chemists' assistants, the general advancement and protection of their interests, and 
the relief of members in case of sickness. The Association has commenced the 
collection of specimens for a museum, and formed the nucleus for a library 5 several! 
papers were read at the monthly meetings, and Baron Ferd. von Mueller, the well- 
known botanist, who was elected Patron of the Association, delivered an interesting 
address on the services rendered to the natural sciences by some pharmacists. The 
Society also endeavors to provide innocent and rational amusement for its members ; 
cricketing and boating clubs have been formed, and arrangements made for quar- 
terly social gatherings and an annual ball. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Paris — At the meeting held March 3d, a com- 
munication was read from M. Vidau, military pharmacist, on the phylloxera^ which 
is at the present time attracting much attention in Europe for its destructiveness to 
the grape vine. M. Planchon gave a detailed account of jahorandi^ and M. Pog- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ] 
June, 1875. X 


glale communicated the results of his experiments on the action of ferments in 
closed vessels. 

Dr. DeVrij communicated to the meeting held April 7th his investigations on 
a crystallizable resin obtained from Podocarpus cupressina, and reported on the good 
results obtained with the mixed alkaloids as obtained from red Peruvian bark. M. 
Limousin read a note on medicated gelatin (see page 266 of this Journal) ; M. 
Vigier one on the use of glycerin in making pills and medicated pastes (see page 
265), and M. Bourgoin reported on a new process for obtaining perchloride oi 


Botany as a Branch of Pharmaceutical Education. — The May number 
of the Canadian " Pharmaceutical Journal " contains a paper headed, " Is Botany 
Essential to a Pharmaceutical Education ?" The author, near the close of his paper, 
makes some general remarks, from which we extract the following : 

" He who quibbles about the necessity of learning this or that, when both maybe 
shown to be advantageous if not necessary, can scarcely be said to possess that am- 
bition which is a necessary factor in a successful career. Legal limitations are not 
the bounds above which we must not rise; they form the level below which we must 
not descend. We do not call a man necessarily honorable merely because he con- 
forms to the civil and criminal laws of the land, nor can we admire that pharmacist 
who grudgingly toes the mark of legal qualifications, and who deprecates any fur- 
ther advance as unnecessary and a waste of time. If our ambition incites to nothing 
more than we can attain with ease, we will fail in reaching anything worthy of the 
name of knowledge. If we would improve, it must be by raising an ideal above our 
present attainment, and which will be worthy of our highest efforts.'' 

We have repeatedly had occasion to allude, directly and indirectly, to the neces- 
sity for pharmacists of an acquaintance with botany. That this necessity is appre- 
ciated may be judged from various indications. Lectures on botany are now delivered 
in connection with botanical excursions in most colleges of pharmacy in the United 
States ; and, though an attendance at such excursions is not made obligatory, the 
number of students devoting a portion of their leisure time to this study annually 
increases. In the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy the botanical class is more thani 
double the number of what it was a few years ago ; and we have been informed that 
it is similar in other institutions. The plants with which students may become ac- 
quainted under the prevailing circumstances, are those belonging to the flora of their 
locality 5 plants from other regions of our country or from other continents are 
rarely seen by them except as dried specimens or cultivated for ornamental pur- 
poses. In most of our large American cities the need of a well-conducted botanical 
garden is felt, but few are as yet the fortunate possessors of such an institution^ 
However, even in this respect, progress is manifest. We remember, with pleasure^ 
our visit to Shaw's Garden at St. Louis, where, by a liberal minded citizen, unusual 


Am. Jour. Pharm 
June, 1875. 

facilities are offered to the student of botany, and much pleasure and instruction to 
all lovers of Nature. Chicago has recently inaugurated a movement, looking to- 
wards the establishment of a large botanical garden ; and in Baltimore a portion of 
Druidhill Park will be set apart for this purpose. In the last-mentioned cities, 
pharmacists are actively working for these objects. It would be well if a similar 
boon could be secured for Philadelphia 5 the necessity has been acknowledged years 
ago, when several societies, among them the College of Pharmacy, Horticultural 
Society, Academy of N-itural Sciences and others, urged upon the Commissioners of 
Fairmount Park to set apart a portion for such an object. As yet nothing has been 
accomplished, nor does it appear that any of our wealthy public-spirited citizens has 
thought of the benefit that would be conferred by such a garden, not only upon 
many of our institutions, but likewise upon all citizens 5 or, of " the ideal that would 
be raised thereby above our present facilities, and which will undoubtedly be worthy 
of our highest efforts.'' 

Pharmaceutical Examinations in Germany. — By a decree of the Federal 
Council of the German Empire, dated March 5th, 1875, these examinations have 
been regulated as follows : 

The approbation for conducting the apothecary business depends upon the suc- 
cessful passing of the Pharmaceutical Examination at one of the German imiversi- 
ties, the Carolinian College at Brunswick or the polytechnic schools at Stuttgart or 
Carlsruhe, before a commission, consisting of one professor of chemistry, one of 
physics, and one of botany, and two apothecaries 5 or, in place of one of the latter, 
a professor of pharmacy. 

The application for examination must be accompanied by testimonials of the 
preliminary scientific education of the applicant, of his assistant's examination, of 
his having served as assistant for not less than three years, at least one-half of which 
must have been in Germany, and of his attendance at a university for not less than 
three semeters. The course of the examination is as follows : 

I. The Preliminary Examination. — The candidate has to write on three subjects, 
one in inorganic chemistry, one in organic chemistry and one in botany and pharm- 
acognosy. One da)'- is allowed for this purpose, and no aid whatever permitted. 

II. The Pharmaceutical Technical Examination. — Under the supervision of an 
apothecary, the candidate has to prepare two galenical and two chemical prepara- 
tions, and report upon these labors in writing. 

III. The Analytical Examination. — The candidate is required to examine quali- 
tatively a native compound or an artificial mixture, and to determine afterwards the 
quantity of some of the constituents. Besides this, an organic or inorganic substance, 
either adulterated or mixed with poison, must be examined, and the quantity of the 
adulteration or poison determined. Written reports on these analyses are required. 

IV. The Pharmaceutical Scientific Examination. — The candidate has to demon- 
strate at least ten fresh or dried plants, either officinal or which may be mistaken for 
officinal ones 5 he has to describe ten drugs according to origin, adulteration and 
pharmaceutical uses, and to recognize and give the processes, composition, adulter- 
ations, &c., of several crude articles or chemical preparations. 

Am. Jour. Phaim. ) 
June, 1875. / 



V. The Final Examination is public and verbal, on subjects of Chemistry, Physics 
and Botany, and on the legal enactments relating to pharmacy. 

The answers are rated as ^ery good (i), good (2), sufficient (3), insufficient (4) and 
had (5). The rates for each branch and each portion in branches I to IV, are made 
up by the majority vote of the examiners for each branch. The examination in 
either branches I to IV will be rejected if any portion thereof is rated 4 or 5 5 and 
the final examination will not he recognized if the candidate receives one' vote bad,, 
or two votes insufficient. The examinations in the unsuccessful branches must be- 
repeated in six months ; failure after two repetitions is equivalent to an absolute re- 
jection. The examination fees amount to 140 marks (i mark = 24 cents.) 

Popular Health t^lmanac. — By refering to the Minutes of the PharmaceuticaF 
Meeting, our readers will be advised of the contemplated publication of this Alma- 
nac for the coming year. It is done in accordance with a suggestion first made by 
Dr. Fred. Hoffmann, in a communication published in the Chicago " Pharmacist 
for November, 1874. The rapid realization of such a project was not expected by 
us, and we therefore take special pleasure in commending it to the favorable consid- 
eration of our readers. The main aim of the undertaking is to counteract the de- 
mand for the thousands of vile nostrums, by giving to the consumer information on 
questions connected with public health and making the pharmacist, what he naturally 
should be, the medium of communicating this information for the benefit of the pub-' 
lie as well as for the advancement of his own business interests. The project can 
hardly fail to enlist the sympathy and support of all pharmacists who are not man- 
ufacturers of nostrums, and the energy of Dr. Hoffmann, if he will consent to act as- 
editor of the Almanac for a number of years, will give and preserve for it a high 
character and lasting usefulness. 

Strychnia Eating. — Several months ago a valued friend sent from California a 
newspaper account which related, what appeared to be, the impossible feats of a 
strychnia eater. The " Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal," has further inquired 
into the truthfulness of these statements, and contains in its issue for April a letter 
from Dr. H. C. Morey, of Gllroy, Cal., who has known this strychnia eater since 
the fall of 1 861, and saw him very frequently eating strychnia until 1867, ^'^d again 
in November, 18745 he confirms the statements made in California newspapers and 
In the " Druggists' Circular " for January. 

"The person who Is known by the sobriquet of 'Jack,' is a man of about 52 
years of age, about 5 feet 8 inches high, and weighs about 158 pounds 5 he Is of In- 
temperate habits, and has his periodical sprees, which last from one to three weeks, 
during which time he keeps completely saturated with whisky. If occasion requires 
that he should be sober at a certain time, or if, perchance, he feels the slimy folds of 
* snakes ' coiling in his boots, he Immediately procures a bottle of strychnia, and 
eats from ten to twenty grains. If the desired effect is not produced, say within an 
hour, the dose is repeated. Unless his spree has been protracted, one dose usually 
straightens him up, and no matter how drunk he is when he takes it, within three- 
hours every trace of his debauch has left him, and the closest observer could not dis- 
cover the slightest indications of recent dissipation. Instead of a hectic flush or dull„ 

286 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. jine'.sj"''"'- 

heavy look, his eyes are clear and bright, and his skin presents its natural appear- 
ance. He is very reticent about the causes for his habit, and merely tells that lie 
commenced the use of strychnia in 1856/' 

Dr. Morey has experimented with strychnia and nux vomica as an antidote to the 
effects of alcohol, and invariably v^'ith beneficial results. 

Bogus Diploma. — The " Pharmaceutische Centralhalle," 1875, No. 12, relates 
that in Berlin, Germany, a man by the nanie of Helmsen was recently convicted of 
fraud, in representing himself as a physician, and was sentenced to one year's im- 
prisonment. He had procured a diploma from the University of Philadelphia, and, 
by advertising, offering reliable advice to ladies in delicate circumstances, attracted 
the notice of the police. To his patients who were intent upon producing abortion, 
he sold an ineffectual iron preparation for 25 thalers ; his cunningness saved him 
from the severer penalty of the abortionist. 


A Manual of Diet in Health and Disease. By Thomas King Chambers, M. D., etc. 
Philadelphia: Henry C.Lea. 1875. 8vo, pp. 310. 

The author states in the preface that " the aims of this hand-book are purely 
practical, and therefore it has not been thought right to increase its size by the 
addition of the chemical, botanical and industrial learning which rapidly collects 
round the nucleus of every article interesting as an eatable. Space has been thus 
gained for a full discussion of many matters connecting food and drink with the 
daily current of social life, which the position of the author as a practising physician 
has led him to believe highly important to the present and future of our race." 

In a work of this kind, the temptation was very great to enlarge its bulk by intro- 
ducing matter more or less intimately connected with the different articles treated 
of. By carefully avoiding this, the author has very materially enhanced the value 
of his work. The accessory scientific information, if necessary, is easily obtainable 
by every physician from works treating specially on those branches of knowledge ; 
by omitting it, the author has been enabled to present a work which may well be 
recommended to every person of intelligence, who will find in it much directly ap- 
plicable to himself, and a great deal more worthy of careful perusal. 

Part I, on " General Dietetics," and Part II, on " Special Dietetics of Health," 
are particularly to be recommended to the intelligent reader, who values his own 
health and that of his kin. They give so much sound information, frequently Illus- 
trated by familiar examples, and so much advice under the most varied circum- 
stances, that perhaps nobody will lay it aside without discovering some plain truth 
frequently disregarded, or good reasons for acknowledged facts, dogmatic teachings 
being entirely omitted. This feature makes the work the more valuable to the 
physician, for whom it was perhaps more directly intended. We give the headings 
of a few chapters, to show to the reader the subjects specially treated of : On the 
choice of food 5 the preparation of food j regimen of infancy and motherhood ; regi- 

'■^"'jtmri875'""'} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 287 

men of childhood and youth 5 commercial life 5 literary and professional life \ hints 
for healthy travellers 5 starvation, poverty and fasting 5 the decline of life, etc. 

Part III treats of " Dietetics in Sickness." It does not merely give directions 
how the sick are to be fed 5 but it endeavors to explain the causes of certain classes 
of diseases developed by faulty nutrition. This part, therefore, does not merely 
aim to aid the physician in tracing the causes of such disorders, and to presc.iibe the 
proper regimen 5 but it is likewise eminently calculated to teach the thinking how 
to avoid disease. 

To sum up our opinion on this work, v\e must say that we regard it as one of the 
most valuable additions to our literature on sanitary science, adapted not only to 
the special knowledge of the physician, but to the comprehension of every intelli- 
gent reader; it is a work which will be perused with profit, even though we may 
differ in some respects from the deductions of the author. 

Health Officer s Annual Report of Births^ Marriages and Deaths for City of Philadel- 
phia, 1874. Philadelphia: E. C. Markley & Son, Printers. 1875. ^vo. pp. 162. 

This volume, which is mainly of local interest, except to the general statistician, 
contains a large number of tables drawn up by the Health Officer, John E. Addicks, 
and several charts designed by George E. Chambers, Registrar. 

Annual Report of the College of Pharmacy of the City of Ne~LV York, Forty- fifth Session , 
and Fourth Annual Report of the Alumni Association, 1875. New York: Holt 
Brothers, Printers. 8vo, pp. 81. 

The reports of the various committees, addresses by the Presidents of the College 
and of the Association, and those delivered at the Annual Commencement, extracts 
from the minutes of the Alumni Association, lists of members, etc., make up this 

Proceedings of the Vermont Pharmaceutical Association at the Fifth Amiiial Meeting, 
held at Montpelier, October 2\ and 22, 1874. Rutland: Globe Paper Company, 
Printers. 1875. PP- 4°- 

Besides the minutes and the officers' reports, several papers, on the followmg sub- 
jects, are contained in this pamphlet: "The Opium habit," containing some val- 
uable information on this subject,- " Oils," giving brief directions for detecting some 
adulterations ; " Valeriana officinalis" and " Dispensing liquors." The drift of the 
last-mentioned paper may be well stated by its concluding sentence, which is as fol- 
lows : " Those dealers who sell liquors on draught for drinking purposes should be 
classed as saloon keepers, and taxed and crusaded upon as such." The paper 011 
valerian gives some information on the culture of this drug in New England. We 
learn that it is propagated from cuttings of the rhizome, and that the yield is from 
1,000 to 2,000 pounds of root per acre. We take leave to doubt the correctness of 
the Information obtained from the growers, that "any land that will raise good corn 
will raise good valerian, and any manure that is good for corn is good for valerian." 
That the amount of extract yielded by any drug Is not a criterion of its medicinal 
value, we have repeatedly shown to be the case. 

We trust that this State Association will be largely represented at the forthcoming 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 



Am. Jour. PharnT, 
June, 1873. 

The reception of the following pamphlets is hereby acknowledged : 
Address by Prof. E. F. Friscoe, M. Z)., and Introductory by Prof. R. H. Stabler, M. D. 
Delivered before the National College of Pharmacy, Washington, D. C. 1875.. 
8vo. pp. 24. 

Thirty-second Annual Report of the State Lunatic Asylum, Utica, N. T., for the yea^^ 
1874. Transmitted to the Legislature January 15, 1875. Albany: 8vo, pp. 74. 

Fourth Annual Report of the Dispensary for Skin Diseases. Philadelphia: 1875. 8vo/ 

Versuche zur synthetischen Darstellung des A^ophenylens. Von Julius John Suckert: 

aus San Francisco, U. S. A. Freiburg: 1874. 33 pages. 
Experiments for the synthetic preparation of azophenylen. 

Cerebrospinal Meningitis. Report to the State Board of Health upon an epidemic 
in Monroe and Lenawee counties, Mich., and a study of some facts relative to 
the cause of the disease. By Henry B. Baker, M D., Secretary of the Board. 
1875. 8vo., pp. 193. 

The last pamphlet is a reprint from the Second Annual Report of the State BoarJ: 
of Health of the State of Michigan for the year ending September 30, 1874. 


Thomas Hollis, formerly President of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy y. 
died in Boston, May 17th, aged seventy-three years. He was born in that city ir. 
1802, and while quite young was apprenticed to Dr. Bartlett, of Charlestown, Ir. 
1823 he formed a partnership with Daniel Gregg, in Union street, and has occuplel 
the same store up to the time of his demise, Mr. Gregg having retired from the firm 
in 1 83 1. The deceased took great interest in the Massachusetts College of Phar- 
macy, of which institution he was elected a trustee in 1854, Corresponding Secre- 
tary in 1855, Vice-President in 1856, and President in 1857, resigning the latte: 
office in 1871. He became a member of the American Pharmeceutical Association 
in 1855 and served as one of the Vice-Presidents for the years 1864-65. 

His life was one of activity, usefulness and success, not only in his profession, but 
also in his business relations and as a private citizen. He acted for twenty years as 
director, and a portion of this time as chairman, of the House of Industry; he had 
been elected to the Common Council of Boston, served on the School Committee, 
and for the past twenty years has been President of the Howard Benevolent Society. 
He leaves four children, three sons and one daughter. 

The druggists and apothecaries of Boston assembled. May 19th, and, in a series 
of resolutions, offered a tribute to his private and public virtues. 

Dr. John Gottlieb, Professor of Chemistry in the Polytechnic High School of 
Gratz, Austria, died there, of paralysis, March 4th. The deceased was well known 
from his investigations of the fatty acids and as the author of valuable works or 
systematic and technical chemistry. 



JVLT, 1875. 



In the January number of this Journal, Prof. Maisch calls our atten- 
tion to a fraud in the shape of a spurious bark, purporting to be that of 
the Gossypium herhaceum. This bark was obtained from a wholesale store, 
and was, either intentionally or through ignorance, thrown upon the mar- 
ket as that of the officinal cotton-root bark. Be this as it may, how- 
ever, the above mentioned article in the January journal was the means 
of directing the attention of physicians and druggists generally through- 
out the country to this bark and its preparations, and they are now dis- 
posed (very justly) to examine rather critically any pharmaceutical that 
comes within their observation which is purported to have been pre- 
pared from this bark. 

A short time since, one of our retail druggists complained to me of 
a specimen of this fluid extract. It was prepared by a reliable manu- 
facturer of pharmaceuticals in this city, and when purchased by him 
seemed prime and trustworthy. It was originally of a rich deep red 
color, and evidently gave satisfaction. At any rate there was no com- 
plaint made of it, and, if I mistake not, he dispensed it several times. 
However, when about one-fourth of the bottle had been used, he was 
surprised one day upon attempting to fill a prescription to find the re- 
mainder had gelatinized, or, perhaps, the word curdled would better ex- 
press it ; for when it was exhibited to me it presented the form of a 
brown, soft curdy mass, from which, upon inclining the bottle, a very 
small amount of an almost colorless liquid would exude. The extract 
had lost its rich red color, and the liquid that dripped from the coagula- 
ted substance exhibited a decided acid reaction. 

The brown magma would not dissolve in either alcohol or water, 
while dilute acids and alkalies alike seemed not to affect it. 



Fluid Extract of Gossypium. 

(Am, Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1875. 

Afterwards, another of our city apothecaries, in speaking of this pre- 
paration (fluid extract of gossypium), mentioned the variable appearance 
of the different lots of extracts he had found upon the market ; for., 
while some specimens were of a brownish-yellow color, others would be 
of a deep red, and the question which presented itself to him in connec- 
tion with the above-mentioned facts was whether some of them were 
not prepared from spurious barks ? 

Messrs. Wallace Brothers, of Statesville, N. C, may be considered 
excellent authority upon the subject of the crude root, its collection, 
&c., and in a letter to me they say : " The root and bark of the root 
are gathered in October, immediately after the cotton is harvested, before 
the wet weather sets in ; for at this time they turn to a deep brown color, 
and become unfit for use." I have seen specimens of bark upon the 
market corresponding with the above description of the injured (deep 
brown) bark, and, indeed, have attempted to prepare an extract by way 
of experiment from the same. The experiment was a failure, however ; 
for, although the preparation possessed some of the characteristics which 
pertain to extracts prepared from good bark, any one with much experi- 
ence would readily perceive it to be a very inferior article, but could 
scarcely confound it with any other fluid extract. 

The bark of the Gossypium herhaceum^ when prime, is of a yellowish- 
brown color externally, while internally it is much lighter, almost ap- 
proaching in some instances to white ; when chewed, it imparts merely 
a sweetish astringent taste. When the fluid extract is prepared from 
the above-named quality of bark by the ofliicinal process, it is at first often 
of a brownish-yellow color, without a tinge of red ; to the taste it is a true 
representation of the bark with the exception of the increased sweet- 
ness, which is imparted by the glycerin. It is neutral, altering neither 
the color of reddened nor blue litmus paper. It contains a large amount 
of tannin and considerable glucose. Upon standing, the extract under- 
goes a chemical alteration ; it gradually changes (sometimes quite rapidly) 
to a reddish color, ultimately becoming of a very beautiful bright red, 
while at the same time it becomes very acid, immediately changing blue 
litmus paper to red, and even effervescing with bicarbonate of potas- 
sium. This alteration proceeds as readily in the dark as when exposed 
to the light, while securely protecting it from the atmosphere will neither 
retard nor increase the decomposition. The above striking alteration 
I consider peculiar to this extract, for, although many of our fluid ex- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ") 
July, 1875. i 

Fluid Extract of Gossypium. 


tracts are prone to decompose, the remarkable change in color in my 
■opinion is a characteristic of Gossypium. 

Occasionally the chemical decomposition proceeds until the extract 
is completely disintegrated. This is seldom the case, however, but once 
in awhile we come across a specimen that has abruptly solidified or 
curdled (while samples I have purposely placed aside most positively re- 
fuse to do likewise, although standing longer than some that have 
spoiled). The property of coagulating, however, is possessed by fluid 
•extract of Geranium maculatum^ which, as regards color, is nearly like 
Gossypium after the change to red. However, fluid extract of geranium 
is red when first made, and so very astringent as to forbid its ever being 
mistaken for fluid extract of cotton-root. 

From the foregoing remarks it will appear that a genuine fluid extract 
of Gossypium may at different periods vary in color from a brownish- 
yellow to a deep red, and that the several shades found upon the market, 
perhaps, are prepared from the true Gossypium ; however, if any of the 
specimens are not red, and age fails to effect a change to this color, I 
feel that I may be warranted in saying they were either prepared from 
spurious barks, or worthless Gossypium. 

Fluid extract of cotton-root, as I have said, turns invariably to a deep 
red after standing a time, and occasionally will decompose and coagulate 
after reaching the above color, which, although rendering the extract 
worthless, is a proof of its having been genuine ; for of the red extracts 
Geranium maculatum is the only one that to my knowledge will gela- 
tinize, and Geranium cannot be mistaken for Gossypium. 

Regarding color alone, either the fluid extract of Pinus canadensis or 
Geranium maculatum might be substituted for Gossypium^ but their taste 
and properties would forbid, while all of the species of Populus I have 
operated with differ from the true Gossypium in every respect. Taking 
everything into consideration, the probabilities are that the larger share 
of worthless fluid extract of Gossypium is prepared from Gossypium 
bark, but from the kind Wallace Brothers speak of as being dark brown^ 
for to my experience we have much of this stuff to contend with. 
Cincinnati, Ohio, June ist, 1875. 

Note. — The gelatinous mass is probably one of the pectin compounds, perhaps 
pectosic acid, produced by what has been termed the pectic fermentation. 
Similar changes, the precise causes for which are but little understood, occur in many 
concentrated liquid preparations of vegetable drugs, and it is curious that occasion- 
ally only a portion of such a liquid gelatinizes, while another portion prepared at the 


Aspidium Marginale. 

J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1875 

same time and kept apparently under the same conditions, refuses to gelatinize. In 
some instances the change may be prevented by exhausting the drug with a stronger 
alcohol, or by adding to the preparation if strongly acid, a little alkali. But na 
general rule can be laid down, applicable to all cases. — Ed. Am. Jour. Pharm. 



[From an Inaugural Essay.) 

This plant has a perennial, horizontal rhizome, from which numerous 
annual fronds arise, from one to two feet in height. The stipes are 
thickly beset with brown, tough, transparent scales ; the frond is smooth, 
thickish and almost coriaceous, ovate-oblong in outline, bipinnate ; pin- 
nae-lanceolate, broadest at the base ; pinnules oblong or oblong scythe- 
shaped, crowded, obtuse, crenately toothed. The fruit dots are round 
kidney-shaped, and situated close to the margin, from which the plant 
takes its name. It grows on rocky hillsides, in rich woods of central 
Pennsylvania, where I gathered it the latter part of September. I then 
thought it was Aspidium Filix-mas^ the rhizomes of both plants closely 
resembling each other, but through the kindness of Prof. J. M. Maisck 
have been able to properly classify it as Aspidium marginale. The rhi- 
zome is probably used to adulterate or sold in place of male-fern. 

The following was the process pursued in the analysis of the 
rhizome : 

Treatment ivith Ether. — The rhizome was reduced to a moderately 
fine powder, moistened with ether, and packed in a percolator, and 
ether, specific gravity 750, passed through until exhausted. The 
etherial solution was of a reddish-brown color, with a distinct dark- 
greenish tinge. It was transferred to a still, and about 75 per cent, of 
the ether recovered ; the remainder was evaporated spontaneously until 
there was no etherial odor present. This, constituting the oleo-resin, 
according to the process of the United States " Pharmacopoeia," was a 
thick, oily, dark-green liquid, having a nauseous and somewhat acrid- 
taste. On standing a short time it deposited a resin, which was sep- 
arated and treated with alcohol, specific gravity '850. After evap- 
orating the alcohol the resin was of a reddish-brown color, but on long 
exposure to the air became darker, harder and brittle j it was fusible by 
heat, had a somewhat aromatic odor and bitter taste, dissolved readily 
in ether, alcohol, oil of turpentine, ammonia, potassa and carbonate of 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 

July, 1875. ; 

Aspidium Marginale, 


potassium, and was heavier than water. The alcoholic solution had an 
acid reaction, and the resin is therefore similar to that obtained by Luck 
from Aspidium Filix-mas. 

Filicic Acid, — The etherial extract, after standing a few weeks, 
deposited on the sides of the vessel yellow crystals, which were col- 
lected on a filter and washed with ether, then with ether-alcohol, and 
dissolved in diluted alcohol with the addition of carbonate of potassium, 
decolorized with animal charcoal, precipitated by HCl, and recrystal- 
lized from ether, which gave small granular, slightly yellowish crystals, 
which, when heated, yielded an oily substance smelling of butyric acid. 
They burned wich a luminous flame when heated on platinum foil, and 
left a shining charcoal. Treated with ammonia, they quickly assumed 
a dark brownish-yellow color. They are but sparingly soluble in diluted 
alcohol, soluble in boiling absolute alcohol, only slightly more soluble 
in boiling than cold ether, and soluble in fats, volatile oils and bisulphide 
of carbon. They show the reactions to all the tests applied by Luck, 
and I believe then to be identical to the filicic acid obtained by him 
from the true male-fern. 

Treatment with Alcohol. — The dregs, after having been exhausted 
with ether, were freed from all traces of it by exposure to the air, and 
then macerated for three days with alcohol, specific gravity '835, and 
thoroughly exhausted in a percolator ; the liquid was of a reddish-brown 
color, and had an acid reaction. The greater portion of the alcohol 
was distilled off, and the remainder evaporated by the aid of a water- 
bath to the consistence of honey. The residue had a sweetish and 
very astringent taste. After standing for a few weeks in the capsule, 
small crystals formed, which were separated, dissolved in a small quan- 
tity of water ; four times the quantity of alcohol was added to take up 
the coloring matter, and the solution precipitated with stronger ether. 
The liquid separated into three layers, the upper one being ether slightly 
colored ; the middle, alcohol containing the coloring matter, and the 
lower aqueous stratum the sugar. The watery solution yielded crystals 
which proved to be cane sugar. 

The residue from which the crystals were first deposited was dis- 
solved in water, filtered, precipitated by acetate of lead, and filtered ; 
the excess of lead was then removed from the liquid by sulphuretted 
hydrogen, the filtrate containing glucose, as proven by Trommer's test. 
The lead precipitate was boiled with water for some time, and filtered 

2 94 Glyconated Emulsion of Cod-liver Oil, {"""^jiy^is^ys""' 

the precipitate was then treated with acetic acid, and the filtered Hquid 
neutralized by ammonia. The precipitate was then washed with water, 
suspended in alcohol and decomposed by sulphuretted hydrogen. On 
evaporating the filtrate, tannic acid was obtained, giving a dark-green 
color to ferric salts. 

Treatment with Cold Water, — The substance, after having been 
exhausted with ether and alcohol, was dried, and macerated with cold 
water for four days, and strained ; a turbid liquid, of a light-brown 
color, having a slight acid reaction, was obtained. Much albumen was. 
separated by heat ; the concentrated filtrate yielded with alcohol a floc- 
culent precipitate of gum, which was soluble in water and precipitated' 
from this solution by acetate and subacetate of lead. 

Treatment with Boiling Water. — The substance, after being exhausted 
with cold water, was next treated with boiling water, the liquid strained 
and evaporated to half its bulk ; on cooling, it deposited a brown, jelly- 
like substance, which was insoluble in cold water, and is probably 
pectin. A small portion of the filtered liquid, treated with iodine^ 
resumed a distinct blue color, proving the presence of starch. 

The remaining portion of the liquid was again concentrated to a small 
bulk, and proved to be free from glucose. The green portion of the 
stipes treated in the manner described above, gave similar results, but 
yielded a larger amount of resin, and are, perhaps, as efficient as the 

The oleo-resin compared favorably with the best German oleo-resin 
of male-fern I could get in the city, so far as could be judged by the 
appearance, taste and odor. Samples of it have been placed into the 
hands of a prominent physician in this city, who promised to closely 
watch its eff'ect, and report the result. 

Miller sto^-tvn. Perry co., Pa., Feb. ist, 1875. 



The writer desires to call the attention of the profession to a new 
combination of this valuable agent. The formula, somewhat modified, 
is that proposed by Dr. Geo. M. Beard in the "Archives of Elcctrology 
and Neurology " for May, 1874. I have prepared the emulsion frequently 
for Dr. Bartlett, of this place, who esteems it highly as a brain and 

''"){"y%l7s""'} Glyconated Emulsion of Cod-liver Oil 295 

nerve food, and in an atonic condition of the nervous system. It is 
well borne by the most delicate stomach; and when well prepared, will 
keep sweet a long time. Below are given the formula and details which 
the operator will appreciate after using. 

First prepare glyconin ^xviii by .thoroughly triturating in a half- 
gallon mortar 


Yolk of egg, , , . . aa ^ix 

Then add Oil of bitter-almond, .... .51 

And triturate until the mixture thickens and becomes a creamy yel- 

Prepare a strychnia solution as follows : 

Take of Strychnia sulphate, . . . . gr. i 

Distilled water, . . . . . 5ii 

Jamaica rum, . ... ^^iv 

Add eight fluidounces of filtered cod-liver oil very slowly to the 
glyconin mixture, preferably by steady dropping from a vial having a 
grooved cork, and at intervals add small portions of the strvchnia 

All this is to be done by active and constant trituration, the success 
of the process depending upon the fidelity with which this is performed. 
The finished product will measure about twenty fluidounces, until, by 
subsidence, the air bubbles have escaped. An incidental benefit to the 
operator is a superb development of the flexor muscles. 

As proposed by Dr. Beard, the mixture contained diluted phosphoric 
acid. At the request of Dr. Bartlett, I substituted strychnia. He 
gives the dose, a dessertspoonful, containing 1-64 grain of the salt. 
Phosphorus in etherial solution. Fowler's solution of arsenic, pyrophos- 
phate of iron, etc., may be readily substituted. The formula, of which 
this is a modification, appeared in the June number of the " Druggists' 

The glyconin " without the oil of almonds, soon separates, and 
with the oil, soon becomes too thick to flow from a wide-mouthed vial. 

Experiments, with a view to preparing it in a ready form for all 
emulsions are thus far unsuccessful, but will be further prosecuted, and 
the result announced later, if favorable. The writer is disposed to lay 
stress on the two facts that the above mixture does not nauseate and does 
not separate. 


Elixir of Hops. 

/Am. Jour, Pharm. 
\ July. 1875- 

The designation "Glyconated Emulsion " may serve a good purpose 
when, from idiosyncracy, the name of cod-liver oil is unpalatable. 
Flathushy L. /., June, 1875. 



Hops are a favorite remedy with many physicians in various nervous 
disorders. Both alone and in conjunction with other remedies, it is 
much employed in the treatment of delirium tremens and the general 
nervous disturbance and morbid vigilance so often the result of inebri- 
ation and debauch. 

In the form of elixir, as prepared by the formula presented in this 
naper, a number of my medical friends have employed it for several 
years, in the class of cases just referred to, with the most gratifying 

When carefully prepared by skillful hands, the tincture and fluid 
extract of hops (the latter not officinal) are both good preparations of 
the drug ; but owing to the bulkiness of hops, which renders their 
percolation difficult, unless great care is taken, both in reducing them 
to a powder of sufficient fineness, and also in packing them preparator}/ 
to percolation, they will be only partially exhausted. These prepara- 
tions are, therefore, often liable to be of very uncertain strength. Be- 
sides, the very unpleasant taste of the tincture and fluid extract of hops, 
as that of the same preparations of lupulin, prevents their general use. 
Many delicate persons cannot tolerate the use of any of these prepar- 
ations, on this account. This fact evidently calls for a more palatable 
preparation of the drug. An elixir of hops, therefore, when well made 
and of sufficient strength, is a very desirable and important preparation. 
It will enable the physician to avail himself of the use of the drug in 
many cases where he would otherwise be compelled to forbear its em- 

It is the opinion of many that lupulin is the only active portion of 
hops ; but this I believe to be a very great mistake. Lupulin may be 
the chief, but not the only active part of hops. There are other 
active and valuable medicinal virtues in hops that are not represented 
in lupulin. 

I here offer a formula for the elixir of hops which I have used for 
a number of vears ; it affords an excellent preparation : 

Am. Jour, Pharm. \ 

July, 1875. ; 

Elixir of Hops. 


R. Pulv. Hops, No. 20, .... 511, troy 

" Cloves, No. 60 .... . 

*' Canella, "... . . aa. 

" Cinnamon, No, 60, . . . . grs. Ixxx 

Oil of Orange (fresh), , . . . . f^iiss 

Sugar, ...... troy 

Alcohol, ...... 

Water, ...... aa. q. s. 

Mix the powders. Then to twenty fluidounces of a mixture, consist- 
ing of ten parts of alcohol and twelve parts of water, add the oil of 
orange, shake well and moisten the powders with two fluidounces and a 
half, or a sufficient quantity of the mixture. Set it aside in a closed 
vessel to macerate for twenty-four hours ; then pack it firmly in a 
cylindrical glass percolator, and pour upon it, first the remainder of the 
menstruum, and, when this has all been absorbed, continue the perco- 
lation with a menstruum consisting of ten parts of alcohol and twelve 
parts of water, until twenty-four fluidounces of percolate have been 
obtained. To this, in a bottle, add the sugar and shake the mixture 
occasionally until the sugar is dissolved, then filter through paper. 

In the elixir, as thus prepared, the aroma and peculiar bitter taste of 
the hops are very strongly marked ; but the latter so nicely blended with 
the flavoring ingredients as to be quite agreeable to the palate. 

Each fluidounce contains the active properties of thirty grains of 
hops, which is very nearly half the strength of the officinal tincture. 

The usual dose for an adult would be from a dessertspoonful to a 
tablespoonful every two or three hours, or as necessary. 

It is, I presume, hardly necessary for me to say that it is absolutely 
essential that the oil of orange used in making this elixir should be of 
the very best quality and fresh. There is hardly an essential oil more 
unstable than the oil of orange. To keep it sweet for any length of 
time is almost an impossibility, unless mixed with aportion of alcohol. 
I am always very careful to select a first-rate oil, and mix it at once 
with an equal bulk of stronger alcohol (as this is a convenient proportion 
for use) and set it aside in a dark, cool place, and, in this way, I have 
no difficulty in keeping it a long time unchanged. 

When measured for use, it should be vigorously shaken and poured 
out very quickly to insure exact proportions. 

In making this elixir I have tried various strengths of alcohol, but 
have found the one adopted to be the most satisfactory. It is of suffi- 
cient strength to exhaust he hops of their activity, being nearly as 


Elixir of Hops. 

f Am. Jour, Pharm. 
I July, 1875. 

Strong as the menstruum employed in making the officinal tincture. 
Besides, the hops are percolated in the proportion of two troyounces to 
twenty-four fluidounces of menstruum, and also with the additional ad- 
vantage of a twenty-four hours' preliminary maceration, while in mak- 
ing the officinal tincture, the hops are percolated in the proportion of 
five troyounces to thirty-two fluidounces of menstruum. 

It is of paramount importance, in all preparations of those drugs 
which, like hops, are so often prescribed in diseases of the nervous sys- 
tem when the stimulus of alcohol is so frequently injurious, that their 
alcoholic strength should be kept down to the minimum. 

The manner in which the moistened powder should be placed in the 
vessel for the preliminary maceration not only in the preparation of 
this elixir, but also in all cases where such preliminary maceration is 
required, is a practical point of sufficient importance to justify my call- 
ing attention to it in this place. 

Powders intended for preliminary maceration, after being moistened, 
are often either thrown loosely into the bottle or other vessel in which 
the process is to be conducted, or are but loosely packed. 

Now, in all cases, and especially when the powders are light and 
bulky, after they have been properly moistened for preliminary macer- 
ation, they should be packed quite firmly in the vessel in which they 
are to be macerated. 

This close packing confers two rather important advantages. First^ 
it confines the vapors of alcohol or other menstruum, and often pre- 
vents the escape and partial loss of volatile principles, as in the case of 
the preliminary maceration of wild-cherry bark in making the syrup, 
&c. Secondly, it keeps the menstruum and powder in close and inti- 
mate contact, thus allowing the former to exert more fully and equally 
its softening, solvent and chemical action, which is desirable in all cases, 
but highly essential in some ; as a type of the latter, wild-cherry bark 
may be again mentioned. 

Whereas, if the powder is carelessly thrown into the vessel or only 
loosely packed, the menstruum will be found in a short time to have 
settled to the bottom of the mass of powder with its lower strata, while 
the upper strata will be found at the end of the maceration almost en- 
tirely dry. 

Every observing pharmacist must have noticed this in the course of 
his manipulations ; and that this is especially liable to be the case when 

Am. Jour. Pharm.") 
July, 1875. / 

Elixir of Hops. 

such substances as hops, chamomile-flowers, arnica and similar sub- 
stances are under treatment. 

A similar effect to that just mentioned, as occurring in ordinary pre-^ 
liminary macerations, will be experienced when light and bulky drugs 
are operated upon, in the long preliminary maceration directed in the 
process of percolation of our present " Pharmacopoeia." A few hours 
after the full compliment of menstruum has been put on and the mass 
set aside, the greater portion of the alcohol will be found to have set- 
tled to the bottom of the mass, while the upper strata will be left al- 
most dry, and, in some instances, so shrunken that the mass is separ- 
ated from the sides of the percolator, which often very much interferes 
with successful percolation ; for when the remaining portion of men- 
struum is poured on, after the four days' maceration is completed, it 
sometimes flows down between the sides of the precolator and the 
shrunken mass of 'powder, in consequence of which there is likely to 
be a serious disturbance and derangement of the powder. This diffi- 
culty may, in a slight degree, be overcome by again carefully adjusting 
the powder by moderate pressure before the addition of more men- 

As a consequence of this difficulty, large flakes or portions of the 
impacted mass often separate from their moorings and rise to the 
surface of the supernatant liquid. This I have often experienced, to 
my utter disgust and chagrin. 

I feel quite confident that the elixir of hops, as prepared by the pro- 
cess here presented, will prove a very popular remedy with all physicians 
who become acquainted with its formula. Its palatableness as well as its 
elegance will commend it to the favor of both physician and patient, and 
especially to those of the former who are sagacious enough to consult 
their own as well as their patient's interests, by prescribing pleasant 

My opinion is that we cannot have too many palatable remedies, 
especially when the formulas for their preparation are accessible to the 
entire craft, and are open to the inspection of physicians, who can have 
an opportunity of judging of their therapeutic merits. 

Every pharmacist who improves the taste, appearance and general 
elegance of any medicinal agent without impairing its medicinal virtue^ 
is a real benefactor of his race, and deserves, even if he does not re- 
ceive, the blessing of every invalid, man, woman and child on the 
face of the earth. It is only when we are sick that we can appreciate 
the great blessing of agreeable remedies. 

300 Elixir of Paullinia or Guarana. 

The sugar-coated pill, the palatable ^' elixir," the nicely-flavored 
mixture, may be of little account to the well, but to the sick they are, 
I can assure my readers, a precious boon. 

In a future paper I shall make some further comments upon the 
question of " Elixirs " and " Elegant Pharmacy," and the interest of 
medicine and pharmacy involved in the question. 

Philadelphia, May, 1875. 



Guarana, which is prepared from Paullinia sorbilis.^ derives its name 
from a tribe of aborigines, called " Guaranis," who, it is said, used it 
as a corrigent of their vegetable diet. Within the last few years it has 
received considerable reputation for the cure of the various forms of 
headache, and the credit it has attained appears to be confined to a few 
places. There are but few physicians and apothecaries who know more 
of it than its name. I believe it is better known in the Southern and 
Western States than in other sections of the country. My attention 
was first attracted to it six or seven years ago in one of our Southern 
cities, where the writer then resided, and where it was used by the peo- 
ple for the cure of nervous and sick-headaches and other nervous dis- 
orders, with good success, the residents there regarding it as a specific 
for those afilictions. Unfortunately, the apothecaries were forced to 
sell what was called guarana, put up as a proprietary article by a firm 
known by the name of Grimault & Co., P<?m, France., and sold at the 
enormous price of a J1.50 per box, each box containing about a dozen 
small powders. At that time guarana was very scarce in the American 
market, or, in all probability, it would have been sold in a different 
shape, and not as a proprietary article. 

Of late years, guarana or paullinia has been more plentiful, larger 
quantities of it have been imported, owing to the increasing demand ; 
but still Grimault & Co.'s guarana sells at the exorbitant price of 
$1.00 per box. If there is still the same demand South for this pro- 
prietary article as there formerly was, pharmacists should discounten- 
ance and discourage its sale, and introduce, if possible, the commercial 

When the writer first became acquainted with it, as possessing med- 
icinal properties, it was used by a class of people who knew the dose, 

^"^jliy^'Iys^"""'} ^l^^'^r of Paullinia or Guar ana 301 

whence it came from and its therapeutic properties. It seems then 
that there would be but little trouble experienced in the introduction of 
Paullinia of commerce by the apothecaries, in place of the above-named 
nostrum, and, at the same time, the consumer would be better satisfied, 
knowing that he was taken guarana and saving from 300 to 400 per 
cent. Perhaps, if a chemical examination was made, it might be found 
to contain but little guarana, and, in some respects, resemble cincho- 
quinine, which tried hard to live and be brought into general use ; but 
the analysis, by Professors Diehl and SchefFer, was too much for it ; it 
received such a severe blow that it is impossible for it to survive. If 
the results of such investigations were spread throughout the land, and 
published in the medical and pharmaceutical journals, physicians would 
become acquainted with the true composition of such nostrums, disap- 
prove of their use, and they would be dropped and buried forever. 

Paullinia acts as a nervine, owing to the large quantity of caffeina it 
contains. Dr. Stenhouse found caffeina to be more abundant in Paul- 
linia than in any other vegetable. He obtamed 5 "07 per cent, from 
Paullinia ; from good black tea, 2*13 ; from coffee, I'OO per cent., and 
1*2 per cent, from Paraguay tea (" Pharm. Journ.," xvi, 213). My 
object here is to frame a formula for an elixir of guarana or paullinia, 
which has been prescribed in our town by a few practitioners with very 
good success for nervous headache. Frequently physicians are misled 
in their experiments for ascertaining the value of a remedy, by prescrib- 
ing other medicines with the one under trial, and giving the credit of 
the cure to the new remedy, when it was, perhaps, due to the medicine 
associated with it. But the elixir of guarana was prescribed alone, and^ 
in many cases, gave instant relief ; it was made by the following for- 
mula : 

Take of Paullinia, ...... ,^iv 

Alcohol, ...... f^vi 

Water, . . . . . . f^^vi 

Glycerin (pure), ..... ^iv 

Oil of Orange, ..... gtt. viii 

Oil of Ceylon Cinnamon, .... gtt. i 

Diluted alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

Reduce Paullinia to a fine powder, mix 5^^ ozs. alcohol with the 
glycerin and water, moisten the powder with this mixture and pack in 
a glass funnel or a conical glass percolator ; pour on the balance of the 
glycerin mixture, and, when this ceases to pass, add sufficient dilutee 

,302 Gleanings from the European Journals, {^""jiy^'is^js^'""" 

alcohol, till the percolate measures 15 J ozs., then add the oils to h oz. 
alcohol, dissolve and mix with the percolate. This makes a beautiful 
reddish-brown colored and very palatable preparation, each teaspoonful 
of which represents the active constituents of 15 grains of paullinia. 
Potts^ilUj Pa., May, 1875. 



Clarification of Alcoholic Solution of Shellac. — One part of shellac yields, 
with 6 parts of 90 per cent, alcohol, a solution which is turbid from 
suspended wax. If the solution is agitated with 6 parts of powdered 
chalk, the greater portion becomes transparent, and the white sediment 
is readily filtered through paper or felt. If three parts of the turbid 
shellac solution are agitated with one part of petroleum benzin, the 
mixture soon separates into a light-colored benzin solution of wax, and 
into a clear, yellowish-brown solution of shellac in alcohol. Shellac 
thus purified, is left behind, on the evaporation of the alcohol, as a 
brittle mass ; but on adding to the alcoholic liquid from one to three 
per cent, of Venice turpentine, no brittleness is observable. — Phar. 
Cent. Halle., 1875, No. 17, from Phar. Zeit. f Russl. 

Removal of Fusel Oil and Clarification of Liquors. — Franz Plattner 
has patented, in Germany, the following process for the above purpose : 
8 litres of the liquor, tincture, elixir, etc., are agitated for a while 
with a mixture of 30 grams pure starch, 15 grams finely-powdered 
albumen and 15 grams of powdered milk-sugar. After 24 hours the 
liquid will be found free from all fusel oil, of a brilliant transparency, 
and greatly improved in taste. — Ihid.., from Polyt. Notizbl. 

Amheryellow {Anactinic^ Glass is extensively used in Europe, for the 
preservation of salts of silver, mercury, etc., as well as for the windows 
of photographers' dark closets. Such a glass is obtained handsomer 
and more brilliant in color than by metallic oxides, by the use of cow- 
dung, in the proportion of 60 parts of the mixture for colorless glass 
to one part of dried and sifted cowdung. — Ibid..^ No. 19, from Sprechsaal 
f. d. Glas-u. Thonw.-Ind. 

Oil of Orris {Odeum Iridis Florentines) was, until receently, man- 
ufactured in Paris, and at present by Schimmel & Co., of Leipzig. 
According to Hager it has the following properties : At the ordinary 

'^'"jify'ifzs^'^"''} Gleanings from the European Journals. 303 

temperature it is a pea-yellow solid, resembling the basilicon ointment 
{" Phar. Germ.") in color and consistence. It is lighter than water, 
fuses at 38^^ to 40° C. to a transparent liquid, and commences to con- 
geal at about 28° C. Two drops of the fused oil dissolve in 10 or 12 
drops of warm stronger alcohol, and the solution does not separate at 
a medium temperature. Three drops of the oil and 20 to 25 drops of 
concentrated sulphuric acid carefully heated to 30° C, yield a clear 
red-brown hquid, which, after ten minutes, dissolves in 7 c c. of 90 per 
cent, alcohol, with a light violet color, gradually becoming darker. Two 
drops of a solution of the oil in petroleum benzin evaporated spontan- 
eously leave a residue, which, with a magnifying power of 50 to 100 
diameters has a ramifying appearance after a few hours, and shows 
distinct crystals after a day. One part of oris oil yields, with 3,000 to 
4,000 parts of weaker alcohol, a solution of which a few drops put 
upon a handkerchief develop a persistent odor of violet. — Ibid.^ No. 19. 

Purification of Salicylic Acid. — Dr. A. Rautert found that salicylic 
acid volatilizes with steam of 170° C. undecomposed, and succeeded 
in purifying the yellow acid as obtained by Kolbe's process in the fol- 
lowing manner : A cylindrical copper kettle is surrounded by another 
cylinder containing paraffin heated to 170° C. ; the kettle is charged 
with about 2 lbs. of salicylic acid, over which steam is made to 
pass, after having been heated to 170° C. by passing it through a leaden 
coil immersed in a paraffin bath of this temperature. The exit tin 
pipe of 3 centimetres bore passes through a Liebig's condenser and is 
cleared from the condensing acid by a long glass tube, or stick of well 
boiled pine wood. Towards the close of the operation the tempera- 
ture of both paraffin baths is raised to 185° C. Very little black 
resinous residue remains in the kettle ; the distilled acid has a faint 
odor of carbolic acid, from which it is freed by crystallization from 
boiling distilled water, when it is obtained in beautiful snow-white crys- 
tals. Common water and ordinary filtering paper would impart, by 
their iron, a reddish color. The operation is finished in about two 

Steam under a pressure of 5 atmospheres, having a temperature of 
160° C, volatilized but traces of salicylic acid ; under a reduced pres- 
sure, however, the distillation could most likely be effected at a lower 
temperature. — Ibid.., No. 20, from Polyt. Noti%bl. 

Detection of Fusel Oil in Alcohol. — 5 c.c. alcohol are mixed with 6 or 

304 Gleanings from the European Journals. 

7 times this volume of water and then agitated with about 20 drops 
of chloroform, which, after spontaneous evaporation, leaves the fusel 
oil, recognizable by its odor, and by that of its ether when treated with 
a little sulphuric acid and potassium acetate. 1-20 per cent, of fusel 
oil is said to be thus detected in alcohol. — Chem. Cent. Bl.^ 1875, No. 
15, from Ber. Chem. Ges.., VIII. 

New Uses of Salicylic Acid. — F. Mohr observed that a small quantity 
of salicylic acid dissolved in a hot solution of starch will preserve the 
latter for analytical purposes. A similar influence is exerted by sal- 
icylic acid upon solutions of tartaric acid and of sulphate of quinia* 
Zeitschr.f Anal. Chem.^ 1875, No. 79. 

Lead in chlorate of potassium has been repeatedly detected by A. 
Hilger. Its presence is readily proven by the black precipitate with 
sulphuretted hydrogen, and the yellow precipitate with chromate of 
potassium. Its complete removal is effected by repeated crystalliza- 
tion from water. — Archiv d. Phar..^ 1875, May, p. 391. 

Iodine in nitric acid is best detected, according to A. Hilger, by 
agitating the acid with sulphide of carbon, which will assume a violet 
coloration. If no color is imparted, some rasped tin is added, by which 
iodic acid is reduced to iodine, and the carbon sulphide colored. — Ibid..f 

Sulphurous and arsenious acids in muriatic acid are detected by a 
weak solution of iodine which is decolorized thereby. On the addi- 
tion of some pure zinc to the acid, the evolved hydrogen will impart a 
black color to paper moistened with solution of silver nitrate. On the 
other hand, barium chloride is added to the muriatic acid, the liquid 
filtered from the precipitate occurring if sulphuric acid had been pres- 
ent, and iodine solution added, whereby sulphurous acid will be ox- 
idized to sulphuric acid, and thus occasion a precipitate with the barium 
salt. A. Hilger. — Ihid..^ p. 393. 

New Reagent for Brucia. — If an aqueous solution of brucia salt is 
mixed with solution of mercurous nitrate free from excess of nitric 
acid, no coloration occurs in the cold ; but by the heat of a water- 
bath a carmine color is produced, which gradually becomes more in- 
tense, and is permanent after evaporation to dryness. 

Strychnia, the alkaloids of opium and cinchona, veratria, cofFeina 
and piperina are not colored under the same circumstances. A sim- 
ilar behavior is shown by albumen and phenol, of which the former is 

Fluorescence for 'Detecting Adulteration. 305 

always removed during the isolation of the alkaloids, and the latter 
changes its red color soon into brown. 

Acetate of strychnia is mostly decomposed on evaporating its solution^ 
while brucia acetate is scarcely affected ; the residue, treated with, 
water, will yield to this solvent mainly the brucia salt, with little strych- 
nia, the latter being precipitated in needles by cobaltocyanide of potas- 
sium, the cobaltocyanide of brucia being more soluble in water. — 
F. A. Fluckiger. — Ihid.^ p. 403. 

Philoderm'ine^ a nostrum prepared by Demarson, Chetelat & Co., of 
Paris, is, according to G. Krause, a flavored mixture of lard and coco- 
nut oil, to which some sulphur, exsiccated ferrous sulphate and mag- 
nesia has been added. — Ihid.^ p. 406. 



The following note will be interesting as illustrating how the fluor- 
escence of any substance may be used for its detection in the presence 
of a non-fluorescent substance: 

About seven years ago, I made use of this phenomenon for the de- 
tection of turmeric when present in mustard in a report upon the com- 
mercial aspect of that substance, f 

Lately it has been referred to by one of the public analysts in Eng- 
land, as a method by which turmeric may be detected, and as it is so 
extremely delicate in its results, and yet so easy of application, I have 
thought it desirable to draw attention to the general principles upon 
which this phenomenon of fluorescence may be used for such purposes^ 
and also with the view of laying claim to the idea. 

If the adulterant is fluorescent, and the substance into which it is in- 
troduced in non-fluorescent, we have at once a ready means of exam- 
ining any number of samples with much more delicacy than the usual 
chemical reactions will give. Thus, let us take the one to which we 
have already referred, the mustard of commerce. 

The seeds of the black or white mustard yield a yellow, coloring 

* Reprint from the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, communicated by 
the author. 

\ Medical Press and Circular. — Report on the adulteration of mustard. Vol. 8, 
New series. 


3o6 Fluorescence for Detecting Adulteration, {^"'jify/is^s^'"'- 

matter soluble in spirit of wine, which is devoid of flourescence. Tur- 
meric is always present in the inferior qualities of this condiment, be- 
cause the actual adulterant is wheaten flour or rice, the turmeric being 
necessary to bring the white adulterant up to the same shade as the 
ground mustard seeds, therefore, the samples vary from 0*5 per cent, to 
O'05 per cent, of turmeric. Now, with such minute quantities of tur- 
meric, the alkaline test is very unsatisfactory — in fact, all chemical re- 
actions are unsatisfactory when dealing with such a minimum of adul- 

But the great elegance of this fluorescent test consists in the fact, 
that within reasonable limits, the more dilute the solution^ the more strongly 
does the fluorescence test come out. The non-fluorescence of the 
coloring matter of all substances that are adulterated with a fluorescent 
substance should, in the first instance, be exactly and scientifically de- 
termined. This is easily done by any one who has the necessary ar- 
rangements. In the case of the mustard yellow, Mr. H. Draper kindly 
-examined it for me, by the light of the spark formed between two steel 
wires (such a spark being the best for the purpose). 

The steel points were placed in connexion with a four-inch intensity 
-coil and a small Leyden jar was interposed in the circuit. The battery 
used consisted of three Groves elements. In examining by this method, 
ordinary glass vessels must be discharged, because even the strongly 
marked fluorescence of turmeric is more or less masked by the blue 
fluorescence of the glass. 

In a quartz cell (two plates of quartz in a frame of gutta percha), 
these observations can be carried on with the greatest accuracy. Mr. 
Draper's observations prove that, whilst the coloring matter of the true 
seeds gave no fluorescence, the presence of so small a quantity of tur- 
meric as -005 per cent, could be readily detected. 

Before we are justified, however, in using this phenomenon as the 
test for the presence of any substance, it is necessary to put it to a cru- 
cial examination, such as that detailed above to find out how far the 
particular substance under examination is capable of giving fluorescence. 
But it is not at all necessary that we should sumbit it to the light of a 
spark in the practical application of the test. The fluorescence of an 
ordinary white glass flask is not observable under the ordinary diffused 
light of a laboratory, but the ordinary fluorescent substances (so called), 
are easily recognized under such conditions. It is only necessary, there- 
fore, to form a tincture of the substance to be examined. The obser- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1875. i 

Laboratory Notes. 

vation of Mr. Horner, * who finds that fluorescence is wonderfully de- 
veloped by castor oil, may be made use of with great advantage. A 
drop of castor oil that has been passed through adulterated mustard, 
upon a filter, appears green when dropped upon a black plate in ordinary 
daylight. If the mustard is pure, no coloration will be perceived. I 
have met with some specimens of " Saffron," (the stigma and style of 
Crocus sativus)^ which give a fluorescence. They were evidently adul- 
terated because the flowers of saffron give no fluorescence. This 
saffron is a most expensive drug, and is therefore very liable to adul- 


BY A. B. LYONS, M. D. 

Solution of lodo-Bromide of Calcium Compound. — The following are the 
results of a chemical analysis we have recently made of this prep- 
aration : 

One hundred parts contain : 

Calcium, ..... 872 
Magnesium, .... i'35 
Sodium, ..... I "20 
Potassium, . . . .a trace. 
Aluminum, ... a trace. 

Chlorine, ..... 20-35 
Bromine, .... 0*95 
Iodine, ..... 0*20 
Silicic acid, . . not estimated. 
Organic matter, , . not estimated. 

One fluidounce therefore contains, approximately : 

Chloride of calcium (anhydrous), . . . .142 grains. 

Chloride of magnesium, . . . . 30 " 

Chloride of sodium, . . . . . . 18 " 

Bromide of magnesium, , . . . . . 6 " 

Iodide of potassium, . . . . . . " 

Total mineral constituents, .... 200 " 

Iron, which is mentioned on the label as one of the constituents, was 
not detected in the sample examined. 

The quantities of iodine and bromine were not determined with rig- 
orous exactness, but the figures given are above rather than below those 
which exact analysis would yield. 

The bromine is assumed, on theoretical grounds, to be in combina- 
tion, in the solution, with magnesium. Of course, the efficacy of the 
preparation would not be affected by substituting bromide of sodium 
for the bromide of magnesium in making up an artificial iodo-bromide, 
and the physician would have the satisfaction of knowing exactly what 

Philosophical Magazine," September, 1874. 


Laboratory Notes. 

( Am, Jour. Pharm, 
t July, 1875. 

he was prescribing, and the option of varying the amount of any of the 
constituents, if it should seem desirable. The proportion of bromine 
and of iodine might be somewhat increased without rendering the 
prescription a very expensive one ; as it is, five cents a bottle would be 
about a reasonable price for materials. Whatever is paid over and 
above this sum must be considered a tribute to the genius of the intel- 
lect that originated a combination of such extraordinary merit as to 
draw from reputable (?) physicians all over the land testimonials to its 

The elixir of iodo-bromide of calcium compound contains the same 
ingredients as the solution of ditto ditto, and apparently in about the 
same relative proportions. We have not made, however, a quantita- 
tive analysis, being content with a demonstration of the fact that the 
amount of iodine and bromine in this preparation is not greater than in 
the simple solution. The principal difi-erence seems to be that this 
contains a relatively small proportion of the mineral ingredients, with 
the addition of sugar, licorice, sassafras, and other flavoring ingredients, 
and, possibly, of some sarsaparilla, cundurango, or other powerful veg- 
etable alterative. 

Bromo- Chloralum. — We have long ago expressed the opinion that the 
preparation sold under this rather pretentious name is essentially a 
chloride of aluminum. The following are the results of an analysis 
sufficiently exact for anv practical purpose : 

One hundred parts of bromo-chloralum contain : 


. 2*11 


. io'84 







Sulphuric acid, . 


Sodium, . 



not estimated. 

Potassium, . 

a trace. 

Organic matter, . 

a trace. 


. a trace. 

One fluidounce therefore contains, approximately : 

Chloride of aluminum, , . . . -452 grains. 

Chloride of calcium, . . . . . 28 " 

Bromide of magnesium, . . . . . " 

Chloride of sodium, ..... 5 " 

Sulphate of calcium, . . . . , . i " 

Total mineral constituents, . . . . 82 " 

Fluid Lightning. — Under this name there is sold, at the exorbitant 
price of a dollar for a half-ounce vial, a preparation reputed to have 
extraordinary virtue in subduing pain. A few drops of the liquid are 
placed in the palm of one hand, and applied over the seat of pain, while 

Am, Jour. Pharm. ") 

July, 1875. ; 

Laboratory Notes, 

the other hand is applied in a similar way to the nape of the neck. In 
a few seconds there is experienced a pricking sensation, which is said 
to be caused by an electric current. This increases in intensity till it 
becomes, sometimes, almost insupportable, then, after five minutes or 
so, passes away, leaving a sensation of coolness in the part, and fre- 
quently taking away the pain completely. 

On examination, the preparation proved to be simply alcohol con- 
taining a small quantity (about ten drops to the ounce) of essential oil of 
mustard^ together with some oil of sassafras and oil of peppermint. It 
is well known that many of the essential oils have decided anaesthetic 
powers ; the oil of peppermint, especially, is a common ingredient in the 
pain annihilators that are vended about the country. The oil of mus- 
tard produces a powerful counter-irritant effect, which is useful not only 
for the relief of pain, but to secure a ready sale for an article whose 
powerful positive effects can be so easily demonstrated. Large quan- 
tities of the essential oil of mustard are now sold by the wholesale 
dealers, and doubtless made use of in compounding nostrums similar 
to this. 

The profession may, perhaps, take a hint from this, and add to the 
list of recognized therapeutic agents one which has been hitherto neg- 
lected, but whose virtues are unquestionable. 

Sugar- Coated Quinine Pills Once More. — L. C. Hogan, in the "Phar- 
macist," publishes the results of an assay made by him of samples of the 
sugar-coated quinine pills from eight prominent manufacturers. We 
regret to observe that the showing is not more favorable for the manu- 
facturers than was that of our own assay, published last year in the 
^'American Journal of Pharmacy." To Mr. Hogan's list we add two more 
assays of our own, the first of two-grain, the second of one-grain pills, 
in which the economy of quinine is most instructive. 

The following are the tabulated results of the several assays : 

Gross Weight 
of one 
2-grain pill. 

Weight of pill 

after coat 
was removed. 

Quantity of 
quinia in five 
2-grain pills. 

Quantity of 
quinia sulph. 

in five 
2-grain pills. 

Standard. ..... 








2 . . .... 









4 ..... . 




8 19 











7 . . . . . 














10 . .... 




3IO Solubility, etc., of Acid Carbonates, etc. {^"^-^.^^I'S^^"^- 

No. 5 contained considerable cinchonia; Nos. 8, 9 and 10 yielded 
a strongly colored solution, containing some cinchonia, and in Nos. 9 
and 10 cinchonidia in considerable quantities. The quinine was evi- 
dently impure. No. 4 dissolved with much difficulty, and required a 
large amount of ether to take up the precipitated alkaloid. The pills 
were probably overheated in coating. 

With these exceptions, the quinine employed in making the pills 
seem to have been of" unexceptional quality, and only deficient as to 

A recent assay of the pills of one manufacturing firm, which in my 
first experiments I found to contain but three-fourths of the quantity 
of quinine claimed by the label, yielded more satisfactory results, the 
quantity being now fully up to the standard. These pills also seem to 
have been overheated in the process of manufacture ; they dissolve 
pretty readily, but the quinine will scarcely crystallize from a neutral 
solution in water containing fifteen grains to the ounce. 

We do not intend to let this subject rest here. As soon as the facts 
can be brought together, we propose to publish the results of assays of 
sugar-coated pills from all the prominent manufacturers, giving their 
names, which have hitherto been suppressed. It is time that manufac- 
turing pharmacists be made to realize that honesty for them is the best 
policy. — Detroit Review of Phar. and Med., June, 1875. 



The loss of carbonic acid when solutions of these salts are exposed 
to the air has long been noticed. A portion of the salt appears to be 
decomposed in the solution, and as the carbonic acid passes olF, fresh 
quantities of the salt are successively decomposed, until the whole is 
transformed finally into the neutral carbonate. In a closed vessel the 
carbonic acid first set free tends by its presence to hinder the further 
evolution of the gas, and the decomposition is arrested with a com- 
pleteness dependent on the pressure. On the other hand, if the layer 
of gas above the surface of the liquid be constantly removed, either by 
keeping the vessel in a vacuum or by passing a stream of air through 
the solution, the salt will be more rapidly converted into neutral carbon- 
ate. Hence crystals of the acid carbonates of potassium and sodium 

^'"yuiy^i^ys'!'"'-} Solubility, etc., of Acid Carbonates, etc. 311 

should be dried over sulphuric acid in an atmosphere of carbonic acid 
gas ; otherwise they become covered with a layer of neutral carbonate, 
which is recognizable in the analysis of the salt by the deficiency of 
carbonic acid. 

As in the determinations hitherto made of the solubilities of the 
potassium and sodium acid carbonates, the loss of carbonic acid fromi 
the crystals and from the solutions has not been taken into account^, 
the author has undertaken these determinations afresh with samples of 
the pure salts, of which he describes the preparation, and operating in 
vessels securely corked, in which the decomposition of the salt in solu- 
tion is arrested by the pressure of the carbonic acid gas. He has also- 
found the percentage of carbonic acid set free at various temperatures., 
and has determined the solubility of ammonium acid carbonate, which 
decomposes with much greater readiness than the other two, the press- 
ure of the carbonic acid extricated from a saturated solution at 30^ 
being so great that determinations of the solubilities at higher tempera- 
tures could not be made, while in the case of the other two salts the 
determmations were carried to 60°. The tensions of the gas liberated 
from saturated solutions of the three salts at 15°, roughly measured in 
millimeters of mercury above the atmospheric pressure, were, for the 
sodium, potassium and ammonium acid carbonates, 120, 461 and 720^ 
respectively. The ammonium salt was prepared by the author, by 
placing the crystals, after pressure in bibulous paper, in an exsiccator 
filled with air, over sulphuric acid and caustic soda. After some days- 
all the water, free ammonia and carbonic acid were completely absorbed,, 
and the pure salt remained behind. 

The following table, calculated from the author's determinations of 
the solubility of the three acid salts in water, exhibits the solubility of 
the potassium and sodium salts for every five degrees of temperature 

from 0° 

to 60°, 

and of the 

ammonium salt from 0° 

to 30° C 


in 100 Parts of Water. 





1 Temp. 







i 35" 













15-85 1 














2 1 'O 


55 9 

1 5 '4 



10 35 




1 6'4 



1 1 • I 

27-0 1 

— Journ. of Chem. Soc. \_Lond.~\, May, 1875, from f. pr. Chem. [2], 



Crystallized Digitalin, 

{ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July, 1875. 



Leaves of digitalis should be gathered from two-year old plants when 
beginning to flower, the stalks and midribs being discarded, as these 
parts contain very little digitalin. For analysis 100 grams may be used, 
but with care 20 grams will be sufficient. On a larger scale the follow- 
ing is the method employed : — 1,000 grams of the leaves are reduced 
to a fine powder and added to 250 grams of neutral lead acetate dis- 
solved in 1,000 grams of distilled water. The mixture is passed through 
a sieve and allowed to stand for 24 hours with occasional stirring. It 
is then allowed to settle and the subsided mass exhausted with alcohol 
of 50° until all bitterness ceases. To this liquid a saturated solution 
of 40 grams of sodium bicarbonate in cold water is added ; and after 
the effervescence has ceased, the alcohol is distilled off, the residue 
evaporated in the water-bath to 2,000 grams, and then diluted with its 
own weight of water. Two or three days afterwards the clear liquid 
is siphoned off, and the precipitate passed through a linen strainer and 
pressed. The precipitate is suspended in 1,000 grams of alcohol of 
80° and strained through a metallic or fine linen sieve ; the turbid liquid 
is raised to ebullition, and a solution of 10 grams of neutral lead acetate 
added ; the ebullition is continued for some minutes and the liquid then 
cooled and filtered, the percipitate being thrown on the filter and 
squeezed ; 50 grams of finely-powdered vegetable carbon, washed with 
acid and quite neutral, are then added ; the alcohol is distilled off ; and 
the residue, after being heated for some time in the water-bath to drive 
off the last traces of alcohol, is strained through a sieve. The carbon 
residue is dried and exhausted by displacement with pure chloroform 
until the washings are colorless, and the liquor is distilled and evapora- 
ted to dryness. The residue is crude digitalin mixed with pitchy mat- 
ter and oil. It is dissolved, with gentle heat, in 100 grams alcohol of 
90°, I gram of neutral lead acetate dissolved in a little water is added, 
together with 10 grams of washed animal charcoal in fine grains, with- 
out powder; the mixture is boiled for 10 minutes and cooled, then al- 
lowed to settle, and filtered through cotton wool, the carbon deposit 
being last thrown on the filter ; this deposit is exhausted with alcohol, 
and the alcohol is distilled off, whereupon, the digitalin is left as a clot- 
ted, crystalline mass, contaminated only by colored oil. To obtain a 
white product, the mass is dissolved by heat in 8 grams of alcohol of 

Am. Jour. Pharm | Jafanese Oil of Peppennint. 313 

July, 1875. 

90°, and the solution agitated with 4 grams of ether and 8 grams of 
water. The ether does not separate, and the mixture is allowed to rest 
in a cool place during the night. The next day nearly the whole of 
the digitalin (about four fifths), will be found deposited in white needle- 
shaped crystals, which are to be thrown on a filter and washed with 
ether. The crystals may be further purified, if necessary, by treat- 
ment with alcohol and animal charcoal as before. — Jour. Chem. Soc.^ 
March, 1875, from J. Pharm, Chim.^ [4], xx, 81-87. 



Early in the present session some remarks were made at one of the 
evening meetings in London by Mr. Moss, F. C. S., on Japanese oil 
of peppermint. 

The subject appeared to me to be of considerable interest, and I 
made efforts to obtain specimens of both liquid and solid oils. These 
are now on the table, and have been kindly supplied by the same par- 
ties (Cyriax & Farries) who gave them to Mr. Moss. As I am per- 
mitted to dispose of them in any way I think fit, it gives me much 
pleasure to hand them over to our museum. 

Let me now place before you the principal facts known about these 
oils, chiefly derived from the paper already referred to and other 
sources : 

1. The oils appear to have come over from Japan in cylindrical tin 
canisters, and up to the present time the quantities received in this 
country have not been intended for sale, being small, and sent more for 
curiosity and for specimens. 

2. The solid portion, though called crystallized oil of peppermint, 
appears to be simply a deposit from the original liquid oil, probably at 
a low temperature. 

3. About thirteen years ago a memoir on crystallized oil of pepper- 
mint was presented to the London Chemical Society by Oppenheim. 
This chemist speaks of the article as coming over here in considerable 
quantity, adulterated to the extent of 10 or 20 per cent, with sulphate 
of magnesium. In this statement, however, there seems to be some 
error, because, after many inquiries, no traces can be found of this 

*Read at a meeting of the North British Branch of the Pharmaceutical Society 
of Great Britain, March 26th, 1875. 

314 Japanese Oil of Peppermint, {^'^■^{1'^";^!^!"^' 

article being known as an article of commerce, while it was equally 
unknown to chemists. In regard to adulteration, there is no resemblance 
between the two substances — I mean the one referred to by Oppenheim 
and that now under notice — because, though the crystals do resemble 
in appearance the so-called adulterating substance, there is not the 
slightest trace of its presence, a chemical examination indicating that the 
deposition is as pure as the oil from which it has been thrown down. 

4. Dr. Attfield refers to peppermint camphor under the name of 
menthene, believing it to be the hydro-carbon found more or less in 
nearly all varieties of peppermint oil. 

5. fVom the numerous experiments which have been made, such as 
the fusing and boiling point, solubility (though very sparing) in water, 
ether, alcohol, bisulphide of carbon, fatty and essential oils, etc., it 
appears that the substance now shown is in all respects identical with 
that submitted by Oppenheim in 1862 to the Chemical Society, but 
free from any adulterating ingredient. 

6. Dumas, as well as Oppenheim, appears to have operated on pep- 
permint camphor. The result of his examination corresponded with 
that of Oppenheim and Attfield. Dumas used the crystals obtained 
from some variety of American oil, and found the formula to be 
CjqH^^O, precisely the composition given by the other chemists, and 
further confirmed by Mr. Hanbury in his " Pharmacographia." 

So much for the solid oil and its known history. Before remarking 
further on its solubility, or comparing it with the liquid, let me notice 
the use to which a similar, if not the identical preparation, has been, 
and is, I understand, still put to in some foreign countries. 

About five years ago Dr. A. Wright communicated to the "Lan- 
cet" that when in China he became acquainted with the fact that the 
natives, when suffering from facial neuralgia, applied oil of peppermint 
to the seat of pain by means of a camel-hair pencil, and with decided 

In 1871, Mr. D. Hanbury seated in the " Pharmaceutical Journal" 
that oil of peppermint was distilled at Canton, though unacquainted 
with the plant used for its production. 

Some months thereafter Prof. Fllickiger referred to a notice which 
had appeared in the "American Journal of Pharmacy " confirming the 
use by the Chinese of the oil in neuralgic cases, stating, further, that 
the oil was much used for this purpose in San Francisco and elsewhere, 
the oil being put up in small oSS bottles, and sold as " Chinese Med- 

^""j^iyTis^ys""' } Japanese Oil of Peppermint. 3 1 5 

icine." For this small quantity one dollar was charged, and the label 
had printed on it '-''Fook-chang-Tong^'' with the name of the seller. Prof. 
FlUckiger believed the specimen he saw to be good American or Eng- 
lish oil, although the dealers in San Francisco declared it to be imported 
direct from Canton, which, of course, it might have been. A few drops 
of this oil Prof. Fliickiger placed on a glass slide, and in a few hours 
it yielded crystals of camphor in all respects similar to those he had 
observed in the Japanese oil. So far, then, as we know, there is but 
little difference between these two foreign oils, Chinese and Japanese, 
although it is alleged that in California the former becomes solid in 
cold weather, while the American or English as a rule do not alter, 
although in some kinds of oil there may be separated, when subjected 
to cold, a portion of camphor. The following is what appears on this 
subject in the " Pharmacographia," by Professor Fliickiger and Mr. D. 
Hanbury : 

"When oil of peppermint is cooled to 4° C. it sometimes deposits 
colorless hexagonal crystals of peppermint camphor CiQHjg-l-H20, 
called also menthol. This camphor, the deposit of which in the oil 
we have not observed, boils at 210° C. and possesses the color of the 
crude oil. The properties of menthol contained in oils of different 
origin is very variable. Pure crystallized menthol is sometimes found 
in commerce under the name of Chinese oil of peppermint." 

There can, therefore, be very little doubt that menthol, a solid Chi- 
nese oil of peppermint, resembles in all its properties the solid portion 
of Japanese oil, obtained in all probability by submitting the oil to a 
low temperature, by which all the solid portion is obtained. Nor can 
it be doubted that chemically this menthol closely resembles, nay, is in 
all respects the same as the peppermint camphor obtained from our own 
or American oil, and that in fact both may be named a monatomic 
alcohol, menthylic alcohol, or hydrate of menthyl, being, as already 
stated, represented by CjoHjg-f-H20. 

In connection with the use of the oil of peppermint in neuralgic 
cases, I received the following note from Messrs. Frazer & Green, of 
Glasgow, which will tell its own tale. I may premise the note was 
written in consequence of receiving one of the circulars announcing 
that this paper was to be read : 

113 Buchanan Street, Glasgow, March 25th, 1875. 

John Mackay^ Esq.: 

Dear Sir, — We had an order some weeks since for three bottles of medicine, 
which we have now no doubt but that it is the Japanese liquid oil of peppermint. 

3 1 6 Japanese Oil of Peppermint, {^"jii^is^^s""''"' 

Our customer could give no namej he gave us a small flat bottle with a label printed 
in Chinese-looking characters, the bottle being enclosed in a small paper box. We 
tried London, and could hear of nothing like it except at Messrs. Savory & Moore's, 
but theirs is the solid article. Our customer wishes the liquid. It is used for neu- 
ralgia — a drop being rubbed on the affected part. Our order is for three bottles. 
Can you help us in the matter? 

Yours truly, Frazer & Green. 

The following are a few characteristics of the liquid Japanese oil : 
It is soluble in any quantity of ordinary spirit of wine, 56° O. P., 
and at ordinary temperatures. 

The mixture I now submit contains one part of the oil in eight parts 
of rectified spirit. It dissolves very readily in any proportion and 
makes a clear solution, and that now shown will give some idea of its 
behavior when employed for making the common essence. In com- 
parison with this, I now place two others, one is made from good 
American, and the other from Mitcham oil of peppermint, and in 
exactly similar proportions. For strength, flavor and aroma the Eng- 
lish is undoubtedly the best, then follows the Japanese, and lastly the 

The liquid oil has the power of dissolving the solid or crystalline oil. 
With the aid of a gentle heat the proportions are one to four. Here 
is such a solution, and although no deposition of crystals has taken 
place in cooling, I have no doubt if submitted to cold, the crystals 
would be regained. 

The solid oil is also capable of solution in ordinary spirit in the pro- 
portion of one to two, and without the aid of heat, simply by rubbing 
in a mortar. I submit such a solution, but it will not compare in point 
of flavor with the fluid oil. In order that they may be fairly tried, I 
have added some spirit, so as to make the strength one to eight, as in 
the other solutions. 

Of course, one of the most important elements in connection with 
this subject is the cost of the oil as compared with others in the mar- 
ket. As I have already stated, the small quantities as yet sent over are 
more for samples, and as something rare, than for sale. The firm 
already referred to have, however, written me that 70 lbs. weight of 
each kind are coming over soon, and they promise when this lot does 
arrive to give me notice, stating the commercial value of solid and 
liquid. As their memorandum bears date of 13th March, we may 
expect ere long to know price and value. 

I mav further state that, in submitting the solid oil to heat, it melts 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

July, 1875. ; 


at a temperature of about 100° F., but on cooling it resolidifies. Of 
this you have a fair example in what I now show in the test-tube. 

Both the samples seem to me quite free from any adulteration what- 
ever, and specially so from the turpentine smell, which many of the 
foreign oils of peppermint have. The solution of the solid oil, though 
pungent to the palate, is disagreeable and wanting in the aroma and 
flavor which all fine peppermint oil possesses in such a remarkable 

If moderate in price and supplied in sufficient quantities, I think it 
very likely that the liquid Japanese oil may come into demand for con- 
fectionery and other purposes, as the samples of liquid oil now sub- 
mitted give fair promise of the Japanese becoming a competitor with 
any other English or American oil at present to be found in the mar- 
ket. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans. \_Lond.']., April 17, 1875. 


Curator of the Museums, Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Vanilla, now seldom, if ever, used in medicine, has an amount of 
interest attached to it owing to its natural affinities, early history, com- 
mercial value and uses, that may render some notes on the subject 
worth recording. 

There has lately been issued from the French press a pamphlet of 
some fifty odd pages, devoted entirely to the consideration of the 
vanilla plant in all its bearings. Considering, however, that the author 
is a member of the Chamber of Agriculture of Reunion, a good deal 
of the book is devoted to vanilla as a product of that island. Never- 
theless, it is a valuable addition to the literature of the subject. Its 
title is " Etude sur la Vanille " par A. Delteil. 

How many, and what are the exact species of vanilla which furnish 
the commercial article, has always been a question amongst authors 
ever since that genus itself has been known. It will be well, however, 
to trace the history of vanilla and then to point out the opinions of 
more recent writers. The plant being, as is well known, a member of 
the Orchidacea^ was pretty fairly described by the old writers. Thus 
Pomet says, in his " Compleat History of Druggs," that the pods or 
cods of about half a foot long, of the thickness of a child's little fin- 
ger, hung, upon a plant of twelve or fifteen feet high, that climbs like 


^ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. July, 1875. 

a creeper ; for which reason they grow most frequently upon walls or 
at the roots of trees, or else upon props or the like where they are 
supported. They have round stalks, disposed in knots like the sugar 
cane ; from each knot there puts forth large thick leaves, about a fin- 
ger's length, which are as green as the stalk, and fall off or wither 
away, as the great plantain does, after which come pods that are green 
at first, yellowish afterwards, and grow browner according as they 

Originally a native of Eastern Mexico, it was in early times used 
by the natives to flavor their chocolate. It was brought to Europe by 
the Spaniards, but little seems to have been known about it or its uses 
till the middle or perhaps the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
Pomet says, however, that the " Vanilla's are much used in France for 
making up chocolate, and sometimes to perfume snuff," — the former being 
at the present time one of its chief applications, but the latter, so far 
as we know, having quite died out. Many varieties of vanilla are 
known in commerce, but as of old, the Mexican sort is considered the 
best. At one time, Vanilla aromatica^ Swartz, was supposed to be the 
plant from which most, if not all, the vanilla of commerce was pro- 
cured. Pereira mentions five species as probably contributing " some 
of the vanilla of commerce," namely, V. planifolia^ Andrews, V. aro- 
matica^ Swartz, V. guianensis^ Splitberg, V. palmarum^ Lindl. , and V, 
pompona^ Schiede. By some authors V, sylvestris^ Schiede, and V. sativa^ 
Schiede, have also been considered good species yielding some of the 
best Mexican vanilla. Dr. Pereira, however, considered them as va- 
rieties of V. planifolia. M. Delteil, in the pamphlet before alluded to, 
refers Mexican vanilla to the following species : V. sativa^ sylvestris^ 
planifolia^ 2in^ pompona ; Guiana and Surinam to V. guianensis \ Bahia 
to V. palmarum ; and that from Brazil and Peru to V. aromatica. The 
most recent authority, however, and a very trustworthy one, namely, 
the " Pharmacographia," of Professor Fliickiger and the late Mr. 
Hanbury, gives the botanical origin of vanilla simply as V. planifolia^ 
Andrews, and refers to no other species. Though indigenous to Mex- 
ico, vanilla is cultivated, as will be seen from the foregoing remarks, 
in various parts of tropical America, and has been successfully intro- 
duced into the Mauritius and Reunion, from whence large quantities 
are annually imported. Java also grows vanilla to a considerable ex- 
tent. To the cultivator it is a remunerative crop in situations where 
climate and atmospheric conditions are suited to it. It is very easy of 

^Vuris^rf""-} Vanilla. 319 

cultivation by fastening shoots to the trees, into the bark of which 
they soon strike their roots, growing luxuriantly, bearing fruit when 
they are about three years old, and continuing to do so for about forty 
years. Under natural conditions the flowers are impregnated by insect 
agency, but artificial fecundation is frequently resorted to, — indeed it 
is one of the principal points of consideration in M. Delteil's work. 

The gathering and drying of the pods as described by Pomet differs, 
in some respects, from the descriptions of modern writers. " When they 
are ripe," he says, " the people of Mexico, those of Guatemala and 
St. Domingo, gather them, and hang them up by one end in the shade 
to dry ; and when they are dry enough to keep, they rub them with 
oil to hinder them from drying too much, and prevent their breaking, 
and then they put them up in little bags of fifty, a hundred, or a hun- 
dred and fifty to bring them hither. Nevertheless, there are some who 
value their gain more than their conscience, who let them hang upon 
the stalks till over ripe, and receive from them a black fragrant balsam, 
that flows till the essential part of the vanilla is exhausted, and it can 
run no more ; and then they gather the pods, and pack them up for 
sale as aforesaid." The plan now adopted is to gather the pods before 
they are quite ripe and to allow them to ripen by alternately wrapping 
them in cloths and exposing them open to a moderate degree of heat. 
This process is said to preserve or develop their full fragrance. When 
ready for exportation they are made up into bundles and wrapped in 
paper. What the " black fragrant balsam," of which Pomet speaks, 
could have been used for, we have no record ; indeed, referring to it 
in another part of his article, he says, " As to the balsam, the Span- 
iards keep that, for we have none of it brought to us." His advice, 
with regard to the choice of vanilla holds good at the present time. 
On this point he says, " Choose such as are well fed, thick, long, new, 
heavy, not wrinkled, or rubbed with balsam, and which have not been 
kept moist, but of a good smell : and beware of those that are small 
and dry, and of little smell." The Mexicans in early times appear to 
have been very fond of the vanilla flavor in their chocolate, indeed, 
we are told that they were " mighty lovers of these plants." 

With regard to the odorous principle of vanilla it is shown in the 
Pharmacographia," that it is not contained in the fleshy exterior por- 
tion of the pod but in the interior alone. Its use is chiefly for flavor- 
ing chocolate and confectionery. It fetches a high price, and its im- 
ports are necessarily small when compared with other commodities. — 
Pharm. your, and Trans. May 8, 1875. 

3 20 Asafcetidas of the Bombay Market. {^"')^^y%!^,^''^- 



Professor of Materia Medica, Bombay. 

Three distinct kinds of asafoetida are found in the Bombay drug 
market, and are known to dealers as Abushaheree Hing, Kandaharee 
Hing, and Hingra. 

Of each of these drugs numerous qualities, more or less mixed or 
adulterated, are met with, but I purpose first to notice the unadulterated 
varieties only. 

Abushaheree Hing is brought from the Persian Gulf ports, princi- 
pally from Abushaher and Bunder Abbas ; it is produced in Khorasan 
and Kirman by the Ferula alUacea of Boissier. 

Specimens of the plant with the gum resin attached, have been sup- 
plied to me through the kindness of Mr. Ardeshir Mihrban, of Yezd, 
and these specimens, which show both flowers and fruit, have, with 
plenty of mature seed, been forwarded to Mr. D. Hanbury, who has 
kindly taken the trouble of submitting them to Boissier, and has also 
sent packets of seed to the botanical gardens of Kew, Edinburgh, Ox- 
ford, Paris, St. Petersburg, Berne, Strassburg, Florence, Pisa, Naples, 
Palermo, Atheos, and to botanical friends on the Mediterranean coast, 
in South Africa, and a few other places. 

The specimens sent to Mr. Hanbury were collected near Yezd and 
Kirman, and were from three and a half to four feet in height, and the 
roots of some young plants which had never flowered were quite fresh 
when they arrived in Bombay, and exuded a thick milk when cut, which 
after a day or two became brown and translucent. 

It is this drug alone which appears in the Bombay Custom returns 
as Hing or asafoetida ; all other kinds pass under the name of Hingra. 
Hing arrives here either in skins sewn up so as to form a flat, oblong 
package, or in wooden boxes. It varies in appearance with age ; when 
quite fresh it is soft and of the consistence of treacle, of a dull olive 
brown color, and purely garlic odor-, it is mixed with about an equal bulk 
of slices of the root. After having been kept some time the gum resin 
becomes hard and translucent, and of a yellowish-brown color. 

In' 1872-73, 3367 cwts. of this drug were imported from the Per- 
sian Gulf. 

The method of collection has been described to me by Mr. Godrez 
Mihrban, of Yezd, and resembles the method of collecting asafoetida, 

'"'^jlhJ'Zt'"''} y4saf(^tidas of the Bombay Market. 321 

as described in the "Amanitales," except that the slices of root are 
mixed with the juice. 

The price of the best Hing in Bombay, is from twenty rupees to 
twenty-two rupees per maund of forty^pounds. 

Kandaharee Hing is a much rarer article, and only occasionally ap- 
pears in this market. It is brought from Kandahar, packed in goat 
skins, which are sewn up into an irregularly shaped oblong bag with the 
hairou tside. This asafoetida, when fresh, is in flaky pieces quite wet 
with essential oil, of a yellow color, opalescent, with an odor like a 
mixture of garlic and oil of caraways. When kept for some time the 
gum resin loses its moisture and gradually becomes perfectly transparent 
and of a golden-yellow color; the odor also loses much of its aroma, 
and approximates to that of the best asafoetida of European commerce. 
Some packages of the latter, which I have examined this season in 
Bombay, I found to contain small portions of the moist opalescent gum 
mixed with the ordinary opaque kind, as well as with some fragments 
of an intermediate character, partly opaque and partly opalescent. I 
believe this drug will turn out to be the superior kind of asafoetida 
noticed by Bellew as obtained from the node or leaf-bud at Kandahar. 
Kandaharee Hing is little known in Bombay, and is not retailed in the 
shops. It fetches about double the price of Abushaheree, and is not 
always obtainable ; it is used as a condiment by wealthy people in 
Northern India. 

Hingra or the asafoetida of European commerce, comes to Bombay 
in large quantities from two sources, viz. : Southern Persia and Afghan- 
istan. The Persian drug is met with in two forms, viz. : in tears 
more or less agglutinated together, and secondly, as a soft, white, viscid 
mass. It arrives in skins or boxes, and is mostly exported to Europe, 
but some is used in India as a condiment or medicinally by the poorer 
classes. This gum resin is the Anghuzeh-i Lari of the Persians, and 
there seems to be little doubt that it is the produce of Kampfer's plant, 
whichever that may be. In price it varies much ; the average for a 
good quality will be about ten rupees per forty pounds. 

The Afghan drug differs somewhat from the Persian in appearance 
and odor. The best samples occur in small flat pieces or tears, to one 
side of which a few particles of sand are adherent as if the gum had 
run out into the ground near the root ; these pieces are quite hard and 
dry, yellowish-white externally, and display when broken, a conchoidal 
milk-white surface. Many packages, as already mentioned, under 



Commercial Sponges. 

Am. Jour. Pharni. 
July, 1875. 

Kandaharee asafoetida, contain the opaque gum above described mixed 
with opalescent pieces and moist yellow particles together with much 
dirt ; from such packages the best tears are removed, and the remainder 
pressed together forms second sort asafoetida. Afghan Hingra is gen- 
erally packed in skins, and the best sort will fetch about twelve rupees 
per maund of forty pounds. 

The adulteration of Hing is carried on in Bombay. It is simply 
mixed with gum arable by treading the two together ; the mixture is 
then packed up in skins bO as to resemble genuine packages. Several 
qualities are prepared containing different proportions of gum. 

Hingra is adulterated in Afghanistan and in Persia by the admixture 
of some white, earthy material. 7 he adulterated article which comes 
from Persia is in dirty white gritty masses, and becomes very hard when 
kept. That from Afghanistan, is of a brown color and in small round- 
ish masses, easily crushed into powder by pressure ; according to Bel- 
lew, gypsum and flour are the adulterations. 

A substance called Heera Hing is also met with here ; it is obtained 
from the packages of Abushaheree Hing; many of these are quite liquid 
in the centre ; the people who buy them for adulteration, squeeze out 
this liquid portion and retail it at a high price as Heeia Hing; it is of 
the consistence of treacle, and when dried becomes solid and translu- 

From the examination of a great many bales of fresh Hingra, I have 
come to the conclusion that the Persian variety is produced by a differ- 
ent plant than the Afghanistan. Probably, Scorodosma foet'idum will 
prove to be the source of the Persian and Falconer's Narthex of the 
Afghanistan kind. — Pharm. your, and Trans. May 29, 1875. 


It is sad to consider how much we lose in every walk of life through 
lack of a little observation. There are few stonemasons who, like 
Hugh Miller, are led to become noted geologists by noting and study- 
ing the beautiful fossils in the stones they chisel. A butcher may cut 
up beeves and porkers by the hundreds, or a fisherman spend a long 
lite on the shore, without noticing the most obvious points of interest 
and instruction in the physical structure of his victims ; and only when 
a naturalist calls his attention to the beautiful adaptations, which have 
before passed unnoticed, will have his interest profoundly excited, which 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

July, 1875. ; 

Commercial Sponges. 

may ever after give him a new motive and zest in his work. The 
most of us will use sponges in an indefinite variety of ways, all our 
lives, without even once stopping to think how they were formed ; 
whether they are plants, animals, or neither, or what are their history 
and habits. 

The ordinary sponges of commerce, which we use so extensively, 
have but little resemblance to animals or plants, and belong to a class of 
organic bodies concerning the affinities and classifications proper of which 
there has been much doubt. And this doubt has led naturalists to apply 
the question-begging appellation of zoophytes, or plant animals, to 
these and similar organisms. They are now generally considered mem- 
bers of the animal kingdom. The parts we use are the mere skeletons, 
composed of a kind of horny substance. The animal itself is a soft, 
jelly-like, amorphous mass, which fills up all the intercellular spaces, 
lines the tubular canals, and forms a jet black or sometimes a dark pur- 
plish skin on the outside, covering the whole skeleton, excepting the 
larger openings, which project beyond its general surface. In this form 
the sponge exists in the water, and, out of its native element, is hard 
and glistening on the outside, and verv strongly resembles a piece of 

The mode of life in this low order of existence, which is regarded 
as a compound animal, is very simple, and we would be disposed to call 
it extremely uneventful. Sponges grow, by a kind of lichen-like root, 
to some foreign object on the sea floor, and never move from their 
position ; they have no power to contract or expand their bodies as a 
whole, or any part of it ; and they are quite insensible to every sort of 
irritation. I heir only power seems to be that of absorbing large quan- 
tities of water, which they again yield up on pressure without any in- 
jury to their texture. The water, which permeates their whole mass, 
and maintains a constant circulation through it, keeps the skeleton soft 
and elastic, brings to the animals the air and food on which they sub- 
sist, and carries away waste matter from the body. 

On examination of a sponge skeleton, it will be seen that the porous 
surface is finer and of closer texture than the interior, that there are 
large apertures scattered indiscriminately over the surface, and between 
these are much finer openings, covering the complete outer surface of 
the sponge. The latter are called pores, and serve as channels of en- 
trance to the water, which, after circulating through the body by means 
of the tortuous and branching canals which makeup its inner skeleton, 

3 24 Commercial Sponges. { jify";-i8^7"?""' 

passes out at the larger openings. These chimney-like apertures are 
called oscula^ but the name is a misnomer, for they are, in reality, vents. 
They vary in number in the different species, and are sometimes re- 
duced to a single one. By what force the water is made to circulate 
through the sponge mass is not definitely known. Some have attributed 
it to vibratile ciliae, planted within the porous canals which, by their 
motion, create a circulation in the water. Others ascribe it to the 
principle of osmosis, by which membranes of all animal's, and many 
other porous substances, transmit fluids and gases according to their 
density and power to act on the transmitting substance. 

When obtained for commercial purposes, the animal matter can be 
removed by soaking it a long time in salt water, and then — after it is 
rotted by this means — rinsing it out. This leaves the horny skeletons 
just as we use them. 

The finest sponges of commerce come from the Mediterranean sea. 
Our best bath sponges are doubtless from this locality, but the coarser 
sponges we see most commonly are largely from the coast of Florida 
or the Bahama Islands. Sponges are found abundantly in tropical 
waters generally, and perhaps nowhere more abundant than in the seas 
of the Australian islands. They gradually decrease in numbers towards 
the colder latitudes till they become entirely extinct. They vary much 
in shape. Some are beautifully shaped like a vase, others are semi- 
cylindrical, others nearly flat like an open fan ; some are branched like 
the opened fingers of a hand, and are called glove sponges, and in 
others these branches seem to be reduced to only one, which is shaped 
somewhat like a club. These different shapes may belong to one 
species, and the differences are due, so far as known, to the fact that 
the first mentioned are found in deep water, and they grade, in the 
order described, up to the last, which grow in much shallower water. 

Sponges are not confined to recent seas, though commercial ones 
are not known to have existed earlier, because the keratose matter 
furnishes hardly favorable conditions for petrifaction. In the oolite 
and chalk formations, sponges containing flinty spicules were very 
abundant ; and in most of the earlier formations, large sponges contain- 
ing calcareous spicules abounded. These very closely resemble corals, 
and have been mistaken for them by some of our best geologists. The 
spiculse or needle-shaped particles, which are often microscopic in size, 
are not thrown in without order, but are arranged to support the skel- 
eton. The horny sponges do not secrete or deposit spicules, but these 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

July, 1875. ; 

Cod-liver with ^inia. 

are sometimes found within the skeleton in broken and disordered form, 
which shows they were taken in from without. 

There is an elastic sponge, as it is called, that is somewhat largely 
used now as a substitute for curled hair in stuffing beds, cushions, car 
seats, etc., but this is an entirely different thing from the sponge of 
commerce. Before it was used for this purpose, it was a worthless sea 
grass, growing abundantly among corals in rather shallow water. — 
Scientific Amer.^ June 26, 1875. 



. Twelve years ago, in a paper read before the Pharmaceutical Society, 
Dr. Attfield called attention to the fact that the natural alkaloids com- 
bine with oleic acid to form oleates, which are soluble in oil.* Al- 
though he particularly instanced quinia, and suggested that the oleate 
of quinia would be a convenient medium for the preparation of " cod- 
liver oil and quinia," I do not think the method has been adopted to 
any considerable extent. 

I lately had occasion to prepare some cod-liver oil with quinia. I 
employed what I believe to be the usual process, precipitating the 
alkaloid with ammonia, and, after washing and drying, dissolving it in 
pure ether, then mixing this ethereal solution with the oil. The cus- 
tomer, a lady, quickly returned it, having a very strong objection to 
the taste of the ether. 

I therefore tried the plan of preparing the oleate, and dissolving that 
in the cod-liver oil, and found it perfectly satisfactory. 

The preparation may be made as follows : 

Take of Sulphate of quinia, . . . . 60 grains. 

Diluted sulphuric acid, . . . • i fluidram. 

Solution of ammonia, ... a sufficiency. 

Distilled water, . . . . .a sufficiency. 

Purified oleic acid, . . . . i fluidounce. 

Cod-liver oil, . . . . -29 fluidounces. 

Dissolve the quinia in the diluted sulphuric acid mixed with 4 oz. of 
water, add a slight excess of ammonia, stir well, transfer the whole to 
a calico filter, and, after carefully washing the precipitate, press it be- 

Pharm. Journ.," second series, vol. iv, p. 388. ' Amer. Journ. Pharm.," 1863, 
p. 249. 


V arieties. 

{Am. Jour. Pharm, 
July, 1875. 

tween folds of bibulous paper and dry it by the heat of a water-bath. 
Dissolve the quinia thus obtained in the oleic acid by the aid of a gentle 
heat, mix the solution whilst warm with 5 oz. of cod-liver oil, also 
warm, strain through cotton wool, or filter through paper if necessary^ 
then add the remainder of the oil. The product should measure 3a 
fl. oz, ; each tablespoonful (fl^ss) contains oleate of quinia equal to one 
grain of sulphate. 

The above preparation has the characteristic taste of qt;inia and 
cod-liver oil, the oleic acid, from its small amount, not being precept- 

A sample, prepared two months ago, has kept well, being quite clear 
and as free from deposit and objectionable odor as on the day it was 

Whilst writing on this subject, I may remark that I am surprised 
more attention has not been given to the production of ointments and 
oleaginous liniments containing the oleates of aconitia and atropia. I 
believe that these preparations would be more certain and uniform in 
their effects, and therefore more reliable than the corresponding lini- 
ments of the " Pharmacopoeia." — Pharm. Journ. and Trans. ^ Feb. 13th,, 



Important Improvement in Photography. — It is a well-known fact that it is. 
utterly impossible to photograph certain colors. Violet and blue are chemically 
very active colors, while red, yellow and green act very little, if at all, on the sensitized 
plate. Hence we see a blue ribbon on a yellow dress, rendered photographically as 
a white ribbon on a black dress. Dr. Vogel, the celebrated German photographefy 
has found that bromide of silver can be made sensitive for the red, yellow and green 
rays by adding to the collodion coloring substances which powerfully absorb said 

By using collodion colored red by corallin, the yellow rays will act with nearly 
the same energy as the blue rays. If colored green by anilin green, we can very- 
well photograph red j and so on.— ^rr^. f. Pharm. y May, p. 180. 

Necrometer — Bouchert found, by examination of 1,100 men (living, dead and 
in a trance), that no corpse h^s a higher temperature than 20° C. (68° F.) He con- 
structed a thermometer (alcohol) in such a way that the alcohol does not become 
visible before 20° C. have been reached. Even a child will be able to tell whether 
life is extinct or not. — Ibid.^ p. 138. 

To Deprive Cocoa-nut Oil of its Odor. — Mix with i- 16 part freshly prepared 
bone-black and 1-32 part calcined magnesia, digest for three days, shaking fre- 
quently, let stand till clear, and filter. — Journ. Applied Science, 1874. 

Am Jour. Pharm. ^ 
July, 1875. i 


Oil of Turpentine is deprived of its odor by distilling it over tannic acid, 
— Gunier's patent — Boett^ers Notizblatt. 

Cement for Fastening India Rubber on Metal. — Macerate one part of 
powdered shellac in 10 parts strong water of ammonia for 3 or 4 weeks. On applica- 
tion It will soften the India rubber, but this will regain its hardness after the am- 
monia has evaporated. — Pharm. Centralh., 1875. 

Ferrum Hydrogenio Reductum. — Crclas (Lyons, France) calls attention to 
the fact that sulphuric acid in contact with iron will give rise to formation ot sul- 
phuret of hydrogen, and says that the same objection applies to muriatic acid, which 
often contains more than traces of sulphuric acid. This will be an objection to their 
use in examining reduced iron for sulphuret, and he recommends, therefore, oxalic 
acid. — Rep. de Pharm., 1874, p. 9. 

Sulpho-Carbonate of Potassium is the name given to the newly-discovered 
destroyer of Phylloxera ^astatrix it is prepared on a large scale at Pharmacie 
Centrale (Paris) by shaking together equivalent parts of sulphuret of potassium 
and bisulphide of carbon. The resulting solution of potassium sulpho-carbonate 
does not contain any sulphide, has a faint odor and ligh -yellow color. Bouchardat 
recommends its application as a wash or ointment for men and animals. — Annuaire 
de Therapy 1875. 

Albumen in Urine. — C. F Kuntze recommends the following reaction (of 
Galipe) for albumen : Add two or three drops of the suspected urine to a not too 
weak solution of picric acid. If albumen be present, there will appear a distinct 
turbidity, and, on heating, the albumen will collect in a clot. — Zeitschr.f. Pract, 
Median, 1875. H. M. W, 

Essential Oil of Cherry Laurel consists, according to the investigations of 
W. A. Tilden, D Sc , mainly of benzoic aldehyd accompanied with hydrocyanic 
acid (less than 2 pr. ct., according to Umney), possibly benzoic alcohol (perhaps i 
pr ct.) and minute quantities of an odorous resin. — Pharm. Journ., bond., 1875, 
March 27, p. 761. 

F. L. Winckler isolated the principle from which oil of cherry laurel is obtained, 
in 1839 (" Buchner's Repert.," Ixv, p. i). From the seeds of cherry laurel he ob- 
tained crystallized amygdalin, but from cherry laurel leaves an amorphous com- 
pound was obtained, which he regarded as being probably amorphous amygdalin in 
combination with a bitter principle. 

Hydrobrom/te of Eserina [physostigmia] has been proposed by Duquesnel 
for medicinal use, it being obtainable in crystals, while the othersalts of this alkaloid 
are very hygroscopic and mostly uncrystalliz ible. — Rep. de Pharm., 1875, 3 P- ^^S- 

A New Thermometric Scale. — At a meeting of the Chemical Society, recent- 
ly held in London, Mr. John Williams read a paper in which he proposed a new 
thermometric scale. After specifying the several defects of the scales now in com- 
mon use, he proceeded to describe the new one which he had devised. This is 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July, 1875. 

based upon the physical characters of mercury, which solidifies at a very low tem- 
perature and boils at a very high temperature. Mr. Williams, therefore, takes the 
Interval between these two points and divides it into one thousand degrees, making 
his zero the solidifying point of mercury. According to this scale the melting-point 
of ice is 100° and the boiling-point of water 350°. 

Among the advantages to be derived from such a scale may be mentioned the 
avoidance effractions of degrees, since the degrees are very much smaller lhan those 
of either the Centigrade or Fahrenheit scales. Another advantage of the Milligrade 
Scale, as it is termed by Mr. Williams, is the doing away with minus degrees, while 
at the same time, the indication of temperatures below the freezing-point of water is 
sufficiently distinct, as all numbers below 100° of the Milligrade Scale are between 
0° and — 40° of the Centigrade scale. These are certainly considerable advantages, 
but it remains to be seen whether they are sufficient to ensure the substitution of the 
Milligrade Scale for those now in common use. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans. y May 
8th, 1875. 

Chlorofop.m. By C. Remys, — (i.) Pure cholorform has a specific gravity of 
i'5oo at 15"^ C. and boils at 6o'5^, if the sp. gr be the boiling-point is 5975° 

— 60°, and the sample contains about I per cent, alcohol. 

(2.) A sample of higher boiling-point than 60-5° contains such substances as 
amyl and butyl compounds; the sp. gr. of such a sample may rise to 1-502°. 

(3.) The presence of ^ per cent, of alcohol lowers the sp. gr. -002. A small 
quantity of alcohol is the best preservative of chloroform against decomposition. 

(4.) Decomposition of chloroform takes place even in the dark. The smallest 
trace of moisture and air sets up decomposition, the chief products being chlorine, 
hydrochloric acid and phosgene gas. 

(5.) All commercial chloroform contains fusel oil. — Journ. Chem. Soc, May, 
1875, from Arch. Pharm. [3], v, 313-323. — 

KosiN. By F. A, Fliicklger and E. Buri. — The koso-tree is cultivated in every 
^'illage in Abyssinia, and its female flower panicles have been used there for a 
long time as a domestic remedy against tapeworm. The koso-flowers yield about 
3 per cent, of kosin, a yellowish crystalline b idy, without smell or taste, and to 
which the anthelmintic properties of the flowers have been attributed. The specific 
gravity of kosin is so high, that it sinks in sulphuric acid of sp. gr 1-842. It is 
freely soluble in ether, benzin, carbon sulphide, chloroform and boiling alcohol. 
Aqueous solutions of the caustic and carbonated alkalies also readily dissolve it, 
and when such solutions are neutralized the kosin is precipitated. Its formula is 
C31H35O10. — Journ. Chem. Soc, May, 1875, from Pharm. Journ. Trans. [3], v, 562. 

Composition of Gum Tragacanth. — GIraud has made a minute examination 
of the chemical characters of gum tragacanth. He finds (i) that this gum is but 
very slightly soluble in water, and that the product in the filtrate is not a definite 
principle like arabin, but is a mixture of several substances; (2) that, digested on 
the water-bath for twentj/^ four hours, with fifty times its weight of water, much of 
it is transformed into a soluble gum, which no longer swells after drying; this new 
substance is pectin ; (3) that, under the action of water containing i per cent, of 

'^"ju'iy"'i'875.^™'} Phar?naceutical Colleges and Associations. 329 

acid, the production of pectin takes place in two or three hours. It becomes en- 
tirely soluble, and alcohol precipitates pectin, not arabin, from the solution 
Alkalies change it into pectates and metapectates. Hence gum tragacanth consists 
for the most part of a pectic principle insoluble in water, apparently identical with 
Fremy's pectose. From it, by precipitating the pectin solution by barium hydrate, 
and decomposing by an acid, pure pectin acid was obtained. Upon analysis, gum 
tragacanth yields as follows; Water, 20 per cent. ; pectic compounds, 60 per cent, j 
soluble gum, 8 to 10 per cent. 5 cellulose, 3 per cent, j starch, 2 to 3 per cent, j 
mineral matter, 3 per cent, j nitrogenous matters, traces. — Ain. Jour. Sci. and Arts,, 
from Moniteur Scientifique^ III, v, 361, April, 1875 — 


College Of Pharmacy of the City of New York. — A special meeting of 
the members of the College was called for Monday, June 7th, at the college- rooms, 
to elect a Board of Pharmacy for the city and county of New York to serve for 
the ensuing three years, the term of the old Board expiring on that day. Mr. Paul 
Balluff and Wm. Neergaard, M. D., having declined a renomination, the following 
were elected as members of the new Board : Walter De F. Day, M. D., Benjamin 
E. Hays, M. D., William Balser, M. D., Theobald Frohwein, Gustavus Rams- 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, — To increase the facilities for instruc- 
tion, an oxyhydrogen stereopticon has been made for the college by the well-known 
optician, Joseph Zentmayer, of this city, and it is intended to use this instrument 
hereafter freely in illustrating the lectures. 

The National College of Pharmacy at Washington, D. C, impressed 
with the serious disadvantages arising fron> the notorious multiplicity and want of 
uniformity of certain unofficinal medicinal preparations in general use in the Dis. 
trict of Columbia, and believing that the employment of Materia Medica of uncer- 
tain kind and quality is unworthy of professional sanction, have invited the Medical 
Society of the District of Columbia to unite with them in an earnest effort to remedy 
this evil. The invitation was courteously accepted, and a joint committee from 
the two bodies instructed to prepare and submit a series of reliable formulae for such 
of these preparations as may be deemed of sufficient importance. 

The Committee — consisting of Doctors James W. H. Lovejoy, J E. Morgan, 
J. C. Reily, C. H. A. Kleinschmidt and Chas. W. Franzoni on the part of the 
Medical Society, and Mrssrs. Chas. Becker, F. 8. Gaither, W. S. Thompson, W. 
G. Duckett and Oscar Oldberg from the College — after determining upon a general 
plan, and a comprehensive schedule of preparations, which, it is believed, should be 
embraced in the forthcoming formulary, agreed to entrust the pharmaceutical part 
of the work to the gentlemen representing the College of Pharmacy. 

Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — From the nominations made by this 

330 Pharmaceutical Colleges and Associations. {^"^'y^y^'J^^^^' 

College, in accordance with the Pharmacy Law of 1873, J'jdges of the Court of 
Common Pleas have appointed Messrs. J. F. Judge, F. L, Eaton and Chas. Schmidt 
as the Pharmaceutical Examining Board of the city of Cincinnati for two years 
from June ist, 1875. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — The last pharmaceutical meet- 
ing of the session was held April 7th, President Thos. H. Hills in the chair. After 
the reception of donations to the library, museum and herbarium, Professor A.,W. 
Hofmann, of Berlin, exhibited a collection of chemicals, over one hundred in num- 
ber, most of them prepared by his pupils for the purpose of enabling him to illustrate 
the Faraday lecture, which Professor Hofmann had been invited to deliver before 
the Chemical Society of London, and for the subject of which he had chosen the 
life-work of Liebig in chemistry, experimental and philosophical. Substances which 
Liebig himself discovered were designated by a white label, and those discovered by 
others, but which he examined and the composition and formulas of which he de- 
termined, by a blue label. The Society, he said, would feel interested in looking at 
the collection from two points of view. One was that they had the glorious result 
of a single life before them representing what he might call an encyclopgedic display 
of his work ; and the second point was that it showed the enthusiasm with which 
young chemists of our day most willingly gave up a considerable part of their time 
for the sole purpose of exhibiting the labors of their grand countryman in the most 
conspicuous light to the chemists and pharmaceutists of Great Britain. 

Mr. E. M. Holmes read a paper on the identity of Goa powder and araroba. 
Under the latter name, a drug partly consisting of lumps of a yellowish substance 
and partly of yellowish wood has been imported into Great Britain form Bahia, and 
is used with success as an external application in skin diseases. From the micro- 
scopic structure of the v^'ood, and from some leaves received from Dr. J. L. Pater- 
son, of Edinburgh, Mr. Holmes refers the origin of araroba or chrysarobin to a 
species of Casalpinia. Professor Attfield has recently (" Pharm. Journ and Trans.," 
March 13, 1875) demonstrated that r/zry.f/xroZ'iVi contains Soto 84 percent of chryso- 
phanic acid, besides a bitter principle, glucoside and resinous matter, and suggested 
its probable identity with the so-called Goa powder, which had long been imported 
into Bombay through Goa, and was described by D. S. Kemp in the *' Pharm. 
Journ.," for February, 1874. The latter is usually of a dull ocher, pale brown or 
even chocolate color 5 but the tests made by Mr. Holmes with ammonia, alcohol, 
ether, benzol, chloroform and strong sulphuric acid leave hardly any dcubt of the 
identity of the two substances. 

Mr. Plowman has also experimented upon the two articles with benzol, and ob- 
tained from Goa powder eleven years old 70 per cent, of soluble matter 5 from re- 
cently obtained Goa powder, 87, and from chrysarobin, 84 per cent., the solutions 
yielding, upon evaporation, tufted crystals of chrysophanic acid. 

Professor Bentley reminded the meeting of the importance which this article has 
now attained, while eleven years ago the Goa powder then exhibited received but 
little attention 5 he gave some interesting information regarding several South Amer- 
ican dye-woods, and of the plants containing chrysophanic acid. 

* According to Prof. Bomfin, of Bahia, the name araroba or arariba is applied by the natives to a num- 
ber of drugs. See an investigation of Arariba rubra in the " Amer. Journ. Pharm.," 1862, p. 395. 

^""■jifyris^s^™"} Pharmaceutical Colleges aud Associations. 331 

Prof. Attfield stated that a specimen of "genuine Goa powder" presented to him 
four or five years ago, was simply cudbear. 

Mr. Moss said that araroba had been received in England by one firm for many 
years, but, he believed, had been exported again to the East Indies. 

Mr. Postans referred to a cure of ringworm, effected by moistening the affected 
part with water and rubbing some powder over it; but particles of the powder were 
apt to get into the eye, causing irritation. Subsequently a paste of Goa powder 
with oil was used 5 washing, however, distributed the coloring matter over the hair^ 
converting it from auburn to ugly purplish-brown. 

A paper entitled "Notes on the Pharmacy of Atropia," was read by Mr. W, 
Willmott, In which the causes of irritation of the eye by atropia solution were dis- 
cussed. Aside from idiosyncrasy, the author found that it must not be referred to- 
impurity of the atropia salt, or to acidity of the solution, the latter being neutral, 
and no change in the reaction being observed on long exposure ; In the hands of 
patients, however, the solutions sometimes acquire an acid reaction (Mr. LInford 
suggested from the secretions of the patients' eyes) without causing iiritation. On 
several occasions when complaints were made, the solutions were found to be full 
of dust, and, after filtration, could be used without causing pain. 

Mr. Williams referred to belladonnia as being probably present In some atropia. 

In this connection Prof. Hofmann referred to the examination by chemists of the 
bodies presented by nature, and to the probability of preparing such compounds 
artificially after their true composition is known. 

Mr. A. W. Gerrard read a paper on " Ergot and its Liquid Extract," In which it 
is suggested to preserve fresh ergot when dry by bottling it, and fixing a piece of 
lime, tied in muslin, to the Interior of the stopper. The author considers the 
exhaustion of the ergot by ether, in preparing the liquid extract of the British 
" Pharmacopoeia " as unnecessary, and its subsequent digestion with water as Im- 
practicable ; he offers to improve the process by macerating 16 ounces of the pow- 
der first with four pints, and afterwards with two pints of cold water, evaporating 
to ten fluidounces, adding eight fluidounces of alcohol, and when the albumen has- 
coagulated, decanting the clear portion and straining the remainder through tow j 
the product should measure 16 fluidounces. 

The modified process was endorsed by Messrs. Hampson and LInford, the latter 
remarking that the separation of albumen was more easily effected by adding the 
alcohol to the warm liquid, and then filtering the extract through paper. A reduc- 
tion of the alcohol to one-half would make the extract rather strongly acid In a few 


Notice.— The Twenty-third Annual Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association will be held at Odd Fellows' Hall, corner of Berkeley and Tremont 
streets, in the city of Boston, Mass., on Tuesday, September 7th, 1875, commenc- 
ing at 3 o'clock P. M. 

Ample arrangements have been made by the Local Secretary, Mr Samuel A. D. 
Sheppard, and the Local Committee of Arrangements, for the reception of articles 
for exhibition, and it is confidently expected that a full display will be made. Ex- 


( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I July, 1875. 

hibitors are reminded that to insure a successful and advantageous display, it is neces- 
sary that the articles tor exhibition should be in the charge of the Local Secretary 
several days before the meeting takes place, and they are therefore earnestly re- 
quested to make their shipments in time, directed to the Odd Fellows' Hall. 

Chairmen of Standing Committees are requested to furnish a copy of their re- 
spective reports, together with a synopsis of the same, to the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Papers and Queries, Mr. Wm. Saunders, London, Ontario, as provided 
by Article IX, Chapter VI, of the By-Laws. In a like manner, all persons writing 
a paper for the Association, whether in reply to a query or as a volunteer paper, 
will report to the same chairman, previous to the third session {^Ue Article VIII, 
Chapter VI, of the By-Laws) j and it is particularly desirable that such paper, to- 
gether with a synopsis of the same, be in the possession of the chairman, before the 
opening of the first session. 

Compliance with these requests will greatly expedite the business of the Associa- 
tion, which, in view of the arrangements to be made for the meeting in Philadelphia 
in 1876, promises to be more arduous than usual. 

It is hoped that members will generally attend, and that the Association will be 
largely increased by new memberships. Our friends in Boston expect this, and will 
doubtless make our visit one of pleasure, socially as well as intellectually 5 in short, 
will make it an occasion to be remembered, as is our last visit — ^just ten years ago — 
to that hospitable city. 

Further information concerning the meeting and arrangements made, will be given 
in the circular of the permanent Secretary, Prof. J. M. Maisch, No. I45 North 
Tenth street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

C. LEV^IS DIEHL, President. 

Louis-uille, Ky., June, 1875. 


Unusual Doses in Prescriptions. — In our last number we published a papej. 
by Jas. Kemble, Ph. G., on this subjejt, with a formula, which should have been 
printed as follows, in order to convey a correct idea of his proposition: 

R. — Liquor, ammon. acet., . . . ^^ii^ 

Spirit, nitri dulc, ..... f^ii 

* Tr. aconiti rad , ' . . , . . f^iss 
Syr, limonis q. s. ad . . . . . f^iv 

TT^. Et. sig , a dessert spoonful every two hours. 

* C. C. 

We are glad that this subject has attracted the attention which it deserves, and has 
been brought to the notice of the medical and pharmaceutical professions, and we 
trust that it will not be allowed to rest imtil some difinite conclusion has been arrived 
at. The means which have thus far been suggested to indicate the correctness of 
unusual doses, are several: i. In Germany and several other European countries, 
the physician is, by law, compelled to affix after the quantity of the dangerous in- 
gredient ordered, an exclamation mark (!) to show that the writer really intents 

^"■j-l.r.s«'""-} Editorial. 233 

to give the medicine in such doses. 2. In Great Britain it is now customary 
tor the physician to sign his name after, and on the same line with the order 
for such an unusual quanti'y. 3. In this country we have now the action of the 
Medical and Pharmaceutical Societies, of Richmond, Va , in the adoption of the 
letters P. C. [pr^eter consuetudinem) and 4, in Camden, N. J., the adoption of the 
letters first proposed by the Richmond Pharmaceutical Association, ^ R. {quantum 
rectum), by which to indicate the correctness of the dose. To these marks must be 
added, 5. the suggestion of Mr. Kemble, as indicated above. 

In the prescription as printed above, the first four of the adopted signs would be 
used thus : 

1. Tr. aconiti rad., . • . . f^iss (!) 

2. Tr. aconiti rad., .... f^iss (J. Smith, M. D.) 

3. P. C. Tr aconiti rad., . . . f^iss 

4. /?. Tr. aconiti rad,, . . . f^iss 

All will fulfill the intention for which they have been adopted j but in order to be 
of good use, such a custom should be followed not locally, but uniformly through- 
out the entire country. The approaching meeting of the American Pharmaceuti- 
cal Association offers an excellent opportunity for bringing this important matter at 
once to the notice of the pharmacists throughout the country, and of taking the 
proper measures to lay it before the American Medical Association, so that by the 
action of the two National Associations representing the professions immediately in- 
terested, the desirable uniformity could be secured. 

But, suppose that the two bodies mentioned, should agree upon a suitable sign for 
this purpose, the question is not yet solved, as to what must be regarded as an unusual 
dose. Is every individual physician or every pharmacist to be the juc'ge in this mat- 
ter? Standard authorities cannot be referred to, unless a special one should be se- 
lected, because they frequently differ in the amounts, and in the majority of books, 
the maximum doses are not specially indicated. It would, therefore, be necessary^ 
that such a table of maximum doses be framed. We consider it as one of the gravest 
short comings of our "Pharmacopoeia," that it does not contain a posological table, 
indicating not only the single maximum dose, but, on account of the cumulative ac- 
tion of many medicines, also the maximum quantity for twenty-four hours of dan- 
gerous remedies, that a physician may prescribe for an adult and a pharmacist be 
justified in putting up, without the mark of correctness. 

Such a posological table is necessary both for the physician and the pharmacist.;, 
it need not embrace the entire Materia Medica, but only those articles which in over- 
doses would be absolutely injurious. We are well aware of the objections that may 
be advanced against such a table; but without any guide, the danger to the patient 
and the annoyances to both professions must obviously be far greater than with one 
that has been judiciously devised. 

In connection with this subject, it is but proper to refer to the neglect of many 
physicians of writing upon every prescription the name of the patient and indicating 
approximately his or her age. This can be well done by a careful and judicious 
medical attendant and would serve the additional purpose of preventing mistakes in 
giving to patients the medicine intended for another member of the family, in case 
two or more should be prostrated by sickness. Mr. Jones' babe 5 Mr. Jones' child 



< Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t July, 1875. 

Lizzie 5 Mr. Jones' daughter Lizzie , Miss Lizzie Jones and Mrs. Jones would at 
once inform the pharmacist, approximately, of the age of the patient. 

The Centennial Celebration of 1876. — The erection of the buildings for 
the International Exposition in Philadelphia progresses favorably, and in looking 
at the imposing structures we are forcibly reminded of the probability that many 
pharmacists, druggists and others interested in pharmacy will visit the United States 
next year, and should be received with that hospitable spirit which makes the stranger 
feel at home, and places him into the way to follow his individual inclinations in 
every respect. The majority of the visitors will not merely desire to take a look at 
the Exposition, but many will aim to see something of the New World, and will visit 
distant parts of the country. To secure to them beforehand the conviction that 
wherever they may go to they will meet with friends who will interest themselves in 
their behalf, would make their intended journey much more pleasant, as it would 
assure them that they would receive trustworthy advice upon the objects of their 
journey, no matter to which part of this continent they might go. 

The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy will, at the quarterly meeting in June, 
take action upon the report of a committee appointed to propose suitable measures, 
and, while this report may contain suggestions which, with some modifications, 
might be adopted in other localities, it would be well if the various colleges and 
pharmaceutical associations would take this subject into consideration and, if pos-. 
•sible, mature a plan of their Intended action which, at the meeting of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, might be compared with others, so that a perfect har- 
mony of action might be secured. We apprehend that, in order to work smoothly, 
much correspondence will afterwards be necessary In arranging the details during 
the coming winter, and the outlines of the plan ought, for this reason, not to be 

Elixirs. — The present number contains essays on two elixirs for which we have 
hitherto not published any formulas. We recognize the value of palatable medi- 
cines, and regard with favor all attempts at Improving their taste and appearance. 
We are not opposed to these modern elixirs, except as regards the manner in which 
they have been forced upon the market as specialties, and prescribed as such by 
physicians, notwithstanding It had been repeatedly shown that many could be 
regarded In no other light than nostrums, thinly disguised under vague claims of 
pretended composition. It should be the aim of the pharmacist to put the physi- 
cian into the way of prescribing for his patients, In a pleasant form, any combination 
he may consider adapted to the case, instead of oiTerIng these so-called elegant prep- 
arations, as adapted to a certain class of ailments, in a similar manner as the con- 
coctions of the nostrum manufacturer are put forth 5 and viewed in this light, it is 
surprising to us that physicians in general, and medical societies more particularly, 
have not taken a firm stand against the whole system. The plan proposed by Mr. 
J. F. Hancock, and adopted by the American Pharmaceutical Association at Rich- 
mond, Va., In 1873, is doubtless the correct one, since It enables the physician to com- 
bine nearly all soluble medicines with an agreeably-flavored vehicle, and it seems to 
us that if one simple elixir was insufficient to meet the varying taste of the public, 
two or three might be devised, under different names, from which the physician 
might select the one best adapted for his purpose. At the meeting of the American 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July, 1875. J 



Pharmaceutical Association to be held in Boston in September next, a committee 
will again report on this subject, and, as far as we are personally concerned, we hope 
that no deviation from Mr. Hancock's plan will be proposed, but that, if necessary, 
it may be extended in the direction indicated, and coupled with recommendations of 
how tinctures, fluid extracts and other preparations made with different menstrua 
may be extemporaneously combined with a simple elixir. 

Preparation of Phosphorus Pills with Cacao-Butter. — We have received 
the following communication detailing the manipulations in preparing these pills: 

Editor American jfournal of Pharmacy : 

Having received many requests for further information in regard to the process for making phos- 
phorus pills, I answer through your columns : 

Weigh out the phosphorus after the melted cacoa-butter is poured into a bottle, and immediately add 
it. Cork the bottle tightly, as the phosphorus will take fire unless this is done, agitate briskly for some 
time, add the soap, and proceed as directed in Journal for June, p 253. The mass makes an excellent 
excipient for quinia, cinchonia, &c., &c., and should be kept on hand. It can be triturated in a mortar, 
after cooling, without risk. 


Monument to Dr. Horace Wells. — We have received the following circular 
which explains itself : 

Nearly a quarter of a century has passed since Horace Wells, the discoverer of Anaesthesia, — a safe, 
speedy and effectual means of abolishing sensibility and consciousness, — died. 

No monument has yet been erected to perpetuate the memory of Dr. Wells, or, in connection with his 
name, to commemorate this wonderful discovery. He gave most willingly and cheerfully, wishing it, in 
his own words, to be '-free as air," the use of this boon to humanity ; asking of his fellow-men, in return, 
nothing beyond the proper appreciation of its worth, and the honor that justly belonged to the discoverer. 
As its importance became more widely known, and the world learned by experience the amazing value of 
the discovery, the feeling was naturally awakened, that some positive movement should be made towards 
the accomplishment of this long-delayed duty. 

Entertaining this sentiment, doubtless, the Legislature of Connecticut, some two years ago, appro- 
priated five thousand dollars ($5,000) for this purpos ;, and the city of Hartford a like sum ; and under the 
direction of a committee a colossal statue in bronze of Dr. Wells has been executed by Truman H. Bart- 
lett. Esq., and will soon be ready for erection on some commanding site in the beautiful Park in the city 
of Hartford, where the discoverer lived, where the grand idea which was to embalm his name and 
memory in the hearts of his fellow-men everywhere, had itb birth, and where his remains now rest. 

It is upon the pedestal, which should be also of bronze, and its ornamentation, that any further funds 
will need to be expended. This will admit of high and costly adornment, in bas-reliefs, in inscriptions, 
etc., suited to exemplify the uses of the discovery, at the same time that it commemorates the discoverer ; 
and we are informed by the most competent judges, will admit of large outlay without transcending the 
limits of a severe and correct taste. 

In view of this circumstance, and of the fact, also, that, as the subject has been more freely canvassed, 
an earnest desire has been expressed in many qu irters, both in and out of the State, to take part in this 
undertaking, it has been thought to be expedient, for the purpose of gratifying this wish, and in order to 
make the work itself more nearly represent the character and value of the service rendered to mankind 
by Dr. We Is, to receive such subscriptions from physicians and dentists abroad, and through their agency 
from the public, in the various parts of the country, as they may feel disposed to make. Our appeal is 
made primarily to the medical faculty and dental profession, not so much because they have a higher per- 
sonal interest in the subject than others, but because they, of all me.n, best know the inestimable value t'f 
this discovery to the race 

The committee who submit the foregoing, represent the medical and dental societies of Hartford, 
and, in so far as our suVjject shall meet the views of our brethren elsewhere, we respectfully ask from 
them such friendly aid, pecuniarily, as they may think proper to give us, and especially that they take 
such measures to bring the subject to the nutice of their friends and the public as, in their wisdom, they 
shall consider most likely to receive a favorable response. 

Letters of inquiry may be addressed to Dr. E. K. Hunt, Chairman of the Committee of the Hartford 
Medical Society. Subscriptions may be forwarded to Dr. G. W. Russell, Treasurer, Hartford, Conn. 

336 Editorial. {'"""A^.s^s"'"' 

Patents. — The draft of a patent law for the German Empire contains a claii^-e 
stipulating that no patent can be granted for alimentary articles, beverages or 
medicines." There is common sense in such a proviso, and we think that it would 
do our country no harm if our patent laws were amended in this particular direc- 
tion. A short time ago, an examiner of the Patent Office reported adversely to the 
granting of a patent for a medicinal compound, and gave excellent reasons for his- 
position ; but, if we mistake not, his objections were overruled, they not being iu 
conformity with the letter of the law. 

New Use of Acorns — We learn from the Swiss " Pharmaceutical Weekly,"" 
upon the authority of the trade report of Gehe & Co., that during several years past 
acorns have been used in Germany, in large quantities, for the adulteration of black 
pepper. The acorns are turned into small globes, suitably dyed and mixed with 
true pepper. The business of the adulterator is apt to flourish, and to secure large 
profits to its patrons everywhere, where low price is the first and prime consideration, 
in the purchase of any commodity. 

Dangerous Explosions. — In the May number of this Journal we alluded to- 
some explosive mixtures which have been occasionally prescribed, and our readers 
are doubtless familiar with the particulars of the recent explosion in a Boston drug 
store, whereby several persons were killed and wounded, and considerable damage 
done to property, and the cause of which will probably never be revealed. It is 
unnecessary to say what every one of our readers know, that great care is necessary 
to avoid such dangerous accidents 5 but it is proper that attention be called to them^ 
more particularly when the combinati ns have not been reported before. In the 
following cases, recently reported, it will be observed, the accidents resulted fron> 
the combination of oxidizing agents with substances readily combining with oxygen« 
with the elimination of gaseous products, as we pointed out on page 233 of this 
Journal : 

A prescription calling for 8 grains of chromic acid and i drachm of glycerin was 
prepared by dissolving the acid in a little water in the vial, and agitating the solu- 
tion with the glycerin, when the mixture exploded with a violent detonation, fortu- 
nately without doing any damage except soiling the ceiling of the store ("Zeits. 
Ocster. Ap. Ver.," June i). 

To compound a prescription for 5 grams hypophosphite of calcium, 50 grams 
chlorate of potassium, and 400 grams of distilled water, the two salts were triturated 
in a mortar, when they exploded, burning the operator severely upon both hands and 
somewhat in the face. To avoid such an accident, the salts should be dissolved sep- 
arately in water and the solutions mixed (" L'Union Pharm.," May). 

James S Marsden was killed, and his wife severely injured, by the explosion of 
an iron retort, while attempting to prepare oxygen, which he was accustomed to do, 
both professionally and as an amateur. On this occasion he used a mixture of chlo- 
rate of potassium and black sulphuret of antimony, the latter having been supplied 
to him in place of black oxide of manganese ("Pharm. Jour, and Transactions," 
April 10). This is a very dangerous mixture, and several cases of severe injury, 
resulting from its accidental use, are on record. 

Correction. — Through an accidental omission in the foot note on page 251 of 
the June number, Mr. Nickles results were not quoted correctly. Line six, from 
below, should read as follows : " Ferric hydrate, ether and hydiiodic acid, yield, 
according to Nickles (1865), a red solution which is not precipitated blue by ferrid- 
cyanide of potassium, until after some time, and we may add," &c. 



juGusr, 1875. 



Among the many applications used in the treatment of burns or 
scalds, only a limited number are of general utility or are employed in 
legitimate practice. But there are certain disadvantages connected 
with all of them, which, in some cases, may prevent the use of the one 
or the other. The chief aim of the surgeon, in the external treatment 
of recent burns or scalds, is a perfect exclusion of air by means of a 
rapidly drying coating, as bland and as flexible as possible. 

Of the various mixtures and applications of this kind, the following 
have best stood the test of time : 

Carron Oil^ (Linimentum Calcis, U. S. P.). — This old and very 
useful mixture is most universally used and deservedly popular. Re- 
quiring very little preparation, it can be made at a moment's 
notice from materials obtainable almost everywhere. It is gene- 
rally applied by means of cotton, which serves to soak up the oil 
and to prevent its running off. But its defects are, that it dries very 
slowly and that the dressing is very apt to be disarranged by motion, 
especially in children. Moreover, the odor arising from it, after pro- 
longed application, is exceedingly offensive. Nevertheless, for com- 
mon purposes, when nothing better can be obtained, it is of great 

Collodion. — This can only be used upon burns or scalds of small ex- 
tent, as the pain occasioned by its application produces a great deal of 
shock, unless the patient is placed under the influence of an anaesthetic, 
which is not practical in many cases. In using collodion, the flexible 
variety alone should be used, to which may be added, with great advan- 
tage, a small quantity of carbolic acid, which acts as a local anaesthetic. 
The proportion which I have generally used is five parts of carbolic 



A New Burn-mixture. 

(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug., 1875. 

acid in 100 parts flexible collodion — as recommended by Prof. Billroth, 
and also by Dr. E. R. Squibb. Applied upon small burns, it produces 
momentary pain, proportionate to the extent of the burn, but as soon 
as the air is excluded, all pain ceases. It is of its nature only of lim- 
ited application. 

Buck's Burn-mixture. — This mixture, which was introduced a num- 
ber of years ago at the former New York Hospital, by Dr. Gordon 
Buck, is prepared after the following formula : Powdered gum arable 
4 oz., powdered gum tragacanth 2 oz., molasses i pint, boiling water 
q. s. to make a mixture of the consistence of honey. When dry, it 
forms a tough, dark-colored skin, but it requires a considerable time to 
get dry, and stains the dressings and bed-clothes. It has been used ex- 
tensively in hospitals. 

Lead Paint. — This old application, which had almost fallen out of 
practice, has of late years again come into vogue. It forms a very 
good dressing in simple burns or scalds, where the true skin has not been 
destroyed (in which case suppuration generally ensues, necessitating the 
removal of the application), dries within a reasonable time and forms 
a tough skin. It is also a singular but well-established fact, that no 
ill-efFects, such as colic or palsy, follow its employment. I have had 
a more intimate acquaintance with this dressing than I would have de- 
sired. In February, 1872, the explosion of a tube in an oil-bath, badly 
placed, projected into my face and upon my head nearly a gallon of 
oil, at a temperature of about 400° F. The surgeon being happily 
within call, the burnt parts were immediately dressed with lead- paint, 
the good services of which I shall always remember. It occasions, 
however, serious inconvenience, especially to adults, when applied to 
the face, or any portion of the head ; in fact, if applied to any surface 
where hairs are apt to grow, it causes excruciating pain by not yielding 
to the tension and traction of the growing hairs. It should be made 
of perfectly pure ground white lead, mixed with raw and boiled lin- 
seed oil, and patent dryer, but without spirits of turpentine. 

Being requested to search for an application which would combine 
transparency^ cleanliness^ body^ rapidity of drying and flexibility.^ I finally 
succeeded in finding a combination possessing all these properties, and 
which has been used for more than a year in hospitals of this city. Its 
preparation requires a somewhat longer time than most of the above 
mentioned, but it can be kept ready-made, and requires but a few min- 
utes' time to prepare it for use. 

'^Vu^Tis^yt'""'} Glyconated Emulsion of Cod-liver Oil. 339 

Formula for Burn-mixture. 
Take of the best white glue (extra) 15 ounces. Break it into small 
pieces, add to it 2 pints of cold water, and allow it to become soft. 
Then melt it on a water-bath, add to it 2 fluidounces of glycerin and 
6 drachms of carbolic acid, and continue the heat on the water-bath until 
a glossy^ tough skin begins to form over the surface in the intervals of 
stirring. The mixture may be used at once, after the glue is melted 
and the glycerin and carbolic acid are added, but when time allows, 
it is advisable to get rid of a little more of the water, until the proper 
point is reached. On cooling, this mixture hardens to an elastic mass, 
covered with a shining parchment-like skin, and may be kept for any 
time. When using it, it is placed for a few minutes on the water-bath 
until sufficiently liquid for application (it should be quite fluid). Should 
at at any time require too high a heat to become fluid, this may be cor- 
rected by adding a little water. It is applied by means of a broad brush 
and forms in about two minutes a shining, smooth, flexible and nearly 
transparent skin. It may be kept for any time, without spoiling, in 
delf or earthern dishes or pots turned upside down. 
Nenxj York, June i6th, 1875. 



I am surprised at a remark in the communication of Mr. McElhenie 
to the effect that glyconin, without oil of almonds, soon separates. I 
have been in the habit of keeping it for about ten years past, and have 
kept the same parcel, in one instance, five years without change. I do 
not follow the French formula exactly, however, but beat the yolks 
well with a thin spatula previous to adding the glycerin. This is 
much better than mixing them with the pestle, as the yolks slip from 
under the pestle and are not easily broken up. I first modified the for- 
mula of Dr. Andrews for Dr. Sterling of Brooklyn. 

The use of the glyconin for the emulsion was, I believe, original 
with me. It was communicated by me to the Alumni Association of 
the New York College of Pharmacy, in January, 1874 (p, 35 of the 
report). I had at that time used it for several months. 

My formula was communicated to the Kings County Medical Asso- 
ciation by Dr. Squibb. Dr. George M. Beard and many others were 

340 Mistura Glycyrrhiz^ Composita. {^""^{^187^'™' 

highly pleased with it. I furnished Dr. Beard with numerous copies 
of it at his request.* 

This formula was published in the "Druggists' Circular" for October^ 
1874, page 179. I can say, without exaggeration, that I have made' up 
barrels of the emulsion, although the formula has never been kept a 
secret, but copies have been furnished to all who requested them. 

I think the proportion of oil of bitter almonds used by Mr. McEl- 
henie is too large to be safe in all cases. Perhaps I am mistaken in 
this, however. I always keep a quantity of the glyconin on hand 
made up. The proportions are four parts, by measure, of the yolks to 
five of glycerin. 

Brooklyn J July 6th, 1875. 



For the consideration of the readers of the Journal, I desire to pre- 
sent the following suggestions in regard to the preparation of mistura 
glycyrrhizae composita. In place of the usual method, which consists 
in rubbing together with water, licorice, sugar and gum arable, I pro- 
pose using the officinal simple syrup and mucilage of gum arable and 
a solution of the extract of licorice (made by dissolving the extract ins 
water), of such a strength that f^ii shall represent §i of the extract. 

The formula is as follows : 

Take of Solution of extract of licorice, . . . f^i 

Syrup, ....... f^v 

Mucilage of gum arable, .... f^xi 

Water, a sufficient quantity to make . . . f^xiiss 

Camphorated tincture of opium, . . . . f^ii 

Wine of antimony, ..... f^i 

Spirit of nitrous ether, .... f^ss 


I am not aware that the process I have described has been used be- 

* It is due to Mr. McElhenie to state that, under date of June 21st, he commu- 
nicated to us a letter from Mr. L. M. Royce, correcting the statements regarding the 
origin of the formula, and requested us to make the necessary alterations in the 
paper published in our last number, but the letter arrived too late for this purpose. 
— Editor Amer. Jour. Phar. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Aug., 1875. / 

Medicated Waters. 


fore, and as it has proven satisfactory as well as a very convenient 
method, I submit it for publication. 
Philadelphia, June 7th, 1875. 

Note. — The commercial licorice varying more or less in the 
amount of matter soluble in cold water, the suggestion of Mr. H. M. 
Wilder (see the March number of this Journal, p. 97) to use purified 
extract of licorice only, deserves attention. This purified extract is 
readily soluble in water, and for convenience in dispensing, a solution 
of it may be kept on hand of the strength indicated by Mr. Bibby. — 
Editor Amer. Journ. Pharm. 



Not less than four theses on the above subject were presented last 
-spring by members of the graduating class of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy. Although these preparations are of much less impor- 
tance in American pharmacy than in Europe, they are used to a con- 
siderable extent in this country ; this is more especially the case with a 
few of the officinal waters, like those of orange flowers, rose, cinna- 
mon, peppermint and spearmint. The " U. S. Pharmacopoeia " directs 
the first two to be prepared only by distillation from the fresh drugs, 
while the others are made by trituration of the volatile oils with mag- 
nesium carbonate and water, an alternative process being given for 
their preparation by distillation from the dry drugs. As early as 1833 
{"Amer. Journ. Pharm.," v, p. no), Mr. Thos. H. Powers called at- 
tention to the reaction of the medicated waters made with magnesia upon 
the salts of alkaloids, and suggested the addition of a little acid to pre- 
vent the precipitation of the bases. It is surprising that, since that 
time, no change has been made in our Pharmacopoeia to prevent the 
contamination of these waters with a body which, in some cases, might 
cause dangerous results, if the acidulation of mixtures should be over- 

To remedy this defect, the use of other substances have been from 
time to time recommended, which, while effecting the minute division 
of the oils, rendering them more readily soluble in water, would not be 
dissolved by this menstruum. Finely-powdered kaolin, glass, silica, 
pumice-stone and chalk have been recommended for this purpose, or 

342 Medicated IVaters. {^""-il^Z'^n-^' 

the volatile oils or their strong acoholic solution were agitated with the 
distilled water. Mr. G. G. Percival recently proposed (" Amer. 
Journ. Pharm.," 1873, p. 564) to dissolve the oils in boiling water^ 
and Mr. Jas. Rugan {Ihid.^ 1874, p. 188), to triturate them with pure 
paper pulp and afterwards with water. 

It is worthy of note that, in Great Britain, where formerly medicated 
waters were prepared by agitation, or by trituration with an insoluble 
substance, distillationjs now in all cases directed, with the sole excep- 
tion of camphor water ; the fresh or dried drugs being used, or the vol- 
atile oils in the cases of peppermint and spearmint water. The reasons- 
for the last-mentioned exceptions are not apparent ; at least our expe- 
rience coincides with the observations made through many years in? 
Europe, that peppermint (and spearmint) water distilled from the herb 
has a better flavor than that made from the oil, and keeps as well as 
most other distilled waters, and better than some which are officinal in 
the various Pharmacopoeias. In our opinion, pharmacists who have 
been using properly prepared medicated waters, distilled from the drugs,, 
will not be likely to discard the process by substituting the volatile 
oils, which have perhaps in no case the delicate fragrance and flavor 
of the watery distillates from the drugs. 

Some medicated waters are little employed, and in such cases it is 
proper that the pharmacist should be enabled to prepare them, when 
desired, at short notice from the volatile oil, without contaminating the- 
product with a substance which may have an injurious influence on the 
medicine. That magnesium carbonate is not the best that could be 
selected for this purpose, is evident from what has been said above. 

The four essays to which we have alluded confine themselves alto- 
gether to what may be called the extemporaneous preparation of med- 
icated waters. Of the processes mentioned, Mr. Percival's hot-water 
solution is regarded by Edward Plummer and Thaddeus Everhart as^ 
yielding, rapidly, unobjectionable waters, while W. L. Kutz expresses 
himself in favor of using paper pulp, and Geo. M. Shamalia suggests 
another material, which appears to be deserving of some more extended 
experiments ; this material is purified animal charcoal, which is recom- 
mended to be substituted for the magnesium carbonate directed by the 
Pharmacopoeia, and is said to produce excellent waters, free from the 
objections that may be urged against the use of magnesia. 

Regarding the hot-water process, it is obvious that it cannot be well 
adopted for chloroform, the boiling point of which is much lower than* 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Aug., 1875. i 

Salicylic Acid. 


that of water, nor to camphor, which Mr. R. Rother has proven 
(1871) to be more soluble in cold than in hot water. 

The modifications which we would suggest for the next revision of 
the Pharmacopoeia are, that the medicated waters containing volatile 
oils be prepared by distillation from the drugs, with a supplementary 
process for the extemporaneous preparation of some of them from the 
volatile oils, discarding, however, the use of carbonate of magnesium. 



Take of — 

Pure oil of wintergreen, . . . (3) three parts. 

Caustic potassa, ..... (2^) two and one-half parts. 

Muriatic acid, . • . . . . (4) four parts. 

Distilled water, . . . . . q. s. 

Dissolve the hydrate of potassium in an evaporating-dish with one 
and one-fourth parts (ij) parts of water, heat to io8° F., and stir in 
the wintergreen oil, continuing the agitation until the effervescence 
ceases. Allow the mixture to remain quiet a few moments until it 
separates into two layers, the lower of which is impure solution of 
salicylate of potassium ; the upper, a hydrocarbon, which is worthless. 
Then draw out the solution of salicylate of potassium with a syphon, 
and gradually add it, with constant stirring, to the muriatic acid pre- 
viously diluted with ten parts of water. Allow the magma of fine 
crystals to remain in a cool place twenty-four hours, then pour on a 
muslin strainer, and, after draining, wash them well with cold distilled 
water. Purify by dissolving and crystallizing. 

Remarks, — Upon adding the wintergreen oil to the solution of hydrate 
of potassium the mixture at first thickens, but quickly liquefies with 
effervescence, which continues until the addition of the oil is com- 
pleted. The reaction is accompanied with an increase of about twenty- 
four degrees in temperature. The overlaying oily liquid is colorless, 
while the lower stratum is dark, even though a freshly-distilled and 
colorless oil is operated upon. 

Note. — Except in the practical details of the manipulation, the 
above process, in its outlines, has been proposed by the late Professor 
Wm. Procter, Jr., in 1854, in this Journal, pp. 59 and 66. — Editor 
Amer. Journ. Pharm. 


Examination of Glycerins. 

I Am. Jour. Pharm. 
(. Aug., 1875. 



[Abstract from an Inaugural Essay.) 

Of the five specimens of pure glycerin examined, the table given 
below shows the result. The manner of proceeding was as follows : 
The glycerins when purchased had on each bottle the manufacturer's 
labels, which were not removed during the examination, so as to ascer- 
tain of each its individual merits. Their specific gravities were ob- 
tained by means of the specific gravity bottle, the usual precautions 
being observed. Their color was then noted, after which their odor 
when cold and when heated to the boiling point was ascertained. The 
reagents were then applied to the glycerins in a dilute condition and 
their effects noted immediately after addition, five minutes afterwards, 
three hours afterwards and twenty-four hours afterwards. Five spec- 
imens of commercial glycerin were also examined, and the observations 
were made in a similar manner. 

Of all the pure glycerins examined, that of Henry Bower justly 
heads the list for purity and general appearance. The plan of exam- 
ination was suggested by two papers read by Prof. Joseph P. Reming- 
ton, before the American Pharmaceutical Association, in 1870 and 
187 1, and published in their proceedings for those years. 

The following table shows the condition of the glycerins 24 hours 
after adding the reagents : 

Table of Results. 

IMannfactiirer . 

Sp. gravity. 


Odor, cold 

Odor, heated. 



No odor. 

Very slightly empyreu- 



No odor. 




No odor. 

Slightly empyreumatic. 




Slightly fatty. 





1-246 to i"256 



Varying ; empyreuma- 
tic and fatty. 

'•} Conversion of Brucia into Strychnia. 345 
Table of Results — (Continued). 

Mcifiu/acttirer . 

IVith Nitrate Silver. 

With Oxal. 
A in J no It. 

IVitk CJilor. 



Slight blue color; no pre- 

No precipit. 

No precipit. 



Blue color ; no precipitate 

No effect. 

No precipit. 



Brownish color ; slight pre- 

No effect. 

No precipit. 


Bluish color; no precipitate. 

Slightly opa- 

No precipit. 

Slight brown color ; no pre- 

No effect. 

No precipit. 

Reaction varying. 






Brucia Q^^^^f^^ and strychnia C21H22N2O2 differ, apparently, con- 
siderably in their composition ; but the former may be easily converted 
into the latter. Referring to the formulas, it will be seen that strychnia 
is produced by combining brucia with 4O and eliminating 2H2O and 
2CO2. This is effected as follows : Brucia is moderately heated with 
four to five times its weight of diluted nitric acid, when a red coloration 
will be produced and gases evolved, which cause in a mixture of barium 
chloride and ammonia a white precipitate of carbonate of barium. The 
red solution is concentrated in a water-bath, supersaturated with potassa 
and agitated with ether, which, on spontaneous evaporation, leaves a 
reddish mass containing a red coloring matter, a yellowish resin and an 
alkaloid, which is obtained pure by dissolving in an acid and crystalliz- 
ing. This base has the intensely bitter taste and other properties of 
strychnia, gives the characteristic reactions with potassium chromate, 
cerium oxide and sulphuric acid, and yields with chlorine the sparingly 
soluble compound. The muriate crystallizes in fine, silky needles, 
from which 9*20 per cent, chlorine were obtained. C21H22N2O2HCI 
contains 9*58 per cent. 

The conversion of brucia into strychnia is not only highly interest- 
ing, but it is likewise of great importance in forensic analysis, proving 
again that in such cases the employment of oxidizing agents is admis- 
sible only with great caution. A student who had received for 

346 Thymol as an Antiseptic, etc., {''""•^"Z'S^^^"' 

analysis a mixture containing, among other substances, brucia and 
nitrate of lead, employed the process of Stas and Otto for the separa- 
tion of alkaloids, and found strychnia instead of brucia, which had been 
oxidized by the liberated nitric acid. 

If strychnia is heated with a strong base, like potassa, soda or baryta, 
for some time in a sealed glass tube placed in a water-bath, a body is 
obtained which does no longer show the reactions of strychnia, but 
resembles brucia in its reactions. The experiments on this decomposi- 
tion, which is likewise of importance in forensic analysis, are not yet 
concluded. — Pharmac. Centr, Halle, iSyS, No. 21, from Viertelj. f, 
gerichtl. Med. J. M. M. 


Herr S. Lewin has lately made some experiments in Prof. Lieb- 
reich's laboratory, in Berlin, on the antiseptic and antifermentative 
properties of thymol. 

This substance, the formula of which is C^oH^oO, belongs to the 
benzol group ; it forms white crystals of a highly aromatic odor. A 
solution of one part in i,ooo of hot water is of sufficient strength for 
all purposes. 

Comparative experiments with carbolic and salicylic acids, showed 
that thymol possessed much greater power than either of these acids in 
arresting fermentation in a solution of sugar after the addition of yeast. 

The addition of thymol to milk caused coagulation to appear twenty 
days later than in milk to which a similar quantity of water had been 
added, and at the end of five weeks there was still no trace of vegeta- 
tion. While filtered egg albumen underwent decomposition in three or 
four days on exposure to the air, albumen to which thymol-water had 
been added, did not present the slightest sign of putrefaction at the end 
of eleven weeks, and an aromatic odor was still perceptible. 

Herr Lewin also found thymol to arrest putrefactive change in bony 
substances for five weeks. 



Arsenious Acid in Veterinary Practice. — According to a decree, dated 
February 26th, 1875, arsenious acid, intended for the treatment of do- 
mestic animals, must hereafter, in France, be dispensed only after having 

^Vuris^s^'"'} Gleanings from the European Journals, 347 

been previously mixed with 2 parts of ferric oxide and i part of socotrine 
aloes to 200 parts of arsenious acid, the materials to be triturated into 
a uniform powder. — Bull, Commerc.^ April, p. 184. 

J Periodical Chalybeate Spring, — In a paper by Prof. Aug. Husemann, 
published in " Archiv d. Pharm.," Feb., the author notices the inter- 
esting fact, that the waters of the two chalybeate springs of St. Moritz 
in Swizerland varies somewhat during the summer in the amount of 
saline matter and carbonic acid gas ; the amount of carbonic acid and 
ferrous carbonate rapidly decreases after the latter part of September, 
the iron disappearing entirely during the winter months ; traces of it 
are found again in April, when the iron and carbonic acid gas rapidly 
increase until, in May, they are found again in their average proportion 
for summer, — Schweiz. Wochenschr. f, Pharm.^ No. 18. 

Wafer Capsules for Powders. — B. Studer, Jr., describes a small press 
intended for closing the wafer capsules, and which is claimed to be 
preferable to the one mentioned in the May number, p. 213, on account 
of its smaller size and greater compactness, its durability (absence of 
springs) and cheapness. — Ibid.^ No. 21. 

Commercial sulphate of quinidia frequently contains, according to O. 
Hesse, quinia, cinchonidia or cinchonia. For the detection of the last 
two alkaloids, i gram of sulphate is first treated with a mixture of two 
measures of chloroform and one measure of strong alcohol, in which 
the salt should slowly, but completely dissolve ; inorganic impurities 
would be insoluble. One part of the salt is now digested with 40 parts 
of water at 60° C. (140^^ F.), and 3 parts of pure Rochelle salt are 
added. After one hour the liquid is filtered from the crystalline pre- 
cipitate, containing quinia and cinchonidia, 0*5 or i gram of iodide of 
potassium, added to 20 c.c. of the filtrate, will indicate the presence of 
quinidia (Hesse's conchinia), by a precipitate occurring within an hour, 
and the filtrate therefrom shows the presence of cinchonia by the white 
precipitate with ammonia. A mixture of cinchonia alkaloids, tested 
in this manner, will indicate not less than 6 per cent, of quinia and cin- 
chonidia, and 2 per cent, of quinidia. — Ibid.^ No. 23, from Annalen d, 
Chemie. Compare also Hesse's paper in Jmer, Jour, Pharm.^ 1869, 
p. 421. 

Active Principles of Digitalis. — Schmiedeberg has separated from com- 
mercial digitalin, prepared from the seeds, four well characterized prin- 
ciples, and afterwards obtained the most interesting of the same, the 

34^ Gleanings from the European Journals, {'^"'Xug'!''i8'75^™' 

digitoxin, directly from the leaves, and found it to constitute the prin- 
cipal portion of Nativelle's crystallized digitalin : 

1. Digitonin^ ^^^)^b'f^vl') amorphous body, resembling saponin, 
soluble in water, but insoluble in cold absolute alcohol, ether, benzol 
and chloroform ; it yields the following products of decomposition : 
dig'itoresin^ digitone'in^ digitogenin and paradigitogenin. 

2. Digitalin^ C5H3O2 granular, but not crystalline, insoluble in cold, 
soluble in boiling water, slightly in ether and chloroform, but easily in 
alcohol, spirit of chloroform and diluted acetic acid ; it yields digitali- 

3. Digitalein was obtained as a yellowish mass, yielding foaming 
solutions with water, somewhat soluble in chloroform. When boiled 
with diluted acids, it yields sugar and probably digitaliresin. 

4. Digitoxin CjiHgjO^ is insoluble in water and benzol, little soluble 
in ether, freely, but rather slowly, in chloroform, readily in absolute 
alcohol. It is not a glucoside, and is the well crystallizing principle, 
directly obtained from digitalis. Its decomposition product, toxiresin^ 
is readily soluble in ether. — Ibid.^ No. 24, from A^. Repert, Pharm.^ 
xxiv, p. 89. 

Adulteration of Tea. — The leaves of Epilobium angustifolium are ex- 
tensively used in Russia for the adulteration of tea. The plant grows 
particularly in places where the ground has been burned over, and ex- 
tensive forests are sometimes fired by the peasants, merely for the pur- 
pose of obtaining a large supply of the leaves for about four or five 
years, when the soil will cease to produce the plant. The dried leaves 
are sold for from four to six roubles a pud (40 lbs.), are largely used in 
Russia for the adulteration, and, by the poorer classes, in the place of 
tea ; exhausted tea-leaves are often mixed with these leaves and again 
sold as tea. The leaves are also exported for the same purpose. They 
yield a darker infusion than the same weight of tea-leaves, and alcohol 
produces in it a precipitate of mucilage, while that of tea remains clear. 
Softened by water and unfolded, they are readily distinguished from 
tea-leaves. — Zeitschr. Oesterr. Apoth. Ver. No. IQ, from Phar. Zeitschr.f 
Puss land. 

Dangerous Adulteration of Anise. — A large quantity of anise from the 
interior of Russia was found to be largely mixed with the fruit of 
Conium maculatum : it had been destined for exportation to Holland. — 
Ibid.., from Ibid. See, also, Amer. Jour, Phar.., 1861, p. 408. 

^'"Aug"';8^75^'"''} Gleanings from the European Journals, 349 

Carnauha Root. — Chas. Symes describes this root, which was a short 
time ago received at Liverpool with the statement that its therapeutic 
qualities rival those of sarsaparilla. 

The root is that of Corypha cerifera.^ a wax-bearing palm, growing 
on the shores of the Rio Francesco in the Brazils ; it is several feet 
in length, and has an average thickness of three-eighths of an inch, of 
a mixed greyish and reddish-brown color, giving off here and there 
small rootlets. The cortical portion is comparatively thick, somewhat 
friable and loosely surrounds the meditullium which encloses the pith \ 
thus a traverse section somewhat resembles in appearance an exogenous 
stem. Its infusion is similar in color to that of wild cherry bark,, 
possesses an agreeable, slightly bitter taste and an odor not unlike that of 
sarsaparilla ; its color is slightly deepened, but no precipitate occurs on. 
the addition of liq. potassae; neither on the addition of dilute acids. 
Finct. ferri perchlor. does not strike a black, but brownish color,, 
gradually followed by turbidity and the formation of a brown deposit. 
The decoction is not affected by iodine, indicating the absence of 
starch ; a drop of it concentrated on a porcelain slab and treated with 
strong sulphuric acid, produces an olive green, slowly changing to a 
brown color. It yields 25 per cent, of a reddish-brown extract pos- 
sessing a decidedly bitter taste. — Pharm. Jour, and Trans. Feb'y 20. 

The Active Principle of Aloes — Dr. Wm. Craig read at the March 
meeting of the North British Branch of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain a lengthy paper on this subject, and arrived at the follow- 
ing conclusions : 

1. Aloin may, by exposure to the air, undergo considerable chemical 
change without losing its physiological action as an active aperient. 

2. The resin of aloes, when thoroughly exhausted of aloin, possesses 
no purgative properties, and therefore cannot be the active principle of 

3. The resin of aloes is not the cause of the griping which some- 
times follows the administration of the drug. 

4. Aloin is an active aperient, and is, in all likelihood, the active 
principle of aloes. 

The author argues in favor of admitting aloin into the Pharmaco- 
poeia. — Ibid..^ April 17. 

Botanical source of Rhubarb. — Maximowicz does not dispute the fact, 
that Rheum officinale of Baillon yields a commercial rhubarb (see 

2 so Salicylate and Carbolate of ^inia. {^^1^%^^^""^' 

^' Amer. Jour. Phar.," 1874, p. 154) ; but he contends that the drug, 
which was known here as Turkey or Russian rhubarb, and which 
came through Siberia by way of Kiachta, was obtained from Rheum 
palmatum var. Tanguticum. His plants were, in 1872-3, collected by 
Przewalski, in the vicinity of Lake Koko Nor, where the plant was 
formerly extensively cultivated.- -/i^/V., April 3d ; Kegel's Gartenflora^ 

Chemical Examination of fahorandi. — M. Byasson has published in 
Rtp. de Phar.^ March 25, the results of his investigation of jaborandi 
leaves, from which it appears that they contain a volatile oil, an acrid 
resin, and an alkaloid, to which the properties of jaborandi are due. 
It was prepared by concentrating the tincture, mixing the aqueous 
filtrate with lime, and exhausting the desiccated mass with chloroform, 
which left it as a viscous aromatic mass, soluble in chloroform, ether, 
absolute alcohol, ammoniacal water and dilute acids. The author pro- 
posed the name of jaborandina ; but since this name has been already 
appropriated (see "Amer. Jour. Phar.," May, p. 214), M. Holmes 
suggests to call it pilocarpina. — Ibid.^ April, p. 174. 

A. W. Gerrard has experimented with jaborandi bark, and has ar- 
rived at similar results. The alkaloid is prepared by evaporating the 
aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract to the consistence of a soft 
extract, adding ammonia in slight excess and exhausting with chloro- 
form. Half a grain was administered and produced the full effects of 
the drug. The bark contains also tannin. — Pharm. your, and Trans. ^ 
April 17 and May i. 

Chloral Hydrate. — Mr. Ore states : A very small quantityof carbonate 
of sodium is sufficient to remove the acidity of chloral hydrate in solution 
and to render it alkaline. There is a slight disengagement of carbonic 
acid, and some chloride of sodium is formed. Comparative experiments 
have shown that, whilst chloral hydrate retards the coagulation of blood, 
chloral hydrate, thus rendered alkaline by carbonate of sodium, entirely 
prevents it. The addition of the soda, he believes, does not at all in- 
terfere with the anaesthetic properties of the chloral. — Journal de Phar- 



In a communication to the " Pharmaceutische Zeitung " (No. 11, 
1875), Schering states that salicylic acid forms with quinia a salt in- 

■^"Neues Repertorium fiir Pharmacie," xxiv, 193. 

■''"-IZ'S;!!"- } Salicylate and Carbolate of ^inia. 3 5 1 

soluble in water, and soluble in alcohol, which is not crystallizable. 
The author of this paper, on the contrary, states that an aqueous solu- 
tion of hydrochlorate of quinia gives in the cold with salicylate of am- 
monia (prepared from Kolbe's salicylic acidj a cheesy precipitate of 
salicylate of quinia, which can afterwards be obtained crystallized from 
alcohol in wonderfully fine, perfect prisms in concentric groups. The 
same compound is formed when an alcoholic solution of quinia is 
mixed with an alcoholic solution of salicylic acid to complete saturation, 
and the alcohol is afterwards slowly evaporated. 

The salicylate of quinia is anhydrous. A determination of the quinia 
by the author gave the formula C20H24N2O2, C^HgOg. The salicylate 
of quinia dissolved in a small quantity of water, upon the addition of 
some dilute hydrochloric acid, and was precipitated with ammonia. The 
resulting precipitate of quinia was collected upon a filter, and the quinia 
<lissolved in the ammoniacal filtrate, extracted by means of ether. The 
above-mentioned formula required 70* 12 per cent, of quinia. The first 
experiment gave 69*66 percent., the second, 70-17 per cent. 

Salicylate of quinia dissolves in 225 parts of water at 16° C, in 20 
parts of 90 per cent, (by volume) alcohol at 13° C, and in 120 parts 
of ether at 16° C. 

Since the crystallized salicylate of quinia could be so easily obtained, 
the author turned his attention to the carbolate, which has already for 
some time been in no inconsiderable demand for medicinal purposes, 
but which hitherto has only been met with in pharmacy in a pulverulent 
form, and of varying composition and properties. He reports that he 
has succeeded in preparing the carbolate of quinia, both from water 
and from alcohol, in slender acidular crystals. Dried at 130°, the 
carbolate gave the formula, C2oH2^N202, CgHgO. This formula re- 
quires 77*51 per cent, of quinia. Three analyses gave respectively, 
77*52, 77*32 and 77*88 per cent. 

Carbolate of quinia dissolves in 400 parts of water at 16° C, in 80 
parts of 90 per cent, alcohol at 13° C, and slightly in ether. 

If it could be assumed that the quinia salts of salicylic and carbolic 
acids have a similar therapeutic action, then the greater solubility of 
the salicylate would gain for it the preference. In any case the author 
considers that henceforth for the carbolate only the definite crystallized 
compound should be used in medicine. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans. ^ 
June I2th, 1875. 


Gurjun Balsam. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug , 1875. 



Gurjun balsam, or as it is sometimes called, wood oil, though excit- 
ing little more than a passing notice, has been known for some consid- 
erable time, it having been noticed, so far as I am aware, for the first 
time more than twenty years ago in the pages of the " Pharmaceutical 
Journal," as a supposed new kind of balsam of copaiba. f 

It was correctly traced some time later to its sources by Mr. Han- 
bury, who also mentioned some of its peculiarities and distinguishing 
characteristics, comparing it with balsam of copaiba, to which it is 
closely allied, and which it strikingly resembles. 

It is obtained by incision from the Dipterocarpus Icevis^ and other trees 
of allied genera — indigenous in the hot damp Indian forests — and can 
be obtained in such quantities that the natives employ it for many of 
the purposes to which we in this country put some of the more com> 
mon oils. 

I have been induced to call your attention to this substance from the 
most remarkable results obtained by its use, first in the treatment of 
leprosy in India and since then in our own country in cases of skin 
disease. Through the kindness of Mr. Wm. Dougall, brother to the 
discoverer of its important therapeutical effects in cases of leprosy, I 
was lately afforded a perusal of his official report to the Indian govern- 
ment on the subject — a report at once so exceedingly interesting in 
itself and valuable in its results that I felt assured a very brief summary 
of it would prove acceptable to you. 

Passing over, then. Dr. DougalPs account of the condition in which 
he everywhere found that most miserable and wretched of all the many 
miserable and wretched in India, the leprous, together with his earlier 
treatment and experiments for their alleviation, we come to the point 
at which, by a happy thought (for it seems to have been nothing more) 
he was induced to try the effects of a course of this balsam. Noticing 
a decided mitigation of all the more marked and worse characteristics of 
the disease under its influence, he was encouraged to begin a more 
extensive and systematic use of it in the Haddo Leprous Hospital^ 
Andaman Islands. 

* Read before the North British branch of the Pharmaceutical Society, March 5. 
f See Amer. Journal of Pharmacy," 18.56, 159. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 

Aug., 1875. ; 

Gurjun Balsam. 


Here, as a palliative remedy, the gurjun balsam very soon asserted 
its power, the most extraordinary results ensuing in every case brought 
under its influence. Of twenty-four cases which Dr. Dougall had 
under treatment in this hospital during the six months previous to the 
publishing of his report — many of these cases of the very worst kind — 
every one of them had decidedly benefitted by its use ; every ulcer^ 
without exception.^ having healed up and not broken out again ; the most 
marked benefit, however, having been derived by those suffering from 
the anaesthetic form of the disease. Each one of the twenty-four 
cases is minutely narrated and dwelt upon in the report, and however 
bad or hopeless they might appear at the commencement of the treat- 
ment with the wood oil, they yet soon yielded to its power. One, for 
example (just taking a case at random from the report), had been seven 
years a leper, had anaesthesia of right fore arm and both feet ; the 
whole of the hands had been eaten away, as also portions of two toes 
of the right foot, and the stumps were open sores when the oil was 
given to him for the first time. In a few months after, sensation had 
been recovered in all the parts formerly affected, and all the sores had 
quite healed up. 

Another had anaesthesia of the whole surface of the body, including 
both hands and feet — the face and ears only being excepted. The 
ulcers soon healed up, and sensation was shortly after restored to the 
whole body ; this man being apparently in perfect health, and able to 
run, walk, or work with any man of his age. The parts affected heal 
evenly, the new skin being just a shade lighter in color than the nor- 
mal tint. 

Its mode of use is somewhat novel. Dr. Dougall, after trying vari- 
ous plans, ultimately fixed upon a mixture of equal parts of lime water 
and the balsam, as being in every respect the most suitable 5 and this 
emulsion he not only gives internally, but uses also freely as a liniment. 

The liniment was rubbed over the whole body night and morning, 
whilst the emulsion was given internally to the extent of four drachms 
three times in the day, in which doses he found it operated as a mild 
tonic, exciting at the same time a distinct diuretic and evacuant effect. 

The interest which these results have excited may be inferred from 
the fact that Government, as lately reported in the " Pharmaceutical 
Journal," has called particular attention to the report, with the view of 
giving it the widest publicity possible, inviting at the same time the co- 
operation of all local governments and administrations towards the 


354 Convenient Apparatus for Hot Filtration. {^'^k^Z'^I^i''^' 

extension of its use, with the request also that careful reports on the 
results may be submitted at the end of a year. 

Whether this remedy may ever become popular in this country for 
skin diseases, or whether it may be as successful here for such as it has- 
been in India for the more inveterate leprous form, are questions which 
time and experiment alone can determine. But, meantime, it is excit- 
ing no little interest in medical circles, and Professor Erasmus Wilson 
lately reported the most encouraging results from its use in cases of 
painful eczema, in lupus, and in cancer ; and further reported the case 
of a lady, who had not obtained sleep without the use of narcotics for 
weeks, until the liniment was applied, when she was relieved of all 
pain and obtained natural sleep. — Pharm. Journ, and Trans.. Mar. 13. 



[Read before the Ne-xv York Academy of Sciences, May 10, 1875.) 

Every working chemist has experienced the need of a convenient 
apparatus for hot filtration. Hot saturated saline solutions which crys- 
tallize on cooling in the filter or in the neck of the funnel, and viscid 
liquids possessing the necessary mobility only so long as a higher tem- 
perature than the average is maintained, render the employment of 
some form of apparatus for hot filtration indispensable. While much 
attention has been given of late to the construction of apparatus for 
rapid filtration, as the innumerable forms of water pumps and steam 
injectors abundantly show, little has been done towards improving the 
existing forms of apparatus for hot filtration or the contrivance of new 

Two kinds of apparatus have come under our observation. The 
first of these, invented by Dr. Hare, is the well-known funnel support 
usually constructed of tinned iron with double walls and a conical 
aperture for inserting a glass funnel ; the space between the walls 
being filled with water or other liquid, it is kept at a boiling heat by a 
lamp placed under a cavity shaped like an inverted funnel. A more 
compact form of the same apparatus was contrived by Plantamour, in 
which the metallic box is given the form of a cone, and heat is applied 
to a hollow cylindrical projection filled with the liquid employed, and 
communicating with the space between the double walls. 

While this apparatus is well adapted to the use of pharmaceutists, or 

'^"Aigri?;^™'} Convenient Apparatus for Hot Filtration. 355 

for the purposes of the manufacturer, it is not suited to the wants of 
the analytical chemist. The first form occupies much space, and both 
forms must be had in great variety of sizes to fit funnels of various 
dimensions. A small funnel is nearly lost to view in a large jacket, 
and a large funnel is not heated by a small one. Then again, only 
well-made funnels, whose sides are inclined at an angle of 60°, will fit 
the conical opening. Moreover, the fact that the apparatus is con- 
structed of metal is in itself a disadvantage. Only extraordinary care 
will keep the metal clean and bright in the atmosphere of a laboratory. 
The disadvantage could be largely overcome by nickel-plating the 
metallic box, but we have not seen this luxury introduced. In the 
filtration of liquids, giving rise to very acid fumes, the use of a metallic 
jacket is hardly admissible. 

The second apparatus alluded to is that contrived by Dr. A. Hor- 
vath, and described in the "Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie," vol. 
clxxi, page 135, 1874.* A tube of soft lead, one centimetre thick, is 
wound around a funnel in the form of a spiral, one end being con- 
nected by a tightly-fitting cork with a flask placed at a convenient dis- 
tance, and the other end of the leaden pipe communicating with a 
recipient for the escaping vapors. Steam being generated in the flask, 
it passes through the leaden tube and warms the funnel and contents. 
This contrivance may work well, but is not very convenient ; the 
inventor strangely enough adds that by employing ether, alcohol, car- 
bon disulphide, benzol or anilin, in place of water, filtration can be 
carried on at any desired temperature. The question naturally arises 
why select liquids having such low boiling-points as ether (35*7° C.) 
and carbon disulphide (46*6° C.) to effect hot filtration ; surely the 
cases are rare where the temperature could not be moderated, if desired, 
by generating steam less rapidly. Then, too, it strikes us that the 
atmosphere of a laboratory, where a dozen or more solutions are warm- 
ing by the uncondensed vapors of carbon disulphide, would be any- 
thing but agreeable in its effect on the olfactors of the occupant ! This 
suggestion of the respected author is apparently a case of pen-and-ink 
chemistry, rather than the result of practical experience. 

There seems to be room, then, for a simple, cleanly, portable and 
inexpensive apparatus for keeping the contents of a funnel hot while 
filtering, and it is believed that these requirements are filled by the new 
apparatus described in this paper. 

American Journal of Pharmacy," 1874, p. 275. 

356 Convenient Apparatus for Hot Filtration. {^'^■IZ'.'^z^T-'^' 

The materials are found in any ordinary laboratory. Select a small 
funnel with a long stem, and a larger funnel with a wider throat, and 
cut the stem of the larger funnel short ; slip a piece of India-rubber 
tubing of the required size over the stem of the smaller funnel, and 
then insert it in the larger one so that it fits water-tight. The inner 
funnel should project about half a centimetre above the edge of the 
outer, and as much below the stem of the latter as it admits. We 
have found the three sizes named below sufficient for all operations of 
analytical chemistry, though larger ones may be used for preparations. 

Dimensions given in centimeters ; the first figures give the greatest 
diameter of the funnel, and the second its length including stem. 

Outer Funnel. Inner Funnel. 

No. I . . . . .7x6^ 4 Xio 

No. 2 , . . . lojx 9^ 6Jxi2i 

No. 3 . . . . . 13^X13 10 X17 

Steam generated in a flask of about one litre capacity and conducted 
by means of a glass tube into water filling the space between the two 
funnels, warms the filter on the inner funnel with its contents. In one 
experiment the water in the outer funnel marked a temperature of 97° 
C. and the liquid in the inner one 76^ C. The temperature in the 
inner funnel may be greatly increased by covering it with a convex 
glass, or by employing a saline solution in the outer funnel. 

As a matter of course, water condenses in the outer funnel, and must 
be removed from time to time. In the case of funnels No. 2 it accu- 
mulates at the rate of 30 to 35 c.c. in half an hour when boiling vig- 
orously. This seems at first sight to be an objection, but the superflu- 
ous water can be so readily removed with a pipette or a siphon that it 
does not have much force. Or the accunmlating water may be drawn 
back into the steam generator through diminished pressure by simply 
removing the lamp beneath the flask. In this case, the end of the 
tube should plunge but little below the surface of the water in the outer 
funnel, else the latter will be completely emptied. 

Actually the operator is not at all annoyed by the necessity of attend- 
ing to this point, for the filtration requires his constant presence. 
Should the outer funnel be filled with distilled water in the outset, an 
overflow would not prove serious ; since the inner funnel stands higher 
than the outer, any disturbance of the precipitate in the former by 
accumulating water is out of the question. 

The great compactness and cleanliness of this apparatus make it 

^"'iuT; X875 ™- } Unprofitable Pleading. 357 

available in quantitative analysis, and we have used it for some time 
with great satisfaction. After washing a precipitate on the filter it may 
be dried very speedily by simply continuing the heat ; the dried filter 
removes easily, and so the two funnels once arranged need not be dis- 
connected. It is true that this point holds good in any form of appa- 
ratus for hot filtration. 

Other advantages will occur to those using the apparatus, such as 
the transparency of the outer vessel, the total absence of metal, and 
the increased rate of filtration consequent upon the higher temperature. 
The double funnel may be connected with a Bunsen water-pump or 
other apparatus for rapid filtration. 

In washing precipitates with hot water we have also found it feasible 
to direct the steam from a small generator directly into the filter itself ; 
if care be taken to moderate the pressure, the precipitate is washed 
with hot distilled water without danger of loss by spattering, and this 
works almost automatically. 

School of Mines, Columbia College, N. T., April, 1875. 

— American Chemist^ May^ 1875. 



By reading is here included and understood whatever enters into the 
mode of preparation adopted in a course of study. 

There are two distinct kinds of intellectual improvement : book- 
learning, derived from a printed page ; and technical knowledge, drawn 
in part from literary sources, and largely from practical observation. 
With the first — popularly termed classical education — we have nothing 
here to do ; it is with the union of the practical and the literary with 
which we are concerned. Both may fail, not so much, nor half as 
much, from want of application as from unprofitable labor. 

The essentials of all successful reading may be briefly stated, as they 
commend themselves for adoption, and are universally acknowledged. 
Order is heaven's first law and the student's hope. It implies system- 
atic work, thoughtfulness and a clear head ; it implies, also, contin- 
uous, well-regulated exertion ; and that it begets a love for work itself 
is an experience to which there is no exception. 

Order is a mental quality — the power of eff'ecting an equal distribu- 
tion of eff'orts and ideas ; system is the same power applied to mechan- 


Unprofitable Reading. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Aug., 1875. 

ical arrangement. The two should be made one, and both may be 
infinitely strengthened by cultivation. Lastly, there is the old English 
term called labor, without which all other virtues, major and minor, 
are ineffectual. This labor, with its intellectual order and its mechan- 
ical system, is weakened by certain well-intentioned practices that have 
been adopted in good faith, chief of which, as far as my knowledge 
goes, is the time wasted in taking notes. I would venture to appeal 
against this unwise habit, which is still existent. In the cumbrous old 
days of scholarship, when years were spent on Latin verse, and pro- 
tracted processes of learning were accepted as proof of diligence, the 
learner gazed with pride on his folio manuscript of annotations ; but 
in this age of admirable text-books their use has been superseded. 

I regret that during nine long years of classical, not of pharmaceu- 
tical study, two hours every day were de-utilized in this unprofitable 

A subject fresh to the compiler is not likely to be correctly noted ; 
attention is distracted from the lecturer, whilst in physical and experi- 
mental subjects the value of the illustrative demonstration is lost in 
the vain attempt to catch the ipsissima verba of a sentence. A single 
experiment, done afterwards by the learner's own hands, or a plant 
dissected in confirmation of a botanical allusion, is a far more reliable 
mode of recollection than a page of disjointed and hastily compiled 

The time that lies at the disposal of most of us is of so limited a 
nature that it is wisdom to economize it to the utmost. And can the 
student hope that his best memor'ia technica will beat or equal the instruc- 
tions of a well-digested manual ? 

Note-taking, except the merest headings, is to be deplored as repre- 
senting the maximum of trouble with the minimum of result. But if 
there be a gain in seizing currente calamo a lecturer's expressions, let 
me strongly urge the use of short-hand, and say, from personal knowl- 
edge, that its difficulties have been enormously overrated. Three 
months, with one hour's daily application, will smooth its opening em- 
barrassments ; and three months more at the same rate will give facil- 
ity in practice. Pitman's system is readily acquired, and its characters 
are not difficult to decipher. I put my six months' phonography against 
nine years irksome note-taking, and I have not the courage to estimate 
the saving in pure weariness. 

But if this dreary custom of taking notes forms the first illustration 

Am. Jour. Pharm 1 
Aug., 1875. / 

Unprofitable Reading. 


of unprofitable reading, there is another which appears closely in the 
track. I feel sure that a student does himself injustice who follows 
too implicitly one book, because even a many-sided teacher contracts a 
mannerism both of expression and of thought ; because he is strong in 
some points and weak in others, and because his teaching bears more 
or less distinctly the traditional impress of his own school. It is, more- 
over, no imaginary danger that a beginner may attach undue importance 
to a stereotyped mode of explanation, and may thus unwisely limit the 
range of his conceptions. He is tempted to believe in no other prophet 
than the one through whom he first learnt the rudiments of his faith. 
It is manifestly impossible that one writer should, like a living kaleido- 
scope, reflect every combination of light and color. This is an unrea- 
sonable expectation, and he who would eschew unprofitable reading 
must gather his information from varied sources. A professor, speaking 
from an academic chair, is compelled in great measure to be the expo- 
nent of a certain curriculum. He acts wisely and from necessity, for 
he is bound, as a public man, to present his young audience with such 
a classified arrangement of facts and theories as he may deem most in- 

Nothing more distinguishes our modern period than the simplicity 
and excellence of these prepared discourses, but obviously each man 
■does approach his subject with strong individual leanings, and that is the 
very secret of his strength. One reasons lucidly about chemical equa- 
tions ; a second explains the theory of the phosphorus acids in an un- 
equalled manner ; a third justifies the reputation of Owen's College 
by the conciseness of his descriptions and the skill by which so many 
facts are presented in so small a space. Neither one man, still less one 
book, can wander into these different paths all leading to a common 
road, but the learner, while exclusively he follows none, will lessen his 
labor and not increase it by comparing, combining, and collating the 
separate instructions which men can give. This, which I have often 
done for others, I devoutly wish others would accomplish for them- 
selves, a sentiment which leads directly to a theory long and conscien- 
tiously entertained. Technical study has three stages of development, 
the learning or the storage ; then the storage classified ; and last, the 
practical application. 

To enter with advantage on our own special branch, the student 
should have done with his preliminary education, and not be hampered 
with the rules of English composition, his decimal fractions, or the 

360 Development of the Chemical Arts. {^"^2^Z'S^t''^' 

Latin verbs. Then let him learn and store, by lecture courses, by 
printed books, by laboratory work, by experiment, by field excursions^ 
by conversation, friendship, and sparingly by scientific meetings. 
Quickly comes the second stage — the time ripe for classification ; then^ 
and not before, the mode of learning changes, not the act, and the 
task before the learner is to investigate his stores. Let him boldly 
take his accumulated rough or neatly copied memoranda, and consign 
them to oblivion ; and with his better knowledge and acquired exper- 
ience let him work out his own digest of things worthy of remem- 
brance. Plan there must be, for the mind cannot, without superhuman 
effort, recollect a mass of miscellaneous facts ; and plan there must be 
if the third stage, that of practical application, is to be attained. 

May we not say with truth that it is on the right use of this second 
period that the future hangs ? May we not say that the more the facts 
and the greater the storage, the better and more philosophic will be the 
summary ? May we not add, that where in youth there has been this 
storage, and subsequent orderly arrangement, we may predict with 
confidence a successful present issue, and an awakened pleasure in 
these pursuits such as is destined to endure. — The Chemist and Drug- 
gist^ (London^ June 15, 1875. 



The Elements of Water. \ By Dr. A. Oppenheim. 

Oxygen. — Like the evolution of human life, the development of 
every chemical art is connected with oxygen. Directly or indirectly^ 
it intervenes in every manufacturing operation. With equal necessity,, 
life and technology derive it from that exhaustless source of all being,, 
the atmosphere. Furthermore, no discovery has had a greater signif- 
icance for the history of culture than that of the material nature of the 
air, and the discovery — the centenary of which we commemorate this, 
year — of its most important constituent, oxygen gas. J To the same 

* Berichte liber die Entwickelung der Chemischen Industrie wahrend des. 
letzten Jahrzehends."" 

f "Die Eleniente des Wassers." 

% " On the I St of August, 1774, I endeavored to extract air from mercurius prae- 
cipitatus per se." — Joseph Priestley, " Experiments and Observations on Air," ii, 
106 See also Kopp, " Geschichte der Chemie," iii, 200 and 204. 

Vug"" 8?5"" } development of the Chemical Arts. 3 6 1 

discoveries chemical industry owes its rational foundation and the pos- 
sibiUty of its advancement, and thus both the existence and the pro- 
gress of technology are linked to the same element. What, in com- 
parison u^ith these incalculable benefits, are the advantages which pure 
oxygen gas has conferred upon industry by its direct application ? To 
give a reply to this question is the object of the following lines, and as 
no reports or text-books have hitherto treated this subject in a connected 
manner, we may venture to exceed in point of time the boundaries of 
this report. 

Lavoisier, who first recognized in its full extent the importance of 
oxygen, took the first successful step in its technical application. " It 
is evident," he writes,* " that atmospheric air is not the most suitable 
to increase the action of fire, and that, if we drive a current of air 
upon ignited fuel by means of bellows, three parts of injurious, or at 
least useless, gas are driven in for one part of the serviceable kind of 
air, and that, therefore, if the latter could be used for combustion in a 
pure state, the action of the fire would be much enhanced. This idea 
has doubtless occurred to many persons prior to myself, and I hear that 
Archard, the celebrated chemist of Berlin, has carried it into applica- 
tion ;f but it is still needful to devise a cheap and convenient apparatus."" 

For this purpose, Lavoisier used at first bladders fitted with tubes 
and taps. " I made," he continues, " with a knife, a hole three to 
four lines deep in a large piece of charcoal, and laid in it 6 grs. 
of platinum, set fire to the charcoal at an enameller's lamp by 
means of a blowpipe, opened the jet of my apparatus, and blew pure 
oxygen into the hollow. The charcoal burnt very rapidly, with deto- 
nation as it produces with melted saltpetre, and w^ith a dazzling bril- 
liance ; and in a few moments the platinum melted into granules, which 
then united into a ball. The fusion was equally successful, whether 
the ordinary platinum of commerce was taken or such as had been 
previously freed from magnetic particles by means of a magnet. Hith- 
erto, platinum has not been melted." 

Lavoisier improved his apparatus in the same year,J in conjunction 
with Meusnier, and produced a gasometer consisting of two boxes, and 

--k « Memoire sur iin Moyen d'Augmenter Considerablement TAction du Feu et 
de la Chaleur dans les Operations Chimiques " — "Oeuvres dc Lavoisier," ii, 425. 

t Memoiren der Berliner Academie, i779- " Sur un Nouveau Moyen de Produire 
avec une tres Petite Q^iantite de Charbons une Chaleur," &c. 

X Lavoisier, " Oeuvres," ii, 432. 

362 Development of the Chemical Arts. {^"^-^^Z'S^t^"' 

which, on a small scale, much resembled those now in use at gas-works. 
About the same time, Saron constructed two blowpipes {chalumeaux)^ 
one of which delivered oxygen and the other hydrogen. By their 
means, however, Lavoisier did not succeed in fusing platinum.* He 
hoped, however, to construct an improved blowpipe, in which the ox- 
ygen should surround the hydrogen, and thus was developed the plan of 
the oxyhydrogen blowpipe, which has rendered such essential service in 
the metallurgy of platinum and in soldering lead. 

The application of oxygen for melting platinum remained dormant 
until, in 1857 i^SQi Deville and Debray made known their impor- 
tant investigationsf on the platinum metals, and introduced the indus- 
trial fusion of platinum. The autoge